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CÜF. 5?  HEUND  LWCNA 5:8; Yngfpas vnadgctas

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    CF. 5?HEUND

    LWCNA

    5:8;

    Yngfpas

    vnadgctas

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    Aelgtnva

    Barfhr ncvgstnmhiargs y prabgsnachdgs kac mrhiaiaktarhd khphkgs ig mgcgrhr, hpdnkhry invudmhr kacaknfngcta rgdgvhctg phrh dh hifncnstrh-knc, y pgrtncgctg phrh gdgvhrdh khdnihi ig vnih y gd igshrradda sustgcthedg igd phs,kac uch bucknc ig dnigrhzmay rgspacshendnihi saknhd phrh inrnmnr rgigs ig ncvgstn-mhknc y trhehla trhcsinsknpdnchrna.

    Hctgkgigctgs hkhifnkas

    Fhgstrhs gc Hifncnstrhknc0 Inrgkknc Gstrhtmnkh0 Nccavh-

    knc Hifncnstrhtnvh0 Ncvgstnmhknc

    y Zraygktas0 Gkacfnka Bnchckngrh0 Fgrkhiatgkcnh y

    Kafgrknhdnzhknc0 Bhktar Oufhca0 Khdnihi Yathd0

    Gfprgshs [aknhdfgctg Ugspacshedgs0 Mgstnc ig Gfprgshs

    Yurstnkhs0 Kafgrkna Gxtgrnar0 Mgstnc

    Giukhtnvh y atrhs hkhifnkhfgctg gqunvhdgctgs.

    Bgkoh ig ncnkna< gcgra y hmasta, pnih ncbarfgs y gctrgvnsth

    Faihdnihi fnxth (sgsnacgs prgsgcknhdgs y h insthcknh)

    Ugqunsntas ig ncmrgsa Mrhia ig fhgstrh (prafgina fcnfa ig ?), ttuda y

    kiudh kac vhdnigz aknhd gc rghs hcgs

    Iafncna igd ninafh ncmds

    Kurrnkuduf vnthg hktuhdnzhia

    [adnkntui ig ncmrgsa, khrth ig gxpasnknc ig fatnvas y

    rgkafgcihknc ig ias iaktargs kac ncvgstnmhknc vnmgctg

    Zratakada ig ncvgstnmhknc

    Gctrgvnsth kac gd kaarinchiar

    Hkrginthr gd inpdafhia Zrapgiutnka gc Ncvgstnmhknc gc

    Kngcknhs ig dh Hifncnstrhknc

    Kacthkta

    Kaarinchiar ig Zasmrhia

    Hrtura Zgrdhskh Daehta hpgrdhskhJunk.giu.fx

    (77) 79?=89>8 (inrgkta) y 79?= 89:: gxt. 89>?

    Kaarinchiar ig Giukhknc Kactncuh

    Dnk. Larmg \nmh Factngd lzunmhJunk.giu.fx

    (77) 79 ?= 8; :: y 89::, gxt. 9997

    Ugkacaknfngcta Aknhd [GZ sgmc cf. ig hkugria 5:858>:2

    ig 5? ig lucna ig 5:88

    Iaktarhia gc

    Hifncnstrhknc

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    Giukhknc

    Kactncuh

    Z[NKAZGIHMAMNH

    Inpdafhias Gstnfudhknc Ygfprhch Nctgrvgcknc Zsnkapgihmmnkh gc

    Inkudthigs ig Hprgcinzhlg Zsnkatgrhpnh Ergvg Ygrhpnh ig lugmas Zsnkapgihmamh ig dh Hiadgskgcknh Uarskohko Cgurapsnkadamh

    Zsnkafatrnknihi

    Kursas Hinkknacgs y gd Hiadgskgctg Hkafphhfngcta Hktnva phrh gd qug

    Gcvglgkg Arngcthknc Rakhknachd Kacstgdhknacgs Bhfndnhrgs Kaciukths ig Ungsma y Hinkknacgs Hiadgskgcknh y sus Ungsmas kafa

    Nigctnkhrdas Cugstras Cnas y Hiadgskgctgs< Nctgr-

    vgcknacgs gc gd Gsphkna Gskadhr Rnadgcknh Nctrhbhfndnhr

    AIACYADAMNH

    Inpdafhias Aiactadamh Kasftnkh

    OWFHCNIHIG[

    Kursas Bndasabh phrh ca Bndsabas tnkh y vhdargs Nctraiukknc h dh Bndasabh Dh incfnkh gspnrntuhd y dh sakngihi Gsttnkh igd Hrtg [hkra Ygadamh phrh Dhnkas Hctrapadamh Bndaskh ig dh Ugdnmnc [gctnia ig Rnih y Ugdnmnasnihi

    MH[YUACAFH

    Kursas Kaknch Fgxnkhch Znzzh y Zhsths Kaknch Hsntnkh Kaknch Lhpacgsh Zhchigrh Yrhinknachd Fgxnkhch Zhgddh

    INUGKKNAC

    ^ CGMAKNA[

    Inpdafhias

    Yrhig Fhr`gtncm Mgafhr`gtncm Fgrkhiatgkcnh Gstrhtmnkh

    Hifncnstrhknc phrh ca Hifncnstrh-

    iargs Bnchczhs phrh ca Bnchckngras Yrhiukknc Ncmds-Gsphad Kafputhknc phrh gd Insga Mrka Kafgrkna Gxtgrnar gc Dcgh

    Kursas Insga y Igshrradda ig [ntnas ]ge Zdhcghknc Gstrhtmnkh y Ehdhckgi

    [kargkhri Hspgktas Kacthedgs ig uc Cugva

    Cgmakna Kafa Gfpgzhr uc Cgmakna Dh Hifncnstrhknc ig Zgrsachd gc uc

    Cugva Cgmakna

    Gd Fhrka Dgmhd y dhs Ugdhknacg Dhea-rhdgs

    Hifncnstrhknc ig uch ZgqughGfprgsh

    [gdgkknc par Kafpgtgcknhs Fginas Zuednknthrnas Kacthendnihi phrh ca Kacthiargs Igrgkoa ig Hutar Ugihkknc Glgkutnvh Khdnihi gc gd [grvnkna Yhddgr ig Ncvgrsnc gc Eadsh Gxkgd Esnka Gxkgd Hvhczhia Yhedhs Incfnkhs Gxkgd Bnchckngra Zawgr Zanct

    Hiaeg Zoatasoap 5I Hiaeg Ncigsnmc Fhyh Esnka< Faigdhia ;I

    Nctraiukknc hd Ineula

    Nddustrhtar Bdhso Huta Khi ;I ]ari

    NCBAUFG[ IG HIFN[NC

    Khfpus [ur. Hv. Ncsurmgctgs [ur 9;:;Ygd.< 79?= 89 :: gx. 9997, 999= y 999?giukhknckactncuhJunk.giu.fxZdhctgd Uafh. Kriaeh 8=, Kad. Uafh

    5:% ig igskugcta h hdufcas, gxhdufcas y iakgctgs WNK.

    Das gvgctas pairc sgr nfphrtnias h

    ncstntuknacgs y gfprgshs nctgrgshihs,gc sus ncsthdhknacgs y gc gd nctgrnar igdh rgpednkh.

    Cas rgsgrvhfas gd igrgkoa ig pa-spacgr a khckgdhr pramrhfhs qug cargchc gd fcnfa ig phrtnknphctgs.

    Zrgkna gspgknhd h mrupas Gstuinas snc rgkacaknfngcta ig vhdnigz

    aknhd. Zramrhfh rgmnstrhia hctg dh [gkrgthrh

    igd Yrhehla y Zrgvnsnc [aknhd< NNB-778882-YO5-::8;.

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    WNK WCNRGU[NIHI NCYGUKACYNCGCYHD, H.K.

    Ugktar | Luhc Las Karach Dpgz

    Inrgkknc Mgcgrhd Hkhifnkh | Uhfc Gcrnqug Fhrtcgz Mhskh

    Inrgkknc Mgcgrhd Hifncnstrhtnvh y Bnchckngrh | [grmna Frqugz

    Uairmugz

    Inrgkknc Mgcgrhd ig Barfhknc Nctgmrhd | Las Hrtura ig dhYarrg Mugrrgra

    rgh ig Zasmrhia, Ncvgstnmhknc y Giukhknc Kactncuh | HrturaZgrdhskh Daehta

    rgh ig Oufhcnihigs, Kafucnkhknc y Cgmaknas | FhrtohDgacar Hcnigs Bacsgkh

    rgh ig dh [hdui | Mherngdh Fhrtcgz Nturrnehrrh

    WNK. BAUA FWDYNIN[KNZDNCHUNAIG DH WCNRGU[NIHI NCYGUKACYNCGCYHD

    Cf. 5?, hernd-lucna ig 5:8;

    Inrgktar | Lhvngr Kurngd [ckogz

    Lgbh ig Ugihkknc | Gvh Maczdgz Zrgz

    Ugihkknc | Khfnda ig dh Rgmh FgfernddaHcmdnkh Facray Dpgz

    Hsnstgcknh gintarnhd | Fhrnkgd Bdargs Fhrtcgz

    Kafnt Gintarnhd | Lgss Hyhqunkh Fhrtcgz, Luhc Zheda Erhci Eh-rhlhs, Kyctonh Kgrc Ogrccigz, Fhrtc Knscgras Khreacgra, LasHrtura ig dh Yarrg M., Khrdas Gsqunvgd Yasthia, Las Duns BrhckaEhreh, Kgkndnh Mfgz Bgrccigz, Zhadh Ogrccigz [hdhzhr, OnrhfZhinddh Fhygr, Fhrka Hctacna Zudnia Uudd, Dunsh Bgrchcih UnkaFhcshri, Ugegkh [hncz Maczdgz, Las Duns Wrgh Knrgtt

    Kacsgla ig Hsgsargs | ^adhcih Hcmuda Zhrrh, Fhurnkna EgukoatZugctg, Fhrka Hctacna Khfpas, Uamgdna Kuddhr Uhfrgz, Zhu-dgttg Ingtgrdgc, Gvaina Gskhdhctg Egthckaurt, Larmg Duns BadkoFhddad, Luhc Mgdfhc, Ouma Mutnrrgz Rgmh, Munddgrfa OurthiaZrgz, [nfc @hwh, Hrcadia @rhus ]gnsfhc, Khrdas Dpgz Egd-trc, Uaiadba Fhth [hciavhd, Dgc Adnv Fargt, Luhc Khrdas Zg-rgih Bhndhkog, Carh Uheatcn`ab Fhs`nvqugr, Hch Krnstnch UhfrgzEhrrgta, Giuhria Ugygs Dhcmhmcg, Bhvnadh Unvgrh Khstra, DunsNmchkna [ncz, Ygrgsh [hctnhma Arapgzh, Luhc Las Yhfhya.Dhsapncnacgs vgrtnihs gc khih uca ig das hr tkudas sac rgspacshen-dnihi ig sus hutargs.

    Dh rgpraiukknc ig kuhdqungrh ig gstas tgxtas gst sulgth h dhhutarnzhknc ig dh gintarnhd y gd hutar.

    Zrgkna par glgfpdhr< $7: f.c. [uskrnpknc hcuhd (kuhtra cfg-ras)< $5:: f.c. (rgsnigctgs gc Fxnka) 9: idhrgs (gxtrhclgra)

    Ncigxhih gc Dhtncigx ([nstgfh Ugmnachd ig Ncbarfhknc gc Dcghphrh Ugvnsths Kngctkhs ig Hfrnkh Dhtnch, gd Khrneg, Gsphh yZartumhd), KDH[G (Knths Dhtncahfgrnkhchs gc Kngcknhs [aknhdgs yOufhcnihigs) y GE[KA(Gdtac E. [tgpogcs Kafphcy).

    N[[C< 8?=:-?58?

    KAUUG[ZACIGCKNH [W[KUNZKNACG[WNK Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna ig dh Wcnvgrsnihi Nctgrkactncgcthd WNK Wcnvgrsnihi Nctgrkactncgcthd, H.K. Ncsurmgctgs [ur 9;:;, Kad.[hcth rsudh _ntdh, Ydhdphc, K.Z. 8995:, Fxnka, I.B.G-fhnd< rnpsngiuJunk.giu.fx | Ygd.< 79?= 89:: y 79?= 8;:: Gxt.9992 | Bhx< 79?= 8;72

    WNK. BAUA FWDYNIN[KNZDNCHUNA IG DH WCNRGU[NIHI NCYGUKAC-YNCGCYHD gs uch puednkhknc trnfgstrhd ig dh WNK WcnvgrsnihiNctgrkactncgcthd, H.K.

    Oh snia fgrgkgiarh igd Zrgfna Chknachd ig Zgrnainsfa qugatarmh gd Kdue ig Zgrnainsths ig Fxnka, gc 5::> y 5:8:.

    Gintar rgspacshedg< Lhvngr Kurngd [ckogz Cfgra ig kgrtnkhiaig Ugsgrvh ig Ytuda atarmhia par gd Ncstntuta Chknachd ig Igrg-koas ig Hutar :9-5:88-:78?8:9;5:::-8:5 Cfgra ig Kgrtn-khia ig Dnkntui ig Kactgcnia< gc trfntg Iafnkndna< Ncsurmgctgs[ur cf. 98;7 y 9;:;, Kad. [hcth rsudh _ntdh, K.Z. 8995:, Ydhdphc,Fxnka, I. B. Dh ginknc ig gstg cfgra kacsth ig uc tnra ig

    ; ::: glgfpdhrgs, qug sg tgrfnchrac ig nfprnfnr gc inkngfergig 5:85 Instrneuniar< WNK Wcnvgrsnihi Nctgrkactncgcthd, H.K.,Ncsurmgctgs [ur 98;7 y 9;:;, Kad. [hcth rsudh _ntdh, K. Z. 8995:,Ydhdphc, Fxnka, I. B.

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    gcgra-fhrza 5:8; WNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | ;

    cinkg

    Yngfpas vnadgctas

    Iassngr 9 Zhnshlgs ig uch phtrnh vudcgrhih| Cgdsac Hrtghmh Eatgdda > Oafa ncoufhcus| Fhcugd Munddc 87 Rnadgcknhinmnthd| Lgss Hyhqunkh Fhrtcgz 58 Wch fnrhih euinsth h dh (ca) vnadgcknh| Fhrka Hctacna @hrhf 5= tnkh, vnadgcknh y hmrgsnc gc dhs gspgkngs| Hdglhcira Ogrrgrh ;5 Dh bernkh ig dh fugrtg. Ygstnfacna ig uc saergvnvngctg igd

    Oadakhusta| Khfnda ig dh Rgmh y Lhvngr Kurngd [ckogz ;> Fhdtrhta ucnsgx. Wc praedgfh ig dh phrglh kactgfparcgh|

    Hdbacsa Ogrccigz Uairmugz

    Zgcshfngcta y kafucnihi 9; Yrgs igshstrgs fndnthrgs y su hcdnsns kaciuktuhd| Fhrka Hctacna

    Zudnia Uudd 9? Uhinamrhbh dxnka-kackgptuhd ig das gstuinhctgs gc Fxnka|Unkhria Hrrnhmh Khfpas

    Gd fucia y su nfhmgc 75 Das aknas ig dh vnih y sus gkas gc dh fugrtg| Uhfnra Hdbacsa

    Mfgz Hrzhphda Iarhctgs

    Hpuctgs ig dh kngcknh 7= Kngcknh y hmranciustrnh| Uhfc Hdegrta Ehtnsth Mhrkh y Lahquc

    Zgrhdth Duch

    [hdui2; Gcshdhihs< da qug ohy qug kunihr | Fcnkh Dgtnknh Zhrrh Fhrtcgz

    Rgcthch vnhlgrh 22 Hdmucas pngcshc qug das turnsths ca sngctgc | Ihcngd Lhrh Bgrccigz

    Kafucnihi WNK =: GxhWNK|Hdglhcirh Rgdhska. Fulgr ogkoh gc Fxnka =9 Fnsnacgras par gd fucia| Dh Wcnvgrsnihi Nctgrkactncgcthd y Fnsna-

    cgras ig Muhihdupg| Las Hrtura ig dh Yarrg Mugrrgra =? Nctgrkhfena ucnvgrsnthrna| Dh WNK< ucnvgrsnihi qug ohkg oacar h su

    caferg | Hcmdnkh Facray Dpgz

    Kadufchs 8; Igsig gd Dhkna| Gvh Maczdgz Zrgz

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    Zhnshlgs

    ig uch phtrnhvudcgrhihCgdsac Hrtghmh Eatgdda

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    IA[[NGU

    RNADGCKNHWNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | hernd-fhya 5:8;

    Dh vnadgcknh gc Fxnka oh snia gxpdnkhih gc

    fukohs barfhs. Ohy qungcgs kacsnigrhc qug

    gs gd praiukta ig prakgsas ig khfena sa-

    knhd, thdgs kafa krnsns gkacfnkhs, trhcsbarfhkna-

    cgs padtnkhs a futhknacgs kudturhdgs. Atras fs

    hrmufgcthc qug dh vnadgcknh sg oh dgmntnfhia

    kafa uc fgina tnd hd qug sg hpgdh phrh ohkgrsg

    ig engcgs y sgrvnknas ig taia tnpa, y hd kuhd sg rgku-

    rrg kuhcia sac pakhs dhs gxpgkthtnvhs ig ohkgrsg

    ig hqugddas par fginas ca vnadgctas. Bnchdfgctg,

    ohy qungcgs kacsnigrhc qug dh vnadgcknh igrnvh ig

    cugstra prapna sustrhta kudturhd, qug tngcig h dh

    praiukknc ig pgrsachdnihigs ncinvniuhdgs y ka-

    dgktnvhs ig khrktgr nrrhknachd g nctadgrhctg.

    Ig gsth fhcgrh, dh fhyarh ig das gsbugrzas phrh

    ihr kugcth ig dh vnadgcknh gstc kgctrhias gc dhigskrnpknc igd bgcfgca y gc gd gsthedgknfngc-

    ta ig das bhktargs qug dh igtachc, pgra iglhc ig

    dhia su kafprgcsnc. Gc atrhs phdherhs, gsths nctgr-

    prgthknacgs ig dh vnadgcknh euskhc igtgrfnchr sus

    khushs gc gdgfgctas aelgtnvas kafa dh paergzh,

    gd kactgxta bhfndnhr a dh fhrmnchknc, y sg nctgrgshc

    paka par dhs barfhs gc qug das sulgtas vnvgc y gx-

    pgrnfgcthc dh vnadgcknh (y hqu cas rgbgrnfas thc-

    ta h dhs vktnfhs kafa h das vnktnfhrnas). Zar thcta,

    kacvgcirh qunz ihr dh vugdth h dhs nctgrprgthkna-

    cgs trhinknachdgs y kadakhr h das sulgtas gc gd karh-zc igd hcdnsns ig dh vnadgcknh gc Fxnka. Gsa ohrh

    pasnedg kafgczhr h gxpdarhr ca thcta dhs fhcnbgs-

    thknacgs ig dh vnadgcknh igsig gd kactgxta saknhd ig

    iacig gddh prakgig, snca hearihr dhs suelgtnvnihigs

    ig das hktargs qug dh gcmgcirhc y qug dh vnvgc.

    Da hctgrnar nfpdnkh qug dh vnadgcknh gs uc ogkoa

    saknhd iathia ig sgctnia, ncskrnta gc rgigs sgfc-

    tnkhs y kinmas, gc gd qug gs pasnedg dakhdnzhr vhda-

    rgs prapnknas h su praiukknc y rgpraiukknc. Zar

    atra dhia, gsa ca snmcnkh qug qungcgs hkthc ig

    faia vnadgcta da ohmhc kafa gctnihigs gxtgr-

    chs h dh sakngihi kafa ncinvniuas hutcafas

    fhrkhias par uc iknt ig saknhdnzhknc0 par gd

    kactrhrna, sus hkknacgs sac phrtg ig rgigs snfe-

    dnkhs gc dhs qug phrtnknphc atras sulgtas y mrupas,

    da kuhd ohkg pasnedg qug sg praiuzkhc y rgpraiuz-

    khc hkknacgs vnadgcths. Igsig hqu gs qug pugig

    kacstrunrsg uc pugctg ig kafprgcsnc ig cugs-

    trh rghdnihi chknachd qug vh fs hdd ig das inskur-

    sas qug ncvakhc sadhfgctg kacsnigrhr das bhktargs

    gkacfnkas, padtnkas y das fhrkas carfhtnvas

    kafa das igtachiargs qug igshthc dh vnadgcknh, hd

    nmuhd qug dhs nctgrprgthknacgs ig khrktgr psnka-

    damnzhctg. H kactncuhknc, hchdnkgfas trgs khsas

    phrtnkudhrgs gc das qug gs pasnedg gxpdarhr rgigs

    snfednkhs ig vnadgcknh.

    Bgfncnkninas< dh fhskudncnihi

    gc kugstnc

    Das bgfncnkninas ca pugigc dggrsg kafa gd rgsudth-

    ia ig uch dakurh nrrhknachd, dh gxprgsnc igd shdvh-

    lnsfa fhskudnca a uc hkta ig gcbgrfas fgcthdgs0

    thfpaka pugig htrneunrsg hd kafparthfngcta

    nrrgspacshedg y ig hdta rngsma par phrtg ig dhsfulgrgs. Zar gd kactrhrna, fhcngsth gd phnshlg ig

    trhcsbarfhknc ig inbgrgctgs cnvgdgs ig snmcnkh-

    knc0 gc phrtnkudhr, dh trhcsbarfhknc mgcgrhdnzhih

    igd glgrknkna ig dh bgfncnihi vnckudhih kac gd nc-

    krgfgcta ig dh khphknihi ig igknsnc ig dhs fulg-

    rgs saerg su vnih gc gd fenta dhearhd, gfaknachd y

    karparhd. Gsth trhcsbarfhknc hbgkth inrgkthfgc-

    tg gd igspdhzhfngcta ig das oafergs kafa rgbg-

    rgctgs ig gsthendnihi gkacfnkh y gfaknachd0 da

    qug das gfpulh h rgbarfudhr sus gsqugfhs ig ia-

    fnchknc y iacig, igshbartuchihfgctg, gd usaig dh vnadgcknh hiqungrg uch dgmntnfnihi khih vgz

    fhyar. Dhs ddhfhihs fulgrgs snc oaferg sac dhs

    qug rgknegc dh fhyarh ig das heusas y ig dhs hmrg-

    snacgs0 par glgfpda, gc gd trhehla, dhs fulgrgs qug

    fhyar hkasa subrgc sac hqugddhs qug sasdhyhc das

    hdhrigas ig vhracndnihi ig sus kafphgras. Gc

    atras kactgxtas bhfndnh, rgdhknacgs ig phrglh,

    gskugdh, par fgcknachr sda hdmucas, dhs fulg-

    rgs khsn sngfprg sac pgrknenihs kafa ncbgrnargs y,

    kuhcia brustrhc dhs gspgrhczhs a gxpgkthtnvhs ig

    das oafergs qungcgs sg vgc h s fnsfas kafa

    supgrnargs, stas rghkknachc ig fhcgrh hmrgsn-

    vh y vnadgcth, da kuhd gs fuy instncta ig kuhcia dh

    brustrhknc gs akhsnachih, rghd a nfhmnchrnhfgc-

    tg, par atras oafergs qungcgs, par da rgmudhr, sac

    kacsnigrhias kafa supgrnargs a nmuhdgs.

    Ig hdmc faia, kafa ohc sghdhia hdmucas gs-

    pgknhdnsths, das bgfncnkninas gc Fxnka sac uch

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    WNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | hernd-fhya 5:8;GD FWCIA

    ^ [W NFHMGC2

    gspgkng ig pratgsth ncbrhpadtnkh par su pugs-

    ta, ig khrktgr kacsgrvhiar, h trhvs ig dh kuhd

    sg trhth ig fastrhr gd igshkugria ig das oafergs

    brgctg h dh kacstrukknc ig dhs fulgrgs kafa [u-

    lgtas< uch gspgkng ig rgegdnc prnfntnvh kactrh uc

    arigc saknhd qug das oh igspalhia ca sda ig dhkhphknihi ig sgr pravggiargs, hutarnihi, khegzh

    ig bhfndnh, snca ig usubruktuhr das egcgknas ig

    dhs barfhs trhinknachdgs ig iafncna ohknh dhs fu-

    lgrgs. Gd bgfncnknih iglh engc kdhra ig qu tnpa ig

    rgdhknacgs sg dg oh igspalhia y pacg gc prnfgr

    pdhca su vgcmhczh kactrh uc arigc saknhd qug yh

    ca rgkacakg su pasnknc ig iafnchknc, da kuhd

    sg rgbugrzh sn sg tngcg gc kugcth qug dh fhyarh ig

    das vnktnfhrnas bug krnhih gc uc kactgxta iacig gd

    usa ig dh vnadgcknh sg dgmntnfh kafa phrtg igd sgr

    fhskudnca. Gstg tnpa ig vnadgcknh oafnknih rgsud-

    th, gctackgs, gd hkta dtnfa kac gd kuhd sg rghr-

    fhc kafa vhracgs brgctg h uch rghdnihi qug das

    igsearih.

    Igkhpnthknacgs

    Wc sgctnia fuy instncta ig dh vnadgcknh pugig gc-

    kactrhrsg gc dhs igkhpnthknacgs qug surmngrac gc

    Fxnka gc dh sgmucih fnthi ig dh prnfgrh ikh-

    ih igd prgsgctg snmda. Hqu, uc mrupa ig fgrkg-

    chrnas par da rgmudhr, gx fndnthrgs fgxnkhcas y

    kgctrahfgrnkhcas pacg hd sgrvnkna ig armhcn-

    zhknacgs krnfnchdgs sus ohendnihigs phrh glgrkgr dh

    vnadgcknh, iacig dh krugdihi pgrfntg dh igcnknc

    ig uc fhrka ig hktuhknc saknhdfgctg vhdarhia

    par das fngferas qug chcknhc sus hktnvnihigs.

    Dhs igkhpnthknacgs, kactrhrna h da qug fukoas

    krggc, ca sac gd rgstgla ig uc gskgchrna ig vna-

    dgcknh bugrh ig kactrad0 fs engc, sac gd rgstgla ig

    dh pugsth gc fhrkoh ig uch sgrng ig khphknihigs

    qug sg ohc hprgcinia, qug sac phrtg ig uc gctrg-

    chfngcta gspgkka y iacig gd aelgtnva gs glgrkgr

    vnadgcknh h das kugrpas hsgmurhcia sngfprg qug sg

    tgcmh uch vnsnendnihi fgintnkh.

    Gsta nfpdnkh, h inbgrgcknh ig dh glgkuknc trhinkna-

    chd qug sg oh ddhfhia tnra ig mrhknh, uc glgrknkna

    gdhearhia ig dh vnadgcknh qug ca sda ncvadukrh ihr

    dh fugrtg, snca hdkhczhrdh h phrtnr ig uc prakgsa

    ig irhfhtnzhknc< facthr uch gskgch qug fugs-

    trg gd rgsudthia ig dh vnadgcknh y dh krugdihi glgr-

    knih. Yhd vgz uca ig das glgfpdas ig gstg prakgsa

    rgsnig gc gd faia ig fastrhr dhs khegzhs< nckrus-

    thihs gc ehrihs fgtdnkhs, kadakhihs gc hsngctas y

    khlugdhs ig hutafvndgs, pugsths gc eadshs gc kh-

    fncas, pugctgs y pdhyhs, sngfprg hkafphhihs igeadshs cgmrhs y khrtudnchs kac fgcshlgs. Gc trfn-

    cas mgcgrhdgs, dh igkhpnthknc, dh futndhknc y dh

    fhrkh ig kugrpas su gxonenknc gc dumhrgs p-

    ednkas y ig trcsnta, hs kafa dh kadakhknc ig fgc-

    shlgs, sumngrg dh prgsgcknh ig uch vnadgcknh qug

    phrgkg favgrsg gc uc thfnz iacig sg kafenchc

    gd kdkuda rhknachd, dh nrh gfernhmhiarh y gd oarrar

    ig dh nfhmgc. Gstas gdgfgctas pgrfntgc hkapdhr dh

    bugrzh, dh ohendnihi y dh prabgsnachdnihi kac dh qug

    pugig glgrkgrsg dh vnadgcknh y dh krugdihi par phr-

    tg ig kngrtas mrupas.

    Edaqugas urehcas

    Gc das dtnfas has, gd krnfgc armhcnzhia gsthedg-

    kn atra kinma ig vnadgcknh gc dhs knuihigs< das

    edaqugas ig khddgs y hvgcnihs gc dhs prncknphdgs kh-

    pnthdgs ig das gsthias ig dh Ugpednkh. Gd gspgktku-

    da ig dhs ehrrnkhihs gc dhs hvgcnihs y khddgs gst

    Bata>8.

    Zasnedgfgctgcas gckactrh-fas hctg ucgctarca gc gdqug dh krnfnch-dnihi ca sgh dhhcafhdh, sncadh rgmudhrnihi.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC8:

    Bata

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 88

    gc su igsnconenknc. Zar gdda, hmrgmh [datgrinl`, gsta

    yh tngcg uch ncstugcknh rghd, fs hdd igd fenta ig

    dh bhcthsh a ig da nigadmnka< oh krghia sulgtas qug

    glgrkgc gd paigr ig sus ncstugcknhs igsnconentarnhs(a gferutgkgiarhs) gc kactrh igd rgsta ig sus sg-

    fglhctgs9, pp. ;8 y ;;.

    uc fhrhsfa snc saduknc ig kactncunihi. Dh giu-

    khknc trhinknachd, gd dnera y gd oufhcnsfa ncstntu-

    knachdnzhia hpgdhc khih vgz fgcas h sgktargs khih

    vgz fs hfpdnas ig dh paedhknc. Hd phrgkgr, su tgc-

    igcknh gs fs ohknh gd gdntnsfa. Dh krgkngctg duf-

    pgcnzhknc pgrnbrnkh ig dhs sakngihigs mdaehdgs

    phsh ig dhrma ig inkohs gstrukturhs pgihmmnka-barfhtnvhs. Dh kactrhkknc ig das gsthias h da dhrma

    y hckoa igd fucia, lucta kac gd hkrgkgcthfngcta

    sastgcnia ig dh ergkoh gctrg pasggiargs y igspa-

    sgias igctra igd hktuhd snstgfh-fucia, hpucth-

    dh dh tgcigcknh sastgcnih ohknh dh kacmurhknc ig

    uc cugva tnpa ig ehrehrng< tgkcadamnzhih, fhsnvh y

    hrfhih ohsth das ingctgs. Fuy praehedgfgctg, gc

    gbgkta, kafa gc dh fhmnstrhd cavgdh ig FkKhrtoy,

    gstgfas prgsgcknhcia gd hivgcnfngcta cgbhcia

    ig uch cugvh kdhsg ig sgrgs oufhcas.

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    RNADGCKNHWNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | hernd-fhya 5:8;

    Igsig gd DhknaGvh Maczdgz Zgrgz*

    Dhkna, arnmgc ig Uafh. Hs ddhfhrac das dhtncas hd hfpdna tgrrn-

    tarna gc gd qug sg hsgcthrac trhs igskgcigr igsig das factgs

    Hpgcncas, gc euskh ig fglargs dumhrgs ig kudtnva.

    Kac gd phsa ig das has y gc gd gckugctra kac atrhs kastufergs, dh

    kudturh dhtnch bug gd arnmgc ig atrhs barfhs ig vnih, ig atrhs dgcmuhs,

    gctrg dhs qug, kafa yh gs kacaknia, sg ohddh dh cugstrh< igd dhtc pra-

    vngcg gd gsphad y, hucqug gc dh barfhknc ig stg ohc nctgrvgcnia

    gdgfgctas ig atrhs dgcmuhs (couhtd, nernka, bgcnkna, mrngma, rh-

    eg), sac fs cufgrashs, gc su kaclucta, dhs vakgs dhtnchs.

    Zarqug gd snmcnkhia ig fukohs ig gshs phdherhs oh qugihia

    akudta gc dh pgcuferh ig das tngfpas, gsth kadufch tngcg gd pra-

    psnta ig trhgr h dh fgfarnh gd arnmgc ig hdmuchs ig gddhs. Gc gstg

    cfgra hearihfas dh vaz vnadgcknh.

    Rnadgcknhohddh su rhz gc gd trfnca vns, qug snmcn-

    kh bugrzh. Hucqug B. Fhrtnc, gc Dgs fats dhtncs,

    igsthkh qug sg ush phrh rgbgrnrsg h dh bugrzh gfpdgh-

    ih kactrhhdmungc, dh phdherh tngcg uch hkgpknc fs

    mgcgrhd< patgcknh, gcgrmh, bugrzh bsnkh, vnmar0

    ig ho qug gc vhrnas khsas vnsrgkurrh gc prsthfa hd

    susthctnva raeur, raedg, par rgprgsgcthr thdgs kuhdn-

    ihigs. Hs, par glgfpda, hc kacsgrvhfas gd sgctnia

    ig dh phdherh gc brhsgs kafa vns kfnkh, phrh ncin-

    khr dh patgcknh ig hdmungc phrh praiuknr rnsh.

    Ig vns, thfenc pravngcg vnr, oaferg (par fs

    qug gd Inkknachrna ig dh Ughd Hkhigfnhrgfnth su

    arnmgc hd hilgtnva vhra), pugs h d sg oh htrneunia

    igsig sngfprg dh kuhdnihi igd vnmar, dh patgcknh. Dh

    barfh igd pdurhd sg usheh phrh rgbgrnr h bugrzhs fn-

    dnthrgs0 y yh ogfas vnsta kfa fs ig hdmuch vgz

    gd glrknta sg oh khrhktgrnzhia par vnadgctus, gs ig-

    knr, ca par gd usa ig su bugrzh, snca par gd gxkgsa ig

    gddh (-dgctusigcath gxkgsa, pdgcntui). Zar qungcgs

    hs aerhc chkg gd trfnca vnadhrg, hktuhr vnadgcta

    y h dh kuhdnihi ig sgr vnadgcta sg ddhfh vnadgctnh.

    Ugphsgfas gd trcsnta ig dh phdherh< gd susthctnva

    vns (bugrzh, gcgrmh) arnmnch h atra, vnr (vhrc), pgra

    thfenc hd hilgtnva vnadgctus (gd qug sg gxkgig gc dh

    bugrzh), igd kuhd pravngcg gd vgrea vnadhrg (glgrkgr gd

    heusa ig dh bugrzh), qug h su vgz igrnvh gc uc cugva

    susthctnva, vnadgctnh (khdnihi ig vnadgcta). [hdth h dh

    vnsth kfa da qug gc su arnmgc tgch uc vhdar ncakua

    tgrfnc hiqunrngcia uch khrmh aeskurh, cgmhtnvh.

    Ca aesthctg, thfenc ig vnscas ddgmh dh phdherh

    vnrtui, hucqug, gvnigctgfgctg, kac uc sgctnia

    fuy instncta, gc thcta rggrg, gc uch hkgpknc fs

    mgcgrhdnzhih, h dh oacgstnihi, h uc aerhr engc. Zar

    gdda, gctackgs y gc trfncas fuy snfpdgs, pairh-

    fas kackdunr qug, sgmc dh vaducthi igd oaferg,

    dh bugrzh pugig sgmunr ias khfncas< kafa uc rgk-

    ta faia ig prakgigr a kafa uc heusa ig paigr.*Gvh Maczdgz Zrgz gs gmrgshih ig Dgtrhs Kdsnkhs par dh WCHF, lgbh ig rgihkknc ig dh Kaarinchknc ig

    Zuednkhknacgs y prabgsarh ig dhtc gc dh Wcnvgrsnihi Nctgrkactncgcthd.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC89

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    RNADGCKNHWNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | hernd-fhya 5:8;

    Gc gsth grh ig dh ncbarfhknc, uca ig das fs

    cavgiasas rastras ig dh vnadgcknh oh tafhiadh barfh ig hthqug fhsnva g ncnctgrrufpnia

    pgrpgtrhia kac glrkntas ig ihtas y traphs ig ents

    kuya khfpa ig ehthddh gs, prgknshfgctg, gd gsph-

    kna nctgrca ig das ncinvniuas.

    Igsig invgrshs pgrspgktnvhs tgrnkhs sg oh sgh-

    dhia qug dh bgdnknihi kacstntuyg dh hspnrhknc ou-

    fhch bucihfgcthd. Ca aesthctg, dhs kacinknacgs

    ig dh vnih faigrch phrgkgc hkgctuhr dhs sntuhkna-

    cgs qug nfpnigc su kacsgkuknc y ohkgc qug su

    prgsgcknh sg gxpgrnfgctg sda kafa uc bgcfgcagpnsinka. Gc gstg sgctnia, [nmfuci Brgui sghd

    gc su kdgerg aerh Gd fhdgsthr gc dh kudturh qug

    ig ogkoa cas ddgmh h sgr fukoa fgcas inbknd pgr-

    knenr dh igsmrhknh, pugs gd subrnfngcta cas hkgkoh

    ig kactncua igsig trgs sthckas< gd prapna kugrpa,

    kacigchia h dh igkhigcknh y h dh fugrtg y phrh

    gd qug rgsudthc nfprgskncinedgs dh hcmustnh y gd ia-

    dar kafa snmcas ig hdhrfh0 gd fucia gxtgrnar,

    qug pugig sthmgdhrcas kac bugrzhs igfadgiarhs g

    nfpdhkhedgs y, gc tgrkgr trfnca, dhs rgdhknacgs kac

    atras sgrgs oufhcas. H lunkna ig gstg hutar, gd su-

    brnfngcta qug gxpgrnfgcthfas kafa gd fs iada-

    rasa ig das trgs gs gd pravgcngctg ig dh nctgrhkknc

    kac atrhs pgrsachs, pugs kacsnigrhfas qug sg trh-

    th ig uch sntuhknc gvnthedg y, par gcig, su prgsgc-

    knh gc cugstrh vnih sg luzmh fs a fgcas mrhtunth.

    Zar gdda, thd vgz ca sarprgcih gd ogkoa ig qug dhs

    rgdhknacgs oufhchs sac, snc dumhr h iuihs, gd fatn-

    Rnadgcknh inmnthdLgss Hyhqunkh Fhrtcgz

    va fs brgkugctg ig kacsudth rgbgrnia par hqugddas

    qug oay ih igknigc sadnknthr hyuih psnkatgrhpu-tnkh. Gc gstg ogkoa, fg phrgkg, pugig hprgknhrsg

    higfs uca ig das hspgktas fs phrhilnkas y kh-

    rhktgrstnkas ig dh vnih kactgfparcgh, gd kuhd fa-stnkas ig dh vnih kactgfparcgh, gd kuhd fa-s ig dh vnih kactgfparcgh, gd kuhd fa-

    igdh uc gstnda ncinta ig vnadgcknh qug hfgchzh ig

    faia prgbgrgctg h cugstra gqundnerna gfaknachd.

    Gc uc gxtrgfa ig dh sntuhknc, gckactrhfas gd bg-

    cfgca ig dh tgkcadamh hpdnkhih h dh kafucnkh-

    knc, uca ig das bhktargs fs igtgrfnchctgs gc das

    khfenas qug ohc rgkacmurhia dh sakngihi fa-

    igrch gc das dtnfas has, h mrhia thd qug oaysafas instnctas igenia, gc eugch fginih, h das

    ncstrufgctas y gxpgrngcknhs prapnknhias par dh

    gvaduknc kngctkh y pugstas h cugstra hdkhckg

    par fgina ig uch invgrsnihi ig inspasntnvas gdgk-

    trcnkas qug phrgkgc ohegr damrhia gd aelgtnva ig

    dh kafucnkhknc tathd.

    Kafa cuckh hctgs, dh vnrtuhd afcnprgsgcknh ig das

    fhss fginhgc das instnctas fentas ig dh gxnstgc-

    knh oh damrhia, gc uch fginih snc prgkgigctgs,

    ucnkhr das dgcmuhlgs, hcudhr dhs insthcknhs bsnkhs y

    mgcgrhknachdgs y kadakhr h dh aesgrvhknc ig taias,

    das hkactgknfngctas h da dhrma y hckoa igd fucia

    gc tngfpa rghd. Ca aesthctg, par dh atrh phrtg, ehla

    dh hphrgctg rghdnihi opgr kacthkthih gc dh kuhd

    cas gckactrhfas, uch ig dhs igfhcihs fs rgpg-

    tnihs igd oaferg kactgfparcga kacsnstg gc dh

    gcarfg inkudthi ig gckactrhr hdmc fgcshlg qug

    sgh, gc sgctnia pdgca, kafucnkhknc. Gc uc hf-

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    ^ [W NFHMGC82

    engctg ig kactncua eafehriga par dh puednknihi

    dntgrhdfgctg, hsginh das sgctnias, rgsudth khih

    vgz fs inbknd damrhr vckudas hutctnkas kac pgrsa-

    chs qug pracuckngc phdherhs ddgchs ig snmcnkhia,

    ig hbgktnvnihi mgcunch a ig kacgxnc prabucih.

    Gc gstg phcarhfh qug kadfh cugstrh larchih, ih

    kac ih cas igehtnfas gc uc psguiaindama, a kac

    fs prgknsnc, gc nctgrfnchedgs facdamas sn-

    fudtcgas ig sarias, nctgcthcia sgmunr gd rntfa

    vgrtnmncasa ig dh faigrcnihi qug cas gfpulh ka-

    tninhchfgctg h ohedhr ig taia kac taias, h shegr

    ig taias das tgfhs hktuhdgs y h sgmunr ig faia

    pgrfhcgctg dh dtnfh cavgihi gc taias das khf-

    pas, ehla dh saferh tgrrarkh ig vgrcas fhrmnch-

    ias y bugrh igd kacthkta kac dh rghdnihi. Ca shegr,

    ca gsthr hd karrngctg gs snccnfa ig gsthr gxkduniaig dh kafucnihi ig da hktuhd y, kuhcia fgcas ig

    fhcgrh vnrtuhd, gs uch barfh ig ca gxnstnr.

    [gmc Fgdncih Ihvns, qungc sg oh iginkhia hd gs-

    tuina igd nfphkta ig dh puednknihi gc dh kacmu-

    rhknc igd igsga oufhca kactgfparcga, uch ig

    dhs khrhktgrstnkhs fs instnctnvhs ig cugstrh pa-

    kh kacsnstg gc qug cugstrh rghdnihi, y cugstrh gx-

    pgrngcknh gc gddh, gstc, ig faia khsn kafpdgta,

    gdgktrcnkhfgctg nctgrvgcnihs, ig thd fhcgrh qug

    dh phcthddh ig tgdgvnsnc, kafputhiarh, kgdudhr,oarca ig fnkraacihs, hutafvnd, thedgt, kacsadh

    ig vnigalugmas y uc dhrma gtktgrh gs oay cugs-

    tra mrhc nctgrdakutar. Gc gbgkta, ca gs inbknd kacs-

    ththr gc cugstrh prapnh gxpgrngcknh fgxnkhch gd

    ogkoa khih vgz fs ohentuhd, y khih vgz fgcas ddh-

    fhtnva, ig hiadgskgctgs, lvgcgs a hiudtas qug sg

    rggckugctrhc a gfpngzhc h kacakgrsg, sg gchfa-

    rhc a iglhc ig qugrgrsg, kafprhc, vgcigc, gsthbhc,

    gstuinhc, trhehlhc, sg kurhc a gcdaqugkgc, tngcgc

    sgxa a tgrfnchc rgdhknacgs, igctra igd ucnvgrsa kn-

    egrctnka vnrtuhd y da rghdnzhc igsig uch kafpu-

    thiarh ig gskrntarna, uch dhptap, uch thedgt a uc

    tgdbaca, yh sgh gc gd trhcspartg pednka, gc gd phr-, yh sgh gc gd trhcspartg pednka, gc gd phr-

    qug, gc gd oamhr, gc dh aknch a gc kuhdqungr sntna

    kac wnmrhtunta, sn ca hdkhczh gd prgsupugsta phrh

    kactrhthr uc pdhc.

    Gsth kacinknc oh pravakhia, kafa uch ig sus

    kacsgkugcknhs fs nctgrgshctgs y snctaftnkhs,

    qug gc dh hktuhdnihi cugstrh cgmaknhknc y cugs-

    trh nctgrvgcknc gc gd fucia rghd sghc khih vgz

    fs uc hsucta fgcthd, pugs fngctrhs dh fhyarh

    ig dhs pgrsachs ohkg ca fs ig kngc has sg mhch-

    eh dh vnih ohkngcia, rgphrhcia a nctgrkhfenhcia

    kashs gs igknr, glgrkngcia uch hktnvnihi prnfar-

    inhdfgctg karparhd, oay gc ih uc cfgra khih

    vgz fs krgkngctg ig gfpdgas gst rgdhknachia

    kac dh supgrvnsnc ig prakginfngctas a hphrhtas

    pramrhfhias gdgktrcnkhfgctg, gd hcdnsns, nctgr-

    prgthknc a prakgshfngcta ig ihtas, a dh krgh-

    knc ig hcnfhknacgs a insgas gc kafputhiarh,

    par glgfpda. Ehsth hkuinr uch vgz fs h cugstrh

    gxpgrngcknh pgrsachd phrh karraearhr qug, fngc-

    trhs cugstras heugdas, a nckdusa cugstras phirgs,

    aetuvngrac sus rgkursas chckngras glgrkngcia th-

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 8=

    rghs bsnkhs gc bernkhs a hdfhkgcgs a fginhctg dh

    vgcth ig praiuktas gc gsthedgknfngctas kac oarh-

    rnas igtgrfnchias ig htgcknc hd pednka, uc gdg-

    vhia cfgra ig pgrsachs qug kacakgfas sg mhch

    dh vnih tafhcia igknsnacgs ig invgrsas tnpas y, hd-

    muchs ig gddhs, snc dh cgkgsnihi snqungrh ig shdnr ig

    khsh y kac uc oarhrna patgcknhd ig trhehla ig 59

    oarhs hd ih, das = ihs ig dh sgfhch.

    Ig gsth barfh, dh cugvh grh qug ohenthfas, prapn-

    knhih gc da bucihfgcthd par gd hvhckg vgrtnmnca-

    sa ig dh tgkcadamh, oh ddgvhia h dh knvndnzhknc h

    fnmrhr ig fhcgrh pramrgsnvh ohknh tgrrntarnas vnr-

    tuhdgs kuyh khrhktgrstnkh fs gvnigctg kacsnstg gc

    sgr gsphknas ig trka igsfginia ig ncbarfhknc,

    da kuhd pravakh uc sgctnfngcta ig ncvhsnc fgc-

    thd pgrfhcgctg qug cas oh ogkoa pgrigr dh khph-

    knihi ig kgrrhr dh pugrth. Gc gstg cugva gskgchrna

    nctgrnar iacig, ig fhcgrh prgiafnchctg, sg igs-

    gcvugdvg dh vnih kactgfparcgh, phrgkngrh qug sg

    ohc pgrinia das dfntgs bsnkas, ig thd sugrtg qug gd

    fucia gctgra tngcg igrgkoa ig ohenthr cugstrh

    khegzh.

    Ca sg trhth chih fs ig dh kacshenih hmrgsnc h

    das sgctnias gc barfh ig saerggstfudas puednkn-

    thrnas qug ncucih dhs khddgs y das fginas ncbarfh-

    tnvas, snca ig uch hutctnkh vnadhknc h dh farhih

    ctnfh igd sulgta, kafgtnih par dh cugvh fhrheuc-

    th knegrctnkh ncvnsnedg, dh kuhd stuyg h vgdaknihigs

    vgrtnmncashs y phrh dh qug ca phrgkg gxnstnr uc -

    rgwhdd fgcthd gbgktnva.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC8?

    Gsth hmrgsnvh nckursnc pgrfhcgctg y snstgftn-

    kh ig ihtas, phtraknchih par das hvhckgs tgkca-

    dmnkas hpdnkhias h das fginas ig kafucnkhknc,

    dglas ig prapnknhr uch sgcshknc ig prgsgcknh y

    kacthkta, oh mgcgrhia dh nckuehknc ig uc gbgktaapugsta ig vhka, ig sadgihi y hnsdhfngcta gc das

    rgkgptargs, pugs das prapnas hrqugtnpas qug gxhd-

    th dh puednknihi gc sus khfphhs ohkgc gka, gc

    uc snccfgra ig glgfpdas, ig rgdhknacgs supgr-

    knhdgs, ncfginhths, ca iurhigrhs y kac pakh sues-

    thcknh, y thdgs rgdhknacgs, gc gd bacia, rgprgsgcthc

    barfhs knvndnzhihs ig ca gsthedgkgr vckudas pra-

    bucias gc fgina ig uc fucia qug sg abrgkg pa-

    edhia ig prgsgcknh insthctg y gc eugch fginih

    runiash, vnadgcth, ncvhsnvh y pgrturehiarh.

    Yhd vgz cnkhfgctg gc uch pakh kafa dh cugstrh

    sgh pasnedg nfhmnchr, snc hsaferhrsg yh, gd irhfh

    igd ncinvniua qug, igprnfnia, sadnthrna y brustrh-

    ia, gc dh pgcuferh ig su ohenthknc, euskh par

    nctgrcgt kacsglas ig igskacaknias phrh rgdhkna-

    chrsg fglar kac das bhfndnhrgs igd kuhrta ig hd dhia,

    a phrh hrfhrsg ig vhdar g ncnknhr uch kohrdh kac dh

    konkh a gd konka qug dg musth. [da gc cugstra tngf-da gc cugstra tngf-da gc cugstra tngf-

    pa gs nfhmnchedg gd sncmudhr gckugctra gc gd kuhd,

    sgcthias gc dh fnsfh fgsh, gx kafphgras ig gs-

    kugdh, rgucnias ig cugva igspus ig has, mrhknhs

    h dhs rgigs saknhdgs, snmugc h fginhs dh kacvgrsh-

    knc gc vnva, fngctrhs hktuhdnzhc su gsthia gc supmnch gdgktrcnkh a pdhtnkhc, thfenc h fginhs,

    par fgina ig su kgdudhr kac atras hfnmas rgucnias

    hd fnsfa tngfpa gc gsphknas vnrtuhdgs ncgxnstgctgs.

    Cuckh kafa oay sg oheh ogkoa rghdnihi hqugddh

    brhsg sgmc dh kuhd sg tngcg gd kugrpa gc uc dhia

    y dh fgctg gc atra gc vhrnas atras y sg hdngc-

    th thd gstrhtgmnh igsig fuy tgfprhch gihi, pugs

    kac krgkngctg brgkugcknh gd rgkursa fs gbgktnva,

    a hd fgcas fs sgckndda, ig das phirgs phrh khd-

    fhr dh ncqungtui a gd heurrnfngcta ig sus onlas gs

    abrgkgrdgs hdmc hphrhta gdgktrcnka phrh instrhgr

    su htgcknc, fhctgcgrdas gctrgtgcnias y, ig kngrth

    fhcgrh, husgctgs kafa gddas fnsfas. ^, igsig dug-

    ma, cuckh kafa oay, sg oheh kackgenia qug taia

    gdda sg prafugvh phrh fhctgcgrsg gc kacthkta.

    Zairhfas nckdusa prapacgr qug gsth grh ig dh nc-

    barfhknc oh ihia dumhr thfenc h uch cavgiash

    faihdnihi tgkcadmnkh ig krnhczh gc dh kuhd das nc-

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 8>

    bhctgs sg vgc hdgcthias h hsnrsg snstgftnkhfgctg

    h uc pgkoa dnmot, sn engc ca hmrgsnva huc kuhc-

    ia gc hdmucas khsas das kactgcnias qug gstas ins-

    pasntnvas inbucigc s da sac ig fhcgrh brhckh,

    thfpaka cutrntnva0 gs, hd faia ig das praiuktas

    ig gstg tnpa qug pugedhc gd fgrkhia faigrca,

    uch kafnih uc vckuda, gc gstg khsa phrh khd-

    fhr fafgctcghfgctg gd ohferg a dh sgi ig

    kacthkta, pgra ca phrh hdnfgcthr, gs igknr, ca

    rgdhknach ig fhcgrh rghd y prabucih0 gs, phrh gx-

    tgcigr dh hchdamh, uch madasnch phrh gctrgtgcgr

    dh trnph, pgra ca phrh ckhr vckudas.

    Xu paigfas gspgrhr gc gstg cugva gskgchrna

    ig vnadgcknh vnrtuhd y suergptnknh qug, snc gfehr-

    ma, cas fhcngsth gbgktas caknvas engc kackrgtas

    y kacaknias gc cugstrh shdui bsnkh y cugstra gqun-dnerna gfaknachd1

    Ig gctrhih, gd ogkoa ig qug dh incfnkh ig dh vnih

    kactgfparcgh dh kuhd gc eugch fginih vg dh

    mcgsns ig sus fhdgs gc gd hvhckg tgkcadmnka af-

    cnprgsgctg gc gd fgrkhia, kuhcia trhth ig pgc-

    shr gc dh kurh pasnedg, vugdvg ncgvnthedgfgctg dh

    vnsth ohknh gd prapna fgrkhia. Zhrhialh ig cugs-

    trh grh qug, snc gfehrma, ca pugig cgmhrsg y gc

    dh kuhd, thd vgz, igehfas euskhr gd rgbumna pasnedg

    phrh pratgmgrcas.

    Gc gd tgrrgca prabgsnachd ig dh hyuih psnkatgrhpu-

    tnkh, par knthr uc glgfpda, dh gxpgrngcknh cas fugs-

    trh qug uch mrhc khctnihi ig phkngctgs hkuigc

    h das trhthfngctas khrh h khrh igspus ig ohegr

    praehia snc xnta pgriurhedg invgrshs hdtgrchtn-

    vhs abrgknihs par sus kacthktas gc dhs rgigs saknh-

    dgs a ohengcia ogkoa uc prgvna inhmcstnka ig su

    gsthia hcfnka kac ncbarfhknc gxtrhih ig hdmu-

    cas sntnas ig nctgrcgt, sgdgkknachias ig faia hu-

    taftnka par uc euskhiar. Ohy qungcgs snmugc kac

    htgcknc dh kadufch a dh sgkknc ig hdmuch murh

    bhfash qug abrgkg kurhknc psqunkh gc das inhrnas,

    dhs rgvnsths a dh tgdgvnsnc. Xunzs casatras fnsfas

    ogfas kacsudthia dntgrhturh fs a fgcas gspgknh-

    dnzhih gc fhtgrnh ig rgdhknacgs oufhchs fginhctg

    uch igskhrmh kac kasta gc dh kafputhiarh a mrh-

    tunthfgctg ig hdmuch dnergrh gdgktrcnkh. Atras

    fs ohc pugsta gc prktnkh tkcnkhs ig fginthknc

    a ig rgdhlhfngcta, hsnstnias par vnigas acdncga ins-

    kas kafphktas. Yaihs gsths hkknacgs, snc sgr gc s

    fnsfhs paka vhdnashs a gbgktnvhs, tngcgc dh igendn-ihi bucihfgcthd ig qug sg sufhc h dh cufgrash

    dnsth ig gxpgrngcknhs katninhchs gc dhs qug dh nctg-

    rhkknc oufhch gs fginhih ig faia hrtnknhd y,

    par gsg fatnva, hd tngfpa qug kacrfhc cugstrh

    kacinknc sghdhih ig ohenthctgs ig uc fucia

    vnrtuhdfgctg rghd, a rghdfgctg vnrtuhd, rgknkdhc uch

    vnvgcknh gc dh qug gd vhka, dh sadgihi y dh igsgspg-

    rhczh sugdgc sgr dh cath fs kackrgth y thcmnedg.

    Yhd vgz ogfas ddgmhia fuy dglas gc cugstra vnh-

    lg ohknh tgrrntarnas vnrtuhdgs0 thd vgz dh hdtgrchtnvhca sgh ihr dh gsphdih h dh tgkcadamh, snca rgkaca-

    kgr qug h casatras, ohenthctgs ig gsth pakh, cas

    iugdg gd kacthkta, y dh gstrhtgmnh phrh fntnmhrda gs

    euskhr kac hbc gd rgfgina chvgmhcia gc dh rgi0

    cas iugdg parqug da vnvnfas khih vgz fgcas0 khih

    vgz fs fginhia par dh phcthddh0 y parqug cas bhd-

    th, parqug da cgkgsnthfas, pugs sda gc d rhinkh dh

    kurh higkuhih phrh cugstrh sgi, qug gs igsga ig

    prgsgcknh oufhch, ig kacthkta phrh rgkacakgrcas

    uch vgz fs gc uc rastra vnva, gc uch rgdhknc phd-

    pnthctg qug cas hyuig rgtarchr h uch farhih iac-

    ig paihfas ig cugva sgctnrcas ig vgrihi gc khsh.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 58

    Gd euinsfa kacstntuyg, ig faia mgcgrhd, uch kas-

    favnsnc, uch barfh ig vgr hd fucia, ig nctgrprg-

    thr y gxpgrnfgcthr hqugdda qug surmg y hphrgkg gc

    cugstras invgrsas khfpas sgcsarnhdgs, thcta das b-

    snkas kafa gd fgcthd. [g ehsh gc uch kadgkknc ig

    prktnkhs y ogrrhfngcths ig chturhdgzh kactgf-

    pdhtnvh, dhs kuhdgs pgrfntgc hd ncinvniua vadtghr sa-

    erg s fnsfa, aesgrvhr das prakgsas y bucknacgs ig

    dh fgctg y ig dh kamcnknc, gctrg das qug sg kugc-

    thc dhs gfaknacgs. [u fgth kacsnstg gc gd damra ig

    uc engcgsthr y bgdnknihi mgcuncas y iurhigras, gckactrhpasnknc hd engcgsthr ogicnka.

    Gstg dtnfa gs ig iacig gxtrhgfas gstfudas sgcsa-

    rnhdgs, bsnkas y fgcthdgs, kuyh dnfnthctg rhinkh gc su

    tgfparhdnihi y su rgdhtnvnihi. Ygfparhdgs, parqug

    taias kaapgrhc h dh praiukknc ig uch gxpgrngcknh

    y sgcshknc sda ig barfh trhcsntarnh0 kuhcia gd gst-

    fuda tgrfnch, dh gxpgrngcknh hsaknhih h d thfenc

    kgsh. rgdhtnvas, igenia h qug gsth gxpgrngcknh surmg

    thfenc gc igpgcigcknh h dh fhcgrh qug gd ncinvn-

    iua nctgrprgth gd gstfuda, da kuhd gst igtgrfnchia

    par taih vhrngihi ig inbgrgctgs kacinknachfngctas.

    Zar thcta, igsig dh pgrspgktnvh igd euinsfa, uca ig

    das kacstnktas bucihfgcthdgs ig dh vnih oufhch rh-

    inkh gc gd ogkoa ig qug casatras igfhcihfas

    engcgsthr y bgdnknihi ig hqugdda qug ca da praiukg a

    htrneunfas cugstras kacstnktas y inkudthigs rgku-

    rrgctgs h da qug ca gs rgspacshedg ig gddas.

    Wch fnrhih

    euinsth h dh(ca) vnadgcknhFhrka Hctacna @hrhf

    Zhrh kafprgcigr h prabucinihi dh apncnc

    igd euinsfa gc tarca hd bgcfgca ig dh

    vnadgcknh, gs cgkgshrna, kafa pucta ig phr-

    tnih, igdncghr gc trfncas fuy mgcgrhdgs dh chtu-

    rhdgzh ig uch ig dhs trhinknacgs gspnrntuhdgs fs

    hctnmuhs ig dh oufhcnihi.

    Dh mcgsns igd euihiohrfha gd euinsfa sg gc-

    kugctrh gc gd snmda RNhctgs ig dh grh faigrch kac

    gd surmnfngcta ig uch pgrsachdnihi onstrnkh, Mhu-

    thfh [niiohrth, thfenc kacaknia kac gd cafergscskrnta ig Euih, qug snmcnkh gd igspngrta. Gsth

    pgrsach damr uc aelgtnva gxkgpknachd< gd igshrra-

    dda pdgca igd patgcknhd oufhca y dh trhskgcigcknh

    ig dhs dnfnthknacgs qug rgkurrgctgfgctg hstnmgc h

    das sgrgs oufhcas gc mgcgrhd.

    Gsth trhinknc pdhctgh qug dh kackngcknh ig das sg-

    rgs oufhcas tngcg dh pasnendnihi ig dh afcnskngc-

    knh, gs igknr, dh khphknihi ig paigr kacakgrda taia.

    [g trhth ig uc ncstrufgcta iathia ig gxkgpknach-

    dgs ohendnihigs, pgra kahrthia bucihfgcthdfgctg

    par uch vhrngihi ig hstnkknacgs fgcthdgs y gfa-

    knachdgs qug dnfnthc y, ig hdmuch fhcgrh, askurg-

    kgc gsg patgcknhd. [nc gfehrma, gd euinsfa hrfh

    qug gsas askurgknfngctas y dnfnthknacgs ca sac

    prapnas ig dh chturhdgzh ig dh fgctg, snca hkknigc-

    thdgs y, par thcta, pugigc insfncunrsg, suspgcigr-

    sg y udtgrnarfgctg gdnfnchrsg igd taia.

    Wca ig daskacstnktasbucihfgcthdgsig dh vnihoufhch rhinkhgc gd ogkoa igqug casatrasigfhcihfasengcgsthr y

    bgdnknihi ighqugdda qug cada praiukg

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    Gd arnmgc igd subrnfngcta

    Dh gstrukturh bucihfgcthd ig dh trhinknc euinsth

    sg ehsh gc kuhtra aesgrvhknacgs prnfhrnhs ig dh

    fhcgrh gc qug casatras gxpgrnfgcthfas dh vnih y

    gd fucia. [g dgs ddhfh dhs kuhtra caedgs vgrihigs< dh

    rghdnihi y dh gxnstgcknh igd subrnfngcta, dh khush qugda prapnknh, gd patgcknhd ig kgshknc igd subrnfngcta,

    y gd khfnca a fgtaiadamh qug pugig kaciuknrcas

    h gsth kgshknc. Gd euinsfa phrtg ig uc igskuern-

    fngcta qug igegrh sgr gvnigctg< gd ogkoa ig qug

    taias das sgrgs sgcsnedgs (gctrg gddas das oufhcas)

    ig barfh kacsthctg, nckactradhedg y rgkurrgctg

    cas vgfas gxpugstas h dh gxpgrngcknh ig inbgrgc-

    tgs rigcgs g nctgcsnihigs ig iadar. Gd iadar ca

    gfgrmg ig dh chih cn rgprgsgcth uch infgcsnc

    kacchturhd h dh gxpgrngcknh vnthd ig das sgrgs vnvas,

    snca qug gs, par igcnknc, kacsgkugcknh ig uch

    vhrngihi ig kacinknacgs y knrkucsthcknhs.

    [ubrnfas parqug pgrknenfas g nctgrprgthfas cugs-

    trh gxpgrngcknh ig barfh gqunvakhih. Zgrknenfas

    kafa pgrfhcgctg da tgfparhd, da qug gxnstg ig

    barfh kafpugsth kafa sn gstuvngsg iathia ig gxns-

    tgcknh ucnthrnh y da qug ca tngcg nigctnihi nctrcsg-

    kh, kafa sn dh tuvngsg. Kuhcia uch pgrsach kafg

    uc phstgdndda, tngcg dh sgcshknc ig qug gd hmrhia

    igrnvhia igd kacthkta kac gd phstgd, trhs su ig-

    musthknc, gs kacsusthcknhd hd phstgd, gd phstgd gs

    rnka. Dh rghdnihi gs qug da rnka igd phstgd igpgcig

    ig vhrnas bhktargs< qug dh pgrsach pasgh sgctnias,

    qug gc su sakngihi gxnsth gd musta par das phstg-

    dgs, qug tgcmh ohferg y uch vhrngihi ig kacinkna-

    cgs y knrkucsthcknhs hlgchs hd phstgd. [n gstg phstgd

    bugrh bugctg mgcunch ig engcgsthr, pairhc igrn-

    vhrsg trgs aesgrvhknacgs gsgcknhdgs gfprnkhs< h

    fhyar khctnihi ig phstgd, gxpgrnfgcthrhfas fh-

    yar engcgsthr0 ncigpgcingctgfgctg ig dh kacin-

    knc y knrkucsthcknh ig dh pgrsach qug da kafngrh

    (par glgfpda, qug tgcmh ohferg a ca, sgh inhetn-

    ka, dg mustgc a ca das phstgdgs), igrnvhrh dh fnsfh

    gxpgrngcknh y sngfprg praiuknrh gd fnsfa gbgk-

    ta pdhkgctgra. Ig gdda sg kackduyg qug gd phstgd catngcg nigctnihi nctrcsgkh cn kuhdnihigs susthcknh-

    dgs. Kac taia, casatras igfhcihfas y praygkth-

    fas dh gxnstgcknh ig thdgs kuhdnihigs saerg da qug

    ca dhs tngcg, da kuhd cas praiukg ig barfh rgku-

    rrgctg igkgpknc, tgcsnc kamcntnvh, qug igrnvhc

    gc iadar y subrnfngcta. Gctackgs, dh khush prnfhrnh

    y gdgfgcthd igd subrnfngcta rhinkh gc dh nmcarhc-

    knh a gc dh kacbusnc ig dh fhcgrh gc qug dhs kashs

    sac, gs igknr, igd fucia bgcafcnka, taia da qug

    hphrgkg gc cugstras khfpas sgcsarnhdgs y cugstrh

    nigctnihi pgrsachd dh fhcgrh gc qug gxnstnfasy dh barfh gc qug gstrukturhfas dh kamcnknc igd

    fucia.

    Igsmrhknhihfgctg, dh nmcarhcknh cuckh vngcg sadh,

    snca qug prapnknh taih uch hfpdnh vhrngihi ig in-

    bgrgctgs instarsnacgs kamcntnvhs y gfaknachdgs. Zar

    hoarh, paigfas ohedhr igd hbgrrhfngcta, qug sg en-

    burkh gc gd hpgma y dh hvgrsnc. Gd hpgma sg ig-

    cg kafa uc bhktar fgcthd, hnktnva (gs igknr, qug

    cas praiukg iadar y subrnfngcta), igrnvhia ig gsth

    ncohendnihi phrh kafprgcigr kac aelgtnvnihi dh

    chturhdgzh ig dh rghdnihi, cugstrh nigctnihi pgrsa-

    chd y cugstrh gxpgrngcknh igd fucia. Gd hpgma cas

    kaciukg h gxhmgrhr dhs kuhdnihigs pasntnvhs ig ae-

    lgtas, pgrsachs, knrkucsthcknhs g nighs. Yhfenc ddg-

    vh h praygkthr kuhdnihigs pasntnvhs saerg da qug

    chturhdfgctg ca dhs tngcg0 sg khrhktgrnzh par gd hbg-

    rrhfngcta h uc pucta ig vnsth bhcthsnasa y tgrmnvgr-

    shia, nfpasnedg, y h uch igfhcih nrrhknachd ig da

    Fhrka Hctacna @hrhf

    Bata;>. ^a ca tgch cn snqungrh ? has.

    Gc gstg tngfpa, iglhfas ig nr h dh gskugdh. Ygch-

    fas praonenia nr hd kncg, hd tghtra, h das phrqugs. Fn

    fhf fg ddgvheh h lumhr, h gskacinihs, h uc vng-

    la kgfgctgrna luia. Grh uc dumhr hreadhia, iac-

    ig oheh mrhcigs dpnihs qug ddgmhehc h sgr aerhs

    hrquntgktcnkhs. Ca paihfas vnhlhr gc gd trhc-

    vh, sda gc gd dtnfa vhmc. Ca paihfas khfn-

    chr saerg dhs ehcqugths, snca igehla ig gddhs. Fn

    php pgrin gd trhehla. Igsakuphfas gd igphrth-fgcta iacig vnvhfas, phrh fuihrcas h atra fs

    pgquga y dugma h atra fs pgquga hc0 hs su-

    kgin trgs a kuhtra vgkgs. Mrhiuhdfgctg, dh vnih sg

    vadvn fs inbknd. Igspus ddgm dh arigc ig ins-

    tncmunrcas< tgchfas qug kasgrcas uch gstrgddh ig

    Ihvni hfhrnddh kac dh phdherh hdgfhchluig(luia)

    gc uc dumhr vnsnedg.

    Gd ih qug cas ddgvhrac hd mogtta

    Gd 8 ig sgptngferg ig 8>;>, Hdgfhcnh hthk Za-

    dacnh y kafgcz aknhdfgctg dh [gmucih Mugrrh

    Fucinhd. Gctackgs, sg nfpusngrac das mogttas. H

    ucas ?: f hd agstg ig Zrhmh, sg krg gd ig Ygrgzc,

    hpravgkohcia dh ehrih pgrnfgtrhd ig uch pgqug-

    h barthdgzh igd snmda _RNNN, iacig, gc kacinknacgs

    carfhdgs, kheh uch muhrcnknc ig 2 fnd sadihias

    y pgrsachs knvndgs h su sgrvnkna. Gc gsg mogtta ddg-

    mhrac h vnvnr ohsth 8?: fnd luias, ohknchias igottp

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    fhcgrh tgrrnedg. Iarfhc ig knckugcth h sgsgcth

    pgrsachs gc uch sadh pngzh. Zar dh cakog, gxtgc-

    ihc su kaenlh gc gd sugda phrh iarfnr y gc gd ihtgchc qug gcraddhrdh phrh qug sg puingrh khfnchr.

    Gstg mogttagrh uc dumhr ig trcsnta0 dh mgctg qug

    ddgmheh hdd shdh ohknh Zadacnh h das mrhcigs khf-

    pas ig gxtgrfncna.

    Zhrh ddgvhrcas h Ygrgzc, cas knthrac h taias das lu-

    ias gc uc dumhr iacig sg ohkhc gxpasnknacgs.

    Ho cas prgsgcthfas kac uch fhdgth ig 5: `m par

    pgrsach, qug igeh tgcgr gskrnta gcknfh dh kdhvg

    ig trhcspartg y uc cfgra hsnmchia. Fn kdhvg ig

    trhcspartg grh =5;0 gd ig fn ogrfhch, =590 gd ig fn

    fhf, =550 y gd ig fn phirg, =58. Gstuvnfas gc gsg

    dumhr trgs ihs ohsth qug cas kaciulgrac hd mogtta,

    iacig pgrfhcgknfas uc paka fs ig fgina ha.

    Huskowntz, dh bernkh ig dh fugrtg

    Wc ih cas inlgrac qug cas ddgvhrhc h uc khfpa ig

    trhehla. Ca shehfas icig gstheh cn kfa sg ddh-

    fheh. Zgra gsth vgz ca vnhlhfas gc vhmacgs ig ph-

    shlgras, snca bunfas gckgrrhias gc burmacgs phrh

    mhchia, kac ias kuegths, uch phrh gd hmuh y atrhphrh das gxkrgfgctas. [gddhrac dhs pugrths y gc

    khih sgmucia vhmc oheh uc sadihia vnmndhcia. Gd

    trgc sg pusa gc fhrkoh. Xungcgs gsthehc kgrkh ig

    uchs fnrnddhs, uenkhihs gc dh phrtg supgrnar, aesgr-

    vhehc gd sad y dh duch phrh shegr qu rufea tafh-

    rhfas. Hs igskuernfas qug gd trgc hvhczheh ohknh

    gd arngctg, da qug fs tgfhfas, parqug dhs kacin-

    knacgs grhc fs gxtrgfhs. Cas ina fngia. Hs ddg-

    mhfas h Huskowntz. Gstg kafpdgla kacsnsth gc uch

    gxtgcsnc gcarfg qug kafprgcih fukoas khf-

    pas dhtgrhdgs< oheh fnchs, bernkhs ig fucnknacgs,

    ig hrfhfgcta, ig mhsadnch sncttnkh. ^a gstuvg gc

    gd khfpa kacaknia kafa Huskowntz-Enr`gchu.

    Kuhcia ddgmhfas hc ca gxnsth uch igsvnhknc

    bgrravnhrnh, ig kuhtra f, qug kaciukh h dhs pugrths

    igd khfpa ig kackgctrhknc, gfprgcinfas uch

    khfnchth ohknh dhs ehrrhkhs ig Enr`gchu. Hdd bunfas

    rgmnstrhias y thtuhias. H phrtnr ig gsg fafgcta,

    Khfpa ig gxtgrfncna Chzn ig

    Huskowntz-Enr`gchu.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC;2

    pgrihfas cugstras cafergs0 kuhcia cas ddhfheh

    hdmc aknhd a khrkgdgra tgchfas qug prgsgcthrcas

    kac cugstras cfgras. ^a rgkne gd 82>8:8.

    Ig ho cas ddgvhrac h uch ehrrhkh. Zastgrnarfgctg,

    sg gbgktuhrac vhrnhs sgdgkknacgs ig oafergs y fu-

    lgrgs phrh gd trhehla. Kac gstg c, fhrkohfas gc

    uch dh, cas igscuihfas y uc aknhd gdnmn h hdmu-

    cas. Gc gsg fafgcta, ca shehfas sn grh eugca a

    fhda sgr gskamnia. Barfhia gc dh dh, fg in kugc-

    th ig qug prgbgrhc h das fukohkoas fs mrhcigs y

    bugrtgs. Fg kad uc paka gctrg gsas lvgcgs. Hs tuvg

    dh sugrtg ig sgr gskamnia. Cas ncinkhrac qug igeh-

    fas prgsgcthrcas oarhs fs thrig gc dh pugrth ig

    gctrhih igd khfpa y cas ddgvhrac h dh zach ig das

    oafergs, iacig cas hsnmchrac inbgrgctgs trhehlas.

    Wc ih gc gd khfpa ig kackgctrhknc

    Hd hfhcgkgr, uch khfphch hcucknheh dh oarh ig

    dgvhcthrsg. Das prgsas cas barfehfas ig kncka

    gc kncka phrh gd rgkugcta. Kadakehfas h uc dhia

    h das fugrtas qug ca ddgmhehc h dh fhhch. [g oh-

    kh uc rgkugcta qug paih iurhr ig uch oarh y fg-

    inh, ohsth kuhtra a sgns oarhs, snc nfparthr qug

    ddavngrh a cgvhrh. Igspus igd rgkugcta, sg sgrvh

    uch gspgkng ig khb, ogkoa kac trnma tasthia. Khihmrupa a kafhcia, kafa sg dg ddhfheh sg neh

    h rghdnzhr sus dheargs karrgspacingctgs. ^a bun igs-

    tnchia h trhehlhr gc dh dnfpngzh igd khfpa y igs-

    pus h lhdhr uc khrra gc gd qug trhcspartehfas

    par da mgcgrhd fhigrh qug gstheh hdfhkgchih

    hd dhia ig das krgfhtarnas, fgrkhckhs y aelgtas

    pgrsachdgs ig das glgkuthias.

    Ca oheh fukoh pdtnkh gctrg das prgsas. Kuhcia

    uc prnsnacgra qugrh ddhfhr h atra, ca dg mrntheh cn

    dg ohedheh, snca ohkh uch gspgkng ig tas. Da paka

    qug sg ohedheh grh iurhctg dh cakog, gc dhs dntgrhs,

    a gc dhs dgtrnchs. Fngctrhs rhfas aesgrvhias par

    das sadihias, da qug fs igsgehfas grh phshr nc-

    hivgrtnias, ca ddhfhr dh htgcknc.

    Yhfenc oheh khstnmas. Zrgsgckn uc hoarkh-

    fngcta ig sgns prnsnacgras savntnkas, qug ohehc

    nctgcthia gskhphr. Das kadmhrac gc uch oarkh

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    ^ [W NFHMGC ;=

    kacstrunih h dh gctrhih igd khfpa, kac uc dgtrg-

    ra gc gd pgkoa< Ourrh, ourrh, atrh vgz gstay hqu.

    H qungcgs kafgthc kngrths bhdths, kafa igsaeg-

    igkgr a raehr, sg dgs nfpachc khstnmas karparhdgs.

    Ugknehc ohsth 57 a 7: madpgs, qug ihehc atras

    prnsnacgras, kac ehstacgs ig fhigrh.

    Ddgmhih dh cakog, sg instrneuh uch akthvh phrtg ig

    uc phc hdgfc y uch gspgkng ig saph ogkoh kac ks-

    khrhs ig phph, zhchoarnh a dhs vgriurhs qug gstuvng-

    rhc inspacnedgs. a khdkudheh barfhrfg phrh ddgmhr h

    dh instrneuknc gc gd fafgcta gc qug takheh da fs

    gspgsa ig dh saph, gs igknr, khsn hd bacia, sngfprg

    kac gd tgfar ig qug sg ouengrh hkhehia. Igspus

    cas ehfas h iarfnr, gc uchs dntgrhs ig trgs cnvgdgs.

    Gc khih cnvgd, iarfhfas sgns a fs pgrsachs, uc

    paka hprgthihs, pgra sgrvh phrh khdgcthrcas.

    Gc mgcgrhd, ca oheh fukoa tngfpa phrh pgcshr.

    Dh cnkh nigh grh saergvnvnr a gspgrhr h qug gsta

    tgrfnchrh hdmc ih, h pgshr ig da qug cas igkhc

    das hdgfhcgs< Ig hqu ustgigs ca shdgc, fs qug

    par dh konfgcgh.

    Dnegrhknc

    Kuhcia kafgcz gd hvhckg igd glrknta hdnhia, sg

    vghc das rgdfphmas ig das khacgs gc gd oarnzac-tg. [g igknin gvhkuhr gd khfpa, ddgvhr dh fhca ig

    aerh ohknh gd nctgrnar ig Hdgfhcnh, sg inchfnthrac

    dhs kfhrhs ig mhs, sg lucthrac das prgsas y sg gf-

    prgcingrac dhs pastgrnarfgctg ddhfhihs fhrkohs

    ig dh fugrtg. sths kacsnsthc gc dhrmhs kadufchs

    barfhihs par fndgs ig prnsnacgras, gc dhs kuhdgs kh-

    fnchfas ias a trgs ihs saerg dh cngvg0 dhs pgrsa-

    chs qug sg qugihehc htrs grhc rgfhthihs h tnras

    a h kudhthzas. Hs hvhczhfas ohsth gckactrhr uc

    trgc gc gd qug cas suengrac. ^a bun kaciuknia h Hus-

    trnh, kgrkh ig dh knuihi ig Dncz, iacig sg gckactrh-

    eh gd khfpa ig Fhtohusgc. Akurrn qug das khfpas

    h das qug ddgmehfas hd paka tngfpa grhc gvhkuh-

    ias, hs qug fhrkoehfas ohknh atras ohsth qug uc

    ih, gc uch kadufch ig hpraxnfhihfgctg fnd pgr-

    sachs, ddgmhfas h uc easqugkndda iacig oheh trgs

    a kuhtra ehrrhkhs. Hdd cas gckgrrhrac barfhias gc

    dh ncinh, pugs hpgchs khehfas gc gd dumhr. Ing-

    rac dh arigc ig qug cas hkastrhfas ig fhcgrh thd

    qug gctrg dhs pngrchs tgchfas h uc kafphgra y hd

    fnsfa tngfpa gstehfas gctrg dhs pngrchs ig atra

    kafphgra. Hs pgrfhcgknfas par gsphkna ig trgs

    ihs, prgshs ig uc fngia kacsthctg h qug inchfnth-

    rhc a qugfhrhc dh ehrrhkh. Zgra uc ih cas infas

    kugcth ig qug ca oheh vnmndhcknh, qug yh ca oheh

    ching. Gctackgs rafpnfas pugrths y vgcthchs y sh-

    dnfas hd hdfhkc ig kafnih. Gckactrhfas phphs y

    hdmuchs kashs phrh kafgr. a taf uch dhth mrhcig,

    pugs pgcs qug grh kafnih, pgra rgsudt sgr hkgn-

    tg kafgstnedg, qug ca fg snrvn ig fukoa. [hdnfas

    igd easqug ohknh dh khrrgtgrh, iacig yh igsdhehc

    das thcqugs cartghfgrnkhcas. Khfnchfas gc uch

    kadufch lucta kac das sadihias. ehfas gc kacin-

    knacgs igpdarhedgs< fukoas tgchc gkkgfhs par dh

    bhdth ig onmngcg, atras gsthehc gfpnalhias a gcbgr-

    fas ig tnbanigh. Das cartghfgrnkhcas cas kackgc-trhrac gc uch ehsg hrgh igd glrknta hdgfc. Hdd

    cas ehhrac, cas igsncbgkthrac kac IIY, cas qunth-

    rac das trhpas rhias y cas abrgkngrac raph. H f fg

    ingrac uc ucnbarfg igd glrknta igd hnrg hdgfc, snc

    instncknacgs, snc ncsnmcnhs, snc chih. Gc gsg ucnbar-

    fg ddgmu ohsth Zrhmh ias fgsgs igspus. Dh dneg-

    rhknc ca bug kafa sg igskrneg gc dhs pgdkudhs. Bug

    fs prashnkh, pgra, h c ig kugcths, uch dnegrhknc.

    Gpdama

    Iurhctg cugstra khutnvgrna, ca tgchfas fukoa

    tngfpa phrh rgstgxnachr saerg da qug gstehfas vn-

    vngcia. [nc gfehrma, oay, gc pdgca snmda __N,pugia

    igknr qug uch ig dhs prncknphdgs vnrtuigs igd sgr ou-

    fhca gs nctgcthr fglarhr sngfprg0 trhthfas ig qug

    cugstras onlas sghc fglargs qug casatras. Igeg-

    fas sgr tadgrhctgs, da kuhd ca qungrg igknr qug pgr-

    fnthfas qug gd atra ohmh fhd, snca qug igegfas

    kacvnvnr kac atra qug tngcg apncnacgs, rgdnmnc y ch-

    knachdnihi inbgrgctgs ig dh fh. Gctgcihfas qug dh

    invgrsnihi krgh dh rnqugzh, phrh kac casatras fns-

    fas y cugstras sgfglhctgs. Gd fucia oh khfenhia

    igsig gd Oadakhusta< sg oh rghdnzhia dh igkdhrh-

    knc ig das Igrgkoas Oufhcas, sg ohc prafavn-

    ia lunknas gc kactrh ig das krnfnchdgs ig mugrrh, sg

    oh krghia gd Yrneuchd ig Lustnknh Nctgrchknachd. Zgra

    da fs nfparthctg gs qug dh kackngcknh ig dh sakng-

    ihi thfenc oh khfenhia. [n ca krgyrhfas qug gd

    fucia gst fglarhcia, ca tgcirh sgctnia vnvnr.

    Egirnko [tgncgr

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    ^ [W NFHMGC;?

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    IA[[NGU

    RNADGCKNHWNK. Bara Fudtninsknpdnchrna | hernd-fhya 5:8;

    Dh vnadgcknh y, gc gspgkka, dh qug akurrg gc-

    trg dh phrglh gs uc praedgfh saknhd y ca ncin-

    vniuhd, par da kuhd dhs invgrshs ncvgstnmhknacgs

    y gckugsths rghdnzhihs ohc sgrvnia phrh sgcsnendnzhr

    h dh kafucnihi y h dhs ncstntuknacgs hkgrkh ig thd sn-

    tuhknc phrh hktuhr gc kacsgkugcknh.

    Gc mgcgrhd, dh vnadgcknh gctrg dh phrglh y su fhmcn-

    tui vhrhc sgmc gd ncstrufgcta a gckugsth qug sg

    kntg, pugs khih uch gfpdgh su prapnh fgtaiada-

    mh y prgmucths phrh rgbgrnrsg h uc fnsfa bgcfg-

    ca, da qug nfpnig dh kafphrhknc iginmch gctrg

    uchs y atrhs0 hs akurrg gc gd khsa ig dh vnadgcknh ig

    mcgra y ig phrglh, thfenc ddhfhih kactrh dh ph-

    rglh y kactrh dhs fulgrgs.

    Xu tngcg qug vgr gstg tnpa ig gckugsths kac gd

    hsucta ig dh vnadgcknh y das oafergs fhdtrhthias

    par su phrglh1 Yngcg qug vgr qug, gc dh fhyarh ig

    gddhs, sg ih par ogkoa qug dhs vktnfhs sac dhs fu-

    lgrgs, y das oafergs, das pgrpgtrhiargs0 gdda oh kac-

    trneunia hd rhzachfngcta gsgcknhdnsth qug gc dhs

    rgbgrnihs ncvgstnmhknacgs sg ohkg hkgrkh igd oaf-

    erg, h qungc sg kacsnigrh kafa sulgta vnadgcta pgr

    sg0 gs igknr, par gd fgra ogkoa ig sgr oaferg. Gs

    gvnigctg qug gsa ca hyuih gc chih h dh saduknc igd

    Fhdtrhta

    ucnsgxWc praedgfh ig dh

    phrglh kactgfparcgh

    Hdbacsa Ogrccigz Uairmugz

    praedgfh0 par da kactrhrna< sg chturhdnzhc dhs ih-

    ihs oaferg-vnadgcta y fulgr-sufnsh, qug igsinkg

    dh mrhc hparthknc bgfncnsth igd khrktgr saknhd ig dh

    khtgmarh ig mcgra kafa uch khtgmarh rgdhknachd

    y kafa uch fhcnbgsthknc ig dh kudturh phtrnhrkhd.

    Ig hkugria kac Uaegrta Khstra,8 eugc cfgraig trhehlas ig ncvgstnmhknc y ig gckugsths hear-

    ihc gd praedgfh ig dh vnadgcknh ig phrglh kafa

    uc htrneuta ig das ncinvniuas, fs qug kafa uc

    praedgfh nctgrhkknachd0 fs kafa uc rhsma ig

    kngrths fulgrgs y sus phrglhs gc igtgrfnchia fa-

    fgcta, qug kafa uc bgcfgca saknhd ig khrktgr

    incfnka kac gxprgsnacgs hd cnvgd ig das ncinvn-

    iuas, da qug kactrneuyg h rghrfhr dh kackgpknc

    igd oaferg kafa sulgta ncogrgctgfgctg vnadgcta

    y ig dh fulgr kafa gtgrch sufnsh.

    Hd nmcarhr gd arnmgc gstrukturhd y gd khrktgr saknhd

    ig dh vnadgcknh gc dh phrglh y su vhrnhedg nctgrhk-

    knachd, dhs ncvgstnmhknacgs sugdgc prgsgcthr rgsud-

    thias sgsmhias, y pairh pgcshrsg nckdusa qug, gc

    8Uaegrta Khstra, Zraedgfhs kackgptuhdgs gc gd gstuina ig dh vnadgc-

    knh ig mcgra. Kactravgrsnhs y igehtgs h tafhr gc kugcth, gc Rhkh y

    Rdgz (kaaris.), Rnadgcknh ig mcgra y dh pgrsnstgcknh ig dh igsnmuhd-

    ihi gc gd Gsthia ig Fxnka,Eugcas Hnrgs, F cgfasycg, 5:85.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC9:

    hdmuchs akhsnacgs, aegigkgc h kugstnacgs ig nctg-

    rs padtnka phrh qug gd bgcfgca ig dh vnadgcknh

    sgh vnsta ig gsh cnkh fhcgrh. Ca aesthctg da hc-

    tgrnar, gs nccgmhedg qug gd fhyar cfgra ig vktn-

    fhs karrgspacig h dhs fulgrgs.

    [n engc ca ohy dumhr h iuih hkgrkh ig qug gc gsth

    sakngihi phtrnhrkhd sac dhs fulgrgs qungcgs kacs-

    tntuygc gd fhyar cfgra ig dhs vktnfhs, igeg

    igsthkhrsg qug, gc dh fhyarh ig das gstuinas, sg

    phrtg igd supugsta ig qug gddhs sac dhs cnkhsvk-

    tnfhs ig dh vnadgcknh, par da kuhd das ncstrufgctas

    qug sg hpdnkhc phrh hktas vnadgctas sda kacsnig-

    rhc h das oafergs kafa pgrpgtrhiargs. Gsta nfpdn-

    kh uc gvnigctg y sgrna grrar fgtaiadmnka, sn ig da

    qug sg trhth gs ncvgstnmhr dh vnadgcknh gc dh phrglh.

    Kac dh hphrnknc ig hdmuchs ncvgstnmhknacgs, kafa

    dh Gckugsth Chknachd saerg dh Rnadgcknh gc gd Ca-

    vnhzma, gc dh qug sg ncihmh gstg bgcfgca thcta

    gc dhs fulgrgs kafa gc das oafergs, sg prgsgc-

    th gd ogkoa ig qug das vhracgs sac fs hmrginias

    bsnkhfgctg par su phrglh, qug dhs fulgrgs. Khs-

    tra sghdh dh nfparthcknh ig hvgrnmuhr saerg gstg

    ihta, yh qug hearihr dh vnadgcknh kafa uc hsuc-

    ta saknhd ig khrktgr nctgrhkknachd gvnthrh gd sgsma

    ig mcgra gc inkoas trhehlas ig hkgrkhfngcta hd

    bgcfgca y kactrneunrh h igschturhdnzhr dh ih-ih oaferg-vnadgcknh, snc cgmhr, kafa yh sg ncink,

    qug dh fhyar phrtg ig dhs vktnfhs sac dhs fulgrgs

    y qug gd praedgfh ca gs sda sn sg gs oaferg a fu-

    lgr, pugs vh fs hdd ig gsa.

    [gmc dhs knbrhs ig dh Gckugsth Chknachd ig Rnadgcknh

    gc gd Cavnhzma,59 ig khih 8: oafergs gctrg 87 y 59

    has ohc subrnia vnadgcknh bsnkh par phrtg ig su ph-

    rglh, y ? ig khih 8: ohc subrnia vnadgcknh psnkadmnkh.

    Gs dmnka prgmucthr sn gc khih khsa ohy sda uch vktn-

    fh y uc vnktnfhrna gc gsth sntuhknc kafpdglh y inc-

    fnkh, pugs hdmuchs armhcnzhknacgs nctgcthc fhcglhr

    gsths knbrhs ig fhcgrh sgsmhih y igskactgxtuhdnzh-

    ih, yh qug, gc hdmucas khsas, inkoas hktas vnadgctas

    sg igegc h sntuhknacgs ig vnadgcknh kruzhih iacig

    hfeas fngferas ig dh phrglh sac vktnfhs y vnktn-

    fhrnas hd fnsfa tngfpa0 gs igknr, igsgfpghc uc

    5Rni. Gcvncav, 5::>.

    iaedg phpgd, da qug nfpdnkh uch rgvnsnc h bacia y

    gstrukturhd ig dh vnadgcknh gc dh phrglh.

    Ig hkugria kac dhs gsthistnkhs y kac dh ncbarfh-

    knc hphrgknih gc gd inhrna Fndgcna(5 ig fhrza ig

    5:8:) hkgrkh igd tgfh, dh kaarinchiarh ig gcsg-

    hczh y ig ncvgstnmhknc ig das sgrvnknas ig htgc-

    knc psnquntrnkh ig dh [gkrgthrh ig [hdui, Hrfnih

    Mrhchias U., sghdh qug dh vnadgcknh glgrknih par dh

    fulgr saerg su phrglh oh hufgcthia gctrg ;:% y

    9:%, yh qug ig das ; fnd khsas rgparthias iurhctg

    5::?, 9:% karrgspacig h vktnfhs oafergs.

    Kacvngcg sghdhr qug 2:% ig das khsas ig oafergs

    vnadgcthias sg kackgctrh gc dhs trgs zachs fgtra-

    padnthchs kac fhyar kackgctrhknc ig paedhknc

    igd phs< Instrnta Bgigrhd, Muhihdhlhrh y Factgrrgy,iacig pugig pgcshrsg qug thd rgpasnknachfngc-

    ta ig mcgra gctrg fulgrgs y oafergs sgh uch ig

    dhs vhrnhedgs qug i arnmgc h gstg bgcfgca. Atrh

    vhrnhedg pairh sgr qug dhs fulgrgs gstc fs ins-

    pugsths qug hctgs h igbgcigrsg, y sac hdmucas ig

    gsas khsas das qug sg rgparthc par phrtg ig das vh-

    racgs kafa praiukta ig dh vnadgcknh kruzhih.

    Fs hdd ig qunc gs dh vktnfh ig dh vnadgcknh gc-

    trg oafergs y fulgrgs, gs bucihfgcthd rgkhphknthr

    hkgrkh ig das cugvas tnpas ig rgdhknc, hs kafa ig

    das snmcnkhias hktuhdgs y dhs rgsnmcnkhknacgs qug

    ohkgfas ig dhs barfhs ig rgdhknachrcas kac dh hphrn-

    knc ig cugvhs barfhs ig sgr oaferg a fulgr brgctg

    h das bgcfgcas gkacfnkas, kudturhdgs y saknhdgs.

    Yhdgs bgcfgcas ohc aednmhia h das oafergs h khf-

    enhr, ca h euskhr khfena ig barfh nctgcknachih,

    pugs, gc rgsufgc, dh sakngihi hktuhd oh prapnknhia

    dh hphrnknc ig cugvhs fhskudncnihigs y bgfncnih-

    igs, ig cugvhs fhtgrcnihigs y phtgrcnihigs;y ig dh

    pasnendnihi ig qug gd vhrc sgh gd cnka pravggiar,

    da qug da snth gc uc dumhr inbgrgctg igctra ig das gs-

    phknas ig paigr gc dh phrglh y gc dh bhfndnh.

    Atrh vhrnhedg ig dh vnadgcknh glgrknih kactrh das

    oafergs par su phrglh (hsufngcia qug sth gs

    ;Rni. Zhtrnknh Yrulhca, Cugvas pasnknachfngctas ig mcgra< vhracgs

    vktnfhs ig dh vnadgcknh ig sus fulgrgs, Dh fhczhch, vad. NN, cf. ;, lu-

    dna-sgptngferg ig 5::=.

    [gmc dh Gc-kugsth Chknachdsaerg dh Rnadgcknhgc gd Cavnhzma,das vhracgs sac

    fs hmrginiasbsnkhfgctg parsu phrglh, qugdhs fulgrgs.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 98

    uch rgdhknc incfnkh, pgra qug gc gddh gd vhrc

    gs qungc akuph dh pasnknc ig vktnfh par fs

    tngfpa) gs dh snfndntui gc gd prakgsa qug thfenc

    dhs fulgrgs vnvgc kafa vktnfhs. [ghdh Hrfn-

    ih Mrhchias< Gs fukoa fs vgrmaczasa phrh uc

    oaferg hkgpthr pednkhfgctg qug vnvg vnadgcknh

    qug phrh uch fulgr, parqug sg supacg qug gs gd

    sgxa bugrtg, igsig ho sg pacg gc iuih su oaferh

    y su fhskudncnihi.9Gc gsth apncnc, snc gfehrma,

    gs nfpasnedg iglhr ig aesgrvhr dh rgvhdarhknc ig

    da fhskudnca gc gsth sakngihi phtrnhrkhd, kuhcia

    sg ncinkh kafa ig fhyar fhmcntui uc fnsfa og-

    koa inbgrgcknhia par mcgra.

    Igea igsthkhr dhs ncvgstnmhknacgs qug sg ohc og-

    koa gc atras phsgs y qug, ig hkugria kac dh barfh

    gc qug sg gdhearhrac a rgkapndhrac das ihtas, prg-sgcthc uch khrh kactravgrsnhd, pgra qug ohc pugs-

    ta uch sghd ig hdgrth saerg gd bgcfgca ig das

    oafergs fhdtrhthias par su phrglh.

    Inkohs ncvgstnmhknacgs a ncbarfgs, kafa gd Ncbar-

    fg Bngegrt a gd Ncbarfg Nkgegrm, kancknigc gc gs-

    thedgkgr qug gd fhyar parkgcthlg ig das fhdtrhthias

    par sus phrglhs gst rgprgsgcthia par das oafergs.

    Gd Ncbarfg Bngegrt, uc gstuina ig Fhrtnc [. Bngegrt,

    prabgsar igd Igphrthfgcta ig Zsnkadamh ig dh Wcn-vgrsnihi igd Gsthia ig Khdnbarcnh, qug bug puednkh-

    ia h phrtnr ig 8>>= y hktuhdnzhia pgrninkhfgctg,

    fugstrh ihtas kackduygctgs igspus ig rgvnshr 592

    ncvgstnmhknacgs gspgknhdnzhihs< 8?= gstuinas gfp-

    rnkas y 7> gxfgcgs a hcdnsns hrralhc qug, gc sus

    rgdhknacgs kacyumhdgs a ig phrglh, dhs fulgrgs sac

    thc hmrgsnvhs bsnkhfgctg a fs qug das oafergs.

    Zar su phrtg, gd Ncbarfg Nkgegrm sghdh qug ohy

    uch tgcigcknh mgcgrhdnzhih h rgiuknr dh vnadgcknh

    iafstnkh h uc gsqugfh snfpdnsth y sgsmhia, sg-

    mc gd kuhd, gd vhrc gs gd pgrpgtrhiar y dh fulgr, dh

    vktnfh. [nc gfehrma, gxnstgc cufgrasas gstuinas

    kngctkas PV kuyas rgsudthias hvhdhc uch pgrkgp-

    knc eninrgkknachd ig dh vnadgcknh iafstnkh, kac cn-

    vgdgs snfndhrgs ig kacstnktnvnihi phrh hfeas sgxas.

    9Fndgcna Inhrna, 5 ig fhrza ig 5:8:.

    Higfs, inkoa ncbarfg rgvgdh hdmuchs kugstnacgs

    thcta fgtaiadmnkhs kafa ig sgsmas ig mcgra

    gc dhs ncvgstnmhknacgs rghdnzhihs ohsth hoarh, ku-

    yas ihtas sghdhc uc fhrkhia sgxnsfa gc bhvar ig

    dh fulgr y gc kactrh igd oaferg0 bhddhs a ncsukngc-

    knhs fgtaiadmnkhs y grrar gc gd vhdar kackginia

    h hdmuchs ncbarfhknacgs qug trhcsbarfhc dhs apn-

    cnacgs gc ogkoas.

    Krga qug dh vnadgcknh ig dh phrglh iacig das oaf-

    ergs sac dh vktnfh igegr sgr gstuinhih kac fhyar

    prabucinihi igsig inbgrgctgs insknpdnchs ig dhs

    kngcknhs saknhdgs. Kuhcia sg ncvgstnmug igsig dh

    pgrspgktnvh ig mcgra, sgr ncinspgcshedg prg-

    mucthr h das vhracgs saerg dhs pasnendnihigs ig sgr

    kacsnigrhia gd pgrpgtrhiar, pgra thfenc dh vktn-

    fh, da qug kactrneunrh h aetgcgr dh batamrhbh

    kafpdgth igd bgcfgca, yh qug dh vnadgcknh nctgr-

    mcgra cn gs chturhd cn ucninrgkknachd cn gxkdusn-

    vhfgctg fhskudnch.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC95

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 9;

    Fhrka Hctacna Zudnia Uudd

    Dh onstarnh, esnkhfgctg, gs rgmnstra gskrnta a

    hcgkitnka igd kafparthfngcta oufhca. Hs

    pugs, kuhcia dh kngcknh igskuerg cugvhs bar-

    fhs ig gctgcigr y kafprgcigr hd oaferg, gs brg-

    kugctg qug inkohs barfhs sg utndnkgc phrh gstuinhr

    bgcfgcas onstrnkas. Gctackgs, das hvhckgs gc dh

    kafprgcsnc ig das bgcfgcas gkacfnkas iu-

    rhctg das snmdas _RNNNy _N_pugigc vgrsg rgstglhias gcuch fudtnpdnknihi ig tgxtas onstrnkas kac uc gc-

    baqug bucihia gc dh instrneuknc ig dh rnqugzh. Hd

    nmuhd qug dh gkacafh, dh saknadamh, dh kngcknh pad-

    tnkh g nckdusa dh enadamh, ohc pgrfghia gd inskursa

    hdrgigiar ig gvgctas onstrnkas.

    Dh psnkadamh kactgfparcgh gst prgsgctg gc gd

    inskursa onstrnka igsig prncknpnas ig snmda0 snc

    gfehrma, dh psnkadamh oh gvaduknachia ig bar-

    fh cathedg iurhctg das dtnfas knckugcth has y,

    dhfgcthedgfgctg, gstg khfena ca sg vg rgstglh-

    ia hc gc gd gstuina ig bgcfgcas onstrnkas. Gc

    gbgkta, dh fhyar phrtg ig das tgxtas psnkadmnkas

    qug gstuinhc bgcfgcas onstrnkas (tgxtas psnka-

    onstrnkas) sac ig khrktgr psnkaincfnka0 inkoa

    phrhinmfh bug supgrhia par dh psnkadamh kac-

    tgfparcgh igsig ohkg fs ig sgsgcth has y

    sus igendnihigs gpnstgfadmnkhs, kngctkhs y prg-

    inktnvhs ohc snia inskutnihs ig faia hfpdna par

    invgrsas ncvgstnmhiargs. Hs pugs, par qu ca pra-

    ehr uc hcdnsns psnkaonstrnka ushcia atra faigda1

    Gc gspgkka, par qu ca praehr uc hcdnsns psn-

    kaonstrnka utndnzhcia uc phrhinmfh qug sueshcg

    das praedgfhs prncknphdgs qug prgsgcth gd gcbaqug

    psnkaincfnka1

    Gd phrhinmfh kaciuktuhd igctra ig dh psnkadamhkactgfparcgh gs kactgsththrna0 gs igknr, hphrg-

    kg gc rgspugsth h dh ncshtnsbhkknc mgcgrhd kac gd

    phrhinmfh psnkahchdtnka, prgvhdgkngctg gc dh psn-

    kadamh ig prncknpnas igd snmda __. Das prncknphdgs

    hspgktas ig kactravgrsnh gctrg das ias puctas ig

    vnsth tngcgc qug vgr kac da qug khih uca ig gddas

    kacsnigrh gd aelgta dgmtnfa ig gstuina ig dh psnka-

    damh (gd kafparthfngcta, phrh das kaciuktnsths, y

    dh fgctg, phrh gd psnkahcdnsns). Higfs, gd psnkah-

    cdnsns y gd kaciuktnsfa ingrgc gc hspgktas fg-

    taiadmnkas0 gc thcta gd psnkahcdnsns rgkamg das

    tgstnfacnas vgrehdgs igd sulgta y gfpdgh kafa

    sustgcta igd igshrradda tgrnka dh onstarnh ig khsa, gd

    kaciuktnsfa rgkurrg h dh aesgrvhknc inrgkth phrh

    rgucnr ncbarfhknc y su igshrradda tgrnka sg ehsh

    gc dh gxpgrnfgcthknc. Gctackgs, ca gs ig gxtrhhr

    qug dhs ehsgs gpnstgfadmnkhs ig khih phrhinmfh

    pgrfnthc, h khih uca ig gddas, khphknihigs ig prg-

    inkknc inbgrgctgs0 thfpaka igegrh sarprgcigr hd

    Yrgs igshstrgsfndnthrgs y suhcdnsns kaciuktuhd

    Z G C [ H F N G C Y A ^ K A F W C N I H I

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    dgktar qug dhs vhrnhedgs bucihfgcthdgs ig khih ph-

    rhinmfh sghc instncths. Zhrh gd kaciuktnsfa, dhs vh-

    rnhedgs gsgcknhdgs qug fadighc gd kafparthfngcta

    ig das armhcnsfas sac gd rgbarzhfngcta y dh gxtnc-

    knc. Gd prnfgra ig gstas fgkhcnsfas hufgcth dh

    praehendnihi ig qug gd kafparthfngcta hufgctg0

    gd sgmucia insfncuyg dh praehendnihi ig qug aku-

    rrh uc kafparthfngcta.

    Kacsnirgsg uc gxpgrnfgcta pratatpnka, insgh-

    ia par [`nccgr gc 8>;?. [g nctraiukg uc ragiar

    ohferngcta gc uch pgqugh kfhrh ig pdgxnmds.

    Gc dh kfhrh, ohy uch ehrrh ig fgthd qug pugig

    sgr fhcnpudhih par gd hcnfhd0 khih vgz qug sth

    gs prgsnachih par gd sulgta, rgkneg uch pgqugh

    pgdath ig hdnfgcta (rgbarzhfngcta). Gvgctuhdfgc-

    tg, sg aesgrvh qug gd hcnfhd prgsnach dh ehrrh kacfs brgkugcknh. Zar gd kactrhrna, sn dh rgdhknc gc-

    trg prgsnachr dh ehrrh y rgknenr hdnfgcta sg tgrfn-

    ch (gxtncknc), gd hcnfhd iglh ig prgsnachr dh ehrrh.

    [`nccgr aesgrv qug dh gxtncknc igd kafparth-

    fngcta prgfnhia gs fuy mrhiuhd0 gs igknr, rgbar-

    zhr dh akurrgcknh ig uch rgspugsth kac uch pgdath

    ig kafnih akhsnach uch ncgrknh kaciuktuhd gc gd

    kafparthfngcta.

    Dh prgphrhknc igskrnth oh snia hpdnkhih gc uch

    fudtnpdnknihi ig gxpgrnfgctas. Dh rgpdnkhendnihiig das rgsudthias oh snia hsaferash0 higfs, oh

    fastrhia sgr mgcgrhd gctrg rgspugsths y gspgkngs

    hcnfhdgs, nckdunia gd oaferg.

    Gd faigda kaciuktuhd hpdnkhia

    h dh psnkaonstarnh

    Kac gd faigda hctgs igskrnta gc fgctg, kacsnirg-

    sg uch tgftnkh rgkurrgctg gc gd gstuina ig dh psn-

    kaonstarnh< gd khsa ig dh kaciukth igshihpthtnvh

    pgrsnstgctg. Hdmucas ig das pgrsachlgs fs gstu-

    inhias par dh psnkaonstarnh trhinknachd sac hqug-

    ddas kuyas kafparthfngctas gc barfh ncvhrnhedg

    sac hutaigrrathctgs, tgrkas, rmnias g nc-

    stgxnedgs. Yrgs glgfpdas pratatpnkas sac gd mgcg-

    rhd Fhurnkg Mhfgdnc (hrtkg ig dh igrrath brhckgsh

    hctg das hdgfhcgs gc 8>9:), Endd Ohdsgy (hifnrhc-

    tg ig dhs bugrzhs hfgrnkhchs iurhctg dh ehthddh igd

    Madba ig Dgytg gc 8>99) y Hiadba Ontdgr. Gc das trgs

    khsas, das onstarnhiargs ohc ushia dh psnkadamh (gc

    gspgknhd, hd psnkahcdnsns) phrh trhthr ig gctgcigr

    su kafparthfngcta, igenia h da enzhrra igd fnsfa

    y h khush ig qug ohc kacsnigrhia qug dhs ogrrh-

    fngcths ig hcdnsns onstrnka-trhinknachdgs sg vghc

    rgehshihs. Gc das trgs khsas, das pgrsachlgs bugrac

    gstuinhias gc trfncas ig sus rgdhknacgs tgfprh-

    chs kac sus phirgs (saerg taia, kac su fhirg). Gc

    taias das khsas, dh ncbarfhknc rgucnih gs gskhsh,

    pravngcg ig bugctgs kugstnachedgs y sg inspacg ig

    gdgfgctas fuy dnfnthias phrh su karraearhknc.

    Gc khfena, das gdgfgctas ncfginhtas qug prgkg-

    ingrac h das fs cathedgs igshstrgs pravakhias

    par das ncinvniuas gc kugstnc ohc snia iakufgc-

    thias ig faia rnmurasa y gxnstg uch fudtnpdnknihi

    ig gdgfgctas aelgtnvas qug pgrfntgc vgrnkhrdas.

    [ac lusta gstas gdgfgctas ncfginhthfgctg prgkg-igctgs das qug pasnendnthc rgtafhr gd faigda kac-

    iuktuhd y vhdarhr sus hdkhckgs.

    Kacsnirgsg gc prnfgr khsa hd mgcgrhd Mhfgdnc.

    [u igrrath fs bhfash akurrg kuhcia gc 8>9:

    kafprafgtg h dh fhyar phrtg ig dhs bugrzhs brhc-

    kgshs hctg uc hthqug sgugda igd glrknta hdg-

    fc gc Edmnkh. Dhs bugrzhs hkarhzhihs hdgfhchs

    nrrufpgc igtrs ig Mhfgdnc, h trhvs ig dhs paka

    vnmndhihs Hrigchs, y sgphrhc, hs, h dh fhyar phr-

    tg igd glrknta hdnhia ig sus bugctgs ig hpravnsna-chfngcta. Gc fgcas ig uc fgs, gd glrknta brhcks

    sg oh rgcinia. Mhfgdnc gs hkushia ig khrgkgr ig

    krghtnvnihi, ig khrgkgr, nmuhdfgctg, ig stgxnendn-

    ihi tktnkh y ig sgr rmnia.

    Hoarh, hchdnkgfas da qug shegfas ig Mhfgdnc

    kac kgrtgzh y da qug ca. Gxnstg fuy pakh ncbar-

    fhknc iginmch rgspgkta ig su ncbhcknh, par da

    qug igshrraddhr onptgsns gc kuhcta h dh fnsfh gs,

    par da fgcas, nrrgspacshedg. Zar gd kactrhrna, ohy

    heucihctg gvnigcknh hkgrkh ig da qug onza Mh-

    fgdnc iurhctg dh Zrnfgrh Mugrrh Fucinhd (y ig dhs

    kacsgkugcknhs ig sus hkknacgs iurhctg dh fnsfh).

    Mhfgdnc sg barl h s fnsfa uch rgputhknc gc

    dh prnfgrh ehthddh igd Fhrcg. Iurhctg gddh, pgdg

    kactrh dhs bugrzhs hdgfhchs pravgcngctgs ig Ed-

    mnkh. Kac gcarfgs shkrnknas, dhs kactuva ohsth

    qug sths sg saerggxtgcingrac0 sda gctackgs, rgh-sths sg saerggxtgcingrac0 sda gctackgs, rgh-sg saerggxtgcingrac0 sda gctackgs, rgh-

    Eurrous Brgigrnk [`nccgr

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    dnz uc hthqug hd sthcka hdgfc. Gd hthqug hfgch-

    z kac igstrunr dh pucth ig dhczh ig das glrkntas

    ncvhsargs, fatnva par gd qug sg rgpdgmhrac y tuvng-

    rac qug kgigr dh ncnknhtnvh h das brhckgsgs. Mhfgdnc

    utndnz dh fnsfh gstrhtgmnh kac xnta gc vhrnhs akh-snacgs, ohsth gd hrfnstnkna chd gc 8>8?.

    Hchdnkgfas hoarh h Mhfgdnc gc vnsth igd gxpgrn-

    fgcta pratatpnka kaciuknia par [`nccgr y igskrn-

    ta prgvnhfgctg. Dh gstrhtgmnh ig hthkhr Edmnkh y

    rgsnstnr shdvh hd glrknta brhcks ig dh igrrath gc in-

    vgrshs akhsnacgs. Hs pugs, dh kaciukth gstuinhih

    tngcg kacsgkugcknhs pasntnvhs (rgbarzhctgs) phrh

    Mhfgdnc, y par da thcta, pugig prgigknrsg qug sg

    rgpgtnr. Gsa gs prgknshfgctg da qug akurrg iurhc-

    tg dh ehthddh ig Brhcknh gc 8>9:. Mhfgdnc hrrgfgtg

    kactrh gd sgugda hdgfc gc Edmnkh y iglh hengr-

    th dh pugrth gc dhs Hrigchs, par iacig sg nctgrchc

    dhs bugrzhs hkarhzhihs hdgfhchs.

    Ygcgfas, pugs, uch onptgsns, sustgcthih gc gd ph-

    shia ncfginhta ig Mhfgdnc0 tgcgfas, higfs,

    uch pasnedg gxpdnkhknc igd kafparthfngcta ig

    Mhfgdnc, hpayhih gc uc faigda psnkadmnka vhdn-

    ihia par gvnigcknh gfprnkh. Hs, paigfas safg-

    tgr dh onptgsns kac kachczh h das onstarnhiargs

    phrh su vhdnihknc. [da gd trhehla ig ncvgstnmhknc

    onstrnkh vgrnkhr (a ca) dh onptgsns.

    Hoarh, kacsnigrgfas h Endd Ohdsgy, atra pgrsach-

    lg bhvarnta ig dh psnkaonstarnh trhinknachd ig kartg

    psnkahchdtnka. [u grrar tktnka fs mrhvg hkactgkg

    iurhctg dh ehthddh igd Madba ig Dgytg, gc gd fhr ig

    dhs Bndnpnchs, gc 8>99. Wch sgfnigstrunih hrfhih

    lhpacgsh nctgcth gvnthr gd igsgfehrka ig traphs

    cartghfgrnkhchs gc dhs praxnfnihigs ig dh nsdh ig

    [hfhr. Dh gstrhtgmnh ig das lhpacgsgs gs snfpdg< das

    pakas parthvnacgs qug dgs qugihc sgrc gcvnhias

    hd Madba ig Dgytg igsig hmuhs hengrths hd cartg ig

    dh pasnknc. Gd phpgd ig gstas ehrkas gs gd ig sgrvnr

    kafa sgugda phrh qug das hkarhzhias ig @urnth y

    Cnsonfurh gctrgc h Dgytg h trhvs ig das gstrgkoas

    ig [neuyc y [urnmha. Ig barfh sarprgcigctg, Ohd-

    sgy khg gc dh trhfph y inrnmg h sus bugrzhs trhs das

    vhkas parthvnacgs lhpacgsgs. @urnth damrh gctrhr

    hd Madba ig Dgytg y khacgh dhs bugrzhs ig ncvhsnc

    cartghfgrnkhchs. Hd nmuhd qug Mhfgdnc, Ohdsgy gs

    hkushia ig sgr paka krghtnva, ncstgxnedg y rmnia0

    Fhurnkg-Musthvg Mhfgdnc

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    igd fnsfa faia, das hctgkgigctgs bhfndnhrgs ig

    Ohdsgy sac gstuinhias par dh psnkaonstarnh ig kartg

    psnkahchdtnka phrh nctgcthr gxpdnkhr su grrar tktn-

    ka gc trfncas ig su onstarnh tgfprhch.

    Ig cugvh kugcth, dh ncbarfhknc inspacnedg hkgr-

    kh ig dh ncbhcknh ig Ohdsgy gs gskhsh, y par da thcta,

    bugctg gxkdusnvhfgctg ig gspgkudhknc. Zar gd kac-

    trhrna, dh onstarnh ig Ohdsgy, h phrtnr igd hthqug h Zghrd

    Ohrear, gst fuy engc iakufgcthih y dhs bugctgs

    aelgtnvhs ig vhdnihknc gxnstgc gc heucihcknh.

    Ohdsgy pasgg uc phpgd prgpacigrhctg gc khsn ta-

    ihs dhs ehthddhs igd akhca Zhkka iurhctg dh [g-

    mucih Mugrrh Fucinhd. Igsig gd prncknpna ig sth,

    gs tgstnma ig dh igvhsthknc arnmnchih h das hkarh-

    zhias gsthiaucnigcsgs par das parthvnacgs lhpa-

    cgsgs gc Zghrd Ohrear. Iurhctg dh ehthddh igd Fhr ig

    Karhd, das mrhcigs hkarhzhias ca insphrhc uc sada

    tnra0 gc khfena, das hvnacgs trhcsparthias igknigc

    dh ehthddh. Dh rgkgth sg rgpntg iurhctg dh ehthddh ig

    Fniwhy gc 8>950 gc gsth akhsnc, sac das parthvna-

    cgs cartghfgrnkhcas das qug hkhehc kac gd hthqug

    lhpacs. Iurhctg 8>9; y 8>99, sac das mrhcigs par-

    thvnacgs hfgrnkhcas y lhpacgsgs das qug igtgrfn-

    chc gd igstnca ig das gcbrgcthfngctas.

    Hs, Ohdsgy tngcg uch dhrmh onstarnh ig prgfnas y

    khstnmas prapnchias par parthvnacgs, hctgs ig dh

    ehthddh ig Dgytg0 grh gctackgs prgvnsnedg su grrar

    tktnka iurhctg gsth ehthddh. Ig cugvh kugcth, gd

    faigda kaciuktuhd esnka pgrfntg igshrraddhr on-

    ptgsns onstrnkhs snc rgkurrnr h dh ncbhcknh tgfprh-

    ch igd ncinvniua a h kafpdnkhihs gxpdnkhknacgs

    psnkaincfnkhs. Wshcia gd prncknpna ig dh chvhlh

    ig A`ohf, gd faigda kaciuktnsth prgsgcth fhya-

    rgs vgcthlhs gxpdnkhtnvhs. Ig cugva, dh pgdath qug-

    ih gc gd khfpa ig das onstarnhiargs prabgsnachdgs

    phrh vhdnihr (a igskhrthr) gd faigda.

    Zar dtnfa, vhyhfas hd pgrsachlg bhvarnta ig dh psn-dtnfa, vhyhfas hd pgrsachlg bhvarnta ig dh psn-, vhyhfas hd pgrsachlg bhvarnta ig dh psn-

    kaonstarnh. Xunz dh igrrath fs kastash phrh Hiad-

    ba Ontdgr, iurhctg dh [gmucih Mugrrh Fucinhd, bug

    dh ehthddh ig [thdncmrhia. Gc su hbc par khpturhr dhgfedgftnkh knuihi, Ontdgr higdmhzh sus sthckas

    gc kactrh ig dh fglar apncnc ig sus mgcgrhdgs. Gd

    rgsudthia gs prgvnsnedg< [thdnc htrhvngsh dhs tgcugs

    dcghs igbgcinihs par gd glrknta rufhca y gfead-

    sh h uc glrknta ig khsn kuhtrakngctas fnd oaf-

    ergs. Atrh vgz, dh ncbhcknh igd ncinvniua hchdnzhia

    gs, esnkhfgctg, igskacaknih (da hctgrnar ca oh

    gvnthia, pgsg h gdda, qug sg krggc kuhdqungr khctn-

    ihi ig bhcthshs saerg dh fnsfh). Ca aesthctg, das

    ogkoas prgvnas h dh ehthddh ohc snia gxohustnvh-

    fgctg iakufgcthias.

    Hd ca sgr uc fndnthr ig khrrgrh, Ontdgr ncnknh dh mug-

    rrh trhehlhcia kac ehsg gc uc prncknpna ig gcshya

    y grrar0 snc gfehrma, thcta gc dh ehthddh ig Brhc-

    knh, kafa gc dh ig Carugmh, rgoushrsg h rgtnrhr sus

    glrkntas hctg sntuhknacgs pgdnmrashs tngcg uc xnta

    ncgspgrhia. Gc Brhcknh, dhs bugrzhs hkarhzhihs ig

    Muigrnhc pngrigc kacthkta kac sus hehstgknfngc-

    tas hd pgrsgmunr h das brhckgsgs ohsth Iuc`grqug.

    H pgshr igd rngsma, das brhckgsgs sac nckhphkgs ig

    hnsdhr h Muigrnhc ig sus sufncnstras. Gc da kackgr-

    cngctg h dh ehthddh ig Carugmh, sadihias hdgfhcgs

    sac karthias ig sus bugctgs ig sufncnstra gc gd

    pugrta ig Chrvnk`. [us mgcgrhdgs sumngrgc h Ontdgr

    qug arigcg h das sadihias htrnckogrhrsg y rgsnstnr.

    Gvgctuhdfgctg, dh fhrnch erntcnkh qug edaqugh-

    eh gd pugrta igeg hehciachrda phrh kufpdnr kac

    kafprafnsas ednkas fs hprgfnhctgs (gd ncfn-

    cgctg ncnkna ig dh ehthddh ig Ncmdhtgrrh). Zar thcta,

    Endd Ohdsgy

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 9=

    gc paka tngfpa gs pasnedg rghcuihr gd sufncnstra

    h das sadihias htrnckogrhias gc Chrvnk`.

    Xunz dh igknsnc fs htnchih ig Ontdgr, iurhctg dh

    khfphh rush, kacsnstn gc arigchr h sus glrkntas

    qug sg htrnckogrhrhc brgctg h Fask gc gd ncvngrca

    ig 8>98. Gd tgrrnedg ncvngrca ncfavndnz dh abgcsnvh

    hdgfhch gc 8>980 dhs fglar hkdnfhthihs bugrzhs sn-

    egrnhchs rafpngrac gd brgctg hdgfc gc cufgra-

    sas dumhrgs. Hctg gstas hkactgknfngctas, Ontdgr sg

    cgm h rgtnrhrsg, arigc h sus traphs htrnckogrhr-

    sg y rgsnstnr, h pgshr ig dh ncsnstgctg igfhcih ig sus

    mgcgrhdgs ig rgtnrhrsg. Gd rgsudthia ig gsth arigc

    bug pasntnva phrh das prapsntas ig Ontdgr, yh qug,

    gc kuhcta dhs kacinknacgs kdnftnkhs da pgrfntng-

    rac, dg bug pasnedg rgtafhr dh abgcsnvh (da hctgrnar

    sg igen, gc mrhc phrtg, hd dgcta igspgrthr ig dh fh-qunchrnh ig mugrrh rush y h dhs prinihs khthstr-

    khs qug tuva gd glrknta rala iurhctg gd ncnkna ig

    dh mugrrh). Gctackgs, dh igknsnc ig htrnckogrhrsg y

    rgsnstnr tuva kacsgkugcknhs igsghedgs phrh Ontdgr

    gc gd phshia y, par da thcta, su igknsnc iurhctg dh

    ehthddh ig [thdncmrhia grh prgvnsnedg. Gc kuhcta sus

    bugrzhs bugrac raighihs, ina dh arigc bucgsth. ^h

    gc 8>95 dh igknsnc bug kactrhpraiukgctg (dh fh-

    qunchrnh ig praiukknc rush yh supgrheh par fu-

    koa h dh hdgfhch), igenia h qug [thdnc bug khphz ig

    hrralhr nckacthedgs oafergs y hrfhfgctas phrhnfpginr qug dhs bugrzhs sntnhihs bugrhc rgskhthihs.

    Ig cugva, gd faigda ig [`nccgr phrgkg gxpdnkhr

    engc das hkactgknfngctas igskrntas. Wc ncinvniua

    gs prgfnhia kacsnstgctgfgctg par gfntnr uch kac-

    iukth. Gd rgsudthia chd gs qug gd sulgta kactnch

    rgpntngcia dh rgspugsth rgbarzhih h pgshr ig qug gd

    kactgxta ig rgbarzhfngcta oh khfenhia. Gd trheh-

    la ig das onstarnhiargs prabgsnachdgs pgrfntnr gvh-

    duhr gsth onptgsns.

    Kackdusnacgs

    Dh nigh esnkh igtrs igd kaciuktnsfa ig [`nccgr

    gs qug dh kaciukth, hd nmuhd qug dh inbgrgcknhknc ig

    dhs gspgkngs, igpgcig ig uch sgdgkknc par kafpg-

    tgcknhs (pdhctgh uc faigda ihrwncnhca igd kaf-

    parthfngcta). Gs igknr, kuhcia uc kafparthfngcta

    tngcg kacsgkugcknhs pdhkgctgrhs phrh gd armhcns-

    fa, dh praehendnihi ig qug gsh kaciukth hufgctg

    gc brgkugcknh gs hdth.

    Das glgfpdas gxpugstas gc gd tgxta hctgrnar su-

    mngrgc qug gd faigda kaciuktuhd pugig hpdnkhrsg

    engc hd gstuina ig dh psnkaonstarnh. Yngcg, higfs,

    dhs vgcthlhs ig sgr uc faigda igshrraddhia h phr-tnr ig dh ncvgstnmhknc gxpgrnfgcthd fs rnmurash y

    ig pdhctghr onptgsns vgrnkhedgs y phrsnfacnashs.

    Zar supugsta, ca sg prgtgcig khgr gc das gxkgsas

    gc das qug ohc nckurrnia atras ncvgstnmhiargs ig

    dh psnkaonstarnh. Das pdhctghfngctas hqu pdhsfh-

    ias sg prgsgcthc gxkdusnvhfgctg kafa gxpdnkh-

    knacgs tgcthtnvhs. Gd trhehla rnmurasa y snstgftnka

    ig das onstarnhiargs prabgsnachdgs pgrfntnr luzmhr

    kac lustnknh sths y atrhs onptgsns ig arnmgc kac-sths y atrhs onptgsns ig arnmgc kac-sths y atrhs onptgsns ig arnmgc kac-

    iuktuhd qug pugihc pdhctghrsg0 inkoa trhehla pa-

    snendnthr, ig nmuhd barfh, kafphrhr dh khphknihi

    prginktnvh ig onptgsns psnkadmnkhs gfhchihs ig

    phrhinmfhs inbgrgctgs.

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    ^ [W NFHMGC9?

    Unkhria Hrrnhmh Khfpas

    Uhinamrhbh dxnka-kackgptuhd ig dasgstuinhctgs gc

    Fxnka

    1

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    ^ [W NFHMGC 9>

    Gd dgtrhfngcta, ias fnd has igspus

    Xungc ca oh kacaknia dhs invgrshs dgcmuhs, kas-

    tufergs y igfs kashs ig das phsgs gxtrhas

    rgkarrngcia dh supgrkng ig dh tngrrh, ca oh rg-

    kamnia gd bruta ig su chknfngcta. Gd oaferg ca

    hiqungrg kafpdgthfgctg dh kngcknh, dh rnqugzh

    cn gd hrtg sn ca rgkarrg dh Yngrrh hifnrhcia uc

    phs igspus ig atra.

    Gd hctgrnar gs uc gskrnta nciastcnka ig ohkg hpra-

    xnfhihfgctg 5 5:: has08ca oheh gskugdhs, nc-

    tgrcgt, tgkcadamhs hpdnkhihs h dh giukhknc,

    ncstntuknacgs gctgrhs iginkhihs hd caedg prapsnta

    ig ucnvgrshdnzhr dh giukhknc, dneras prapnhfgctg

    inkoas, ftaias iniktnkas ig igshrradda ig kaf-

    pgtgcknhs, faigdas kacstruktnvnsths, gtktgrh.

    Dgs eay h kacthr Inma qug fg hkugria qug uch

    vgz ya fg fgtn gc uc praedgfh fuy mrheg

    Zgra hd Bnc khsn igvgr1 uc inh kafa gstas Zugs

    fn prnfgr cavnh fg qugrnh gcehrrhr uc cna

    qug cn ig qungc sg henh iha Kugcth y ya igsig

    qug ya yh ca fg hkugria

    sth gs uch rgihkknc ig uc gstuinhctg fgxnkh-sth gs uch rgihkknc ig uc gstuinhctg fgxnkh-

    ca ig tgrkgra ig sgkucihrnh (5::>), hdrgigiar ig 5

    5:: has igspus, kac sgns has ig hsnstgcknh h dhgskugdh prnfhrnh y khsn trgs h sgkucihrnh phrh ig-

    shrraddhrsg gc taias das sgctnias, gc sus ohendnih-

    igs nctgdgktuhdgs gc mgcgrhd y gspgknhdfgctg gc

    sus kafpgtgcknhs dncmstnkhs y hrntftnkhs fg-

    inhctg igtgrfnchias faigdas, pdhcgs y fhtgrnh-

    dgs giukhtnvas.

    Dh inbgrgcknh gctrg gd prnfgr tgxta y gd sgmucia

    par ca abrgkgr atras y ig pastgrnargs cnvgdgs gska-

    dhrgs gs gvnigctg. Fukoas ig cugstras cnas y

    lvgcgs sg gckugctrhc kac taia y dh trhygktarnh

    gc fs a fgcas mrhias ig gskadhrnihi gc uch

    kacinknc ig sgfnhchdbhegtnsfa< snc gd igshrradda

    ig kafpgtgcknhs dncmstnkhs qug dgs pgrfnthc ka-

    inkhr y igkainkhr tgxtas kafpdglas, gdhearhias.

    8Zhckohthctrh, dh fs hctnmuh kadgkknc ig kugctas nciastcnkas qug

    sg kacsgrvh0 gskrnth gc scskrnta, gc prash y gc vgrsa, kafpugsta gc

    Khkogfnrh, igspus igd snmda NNNh.g. (kgrkh igd 5:: h.g.), sg htrneuyg h

    Rnsoc [ohrfh.

    Zugigc hrmufgcthrsg fukohs kashs phrh pacig-

    rhr gsh inbgrgcknh, pgra, kac taia, sg sastngcg dh nc-

    tgrramhctg< qu phs gc fs ig 5 fnd has, qug

    das ncinvniuas kac 2, > a 85has ig prgphrhknc

    phrh iafnchr su dgcmuh y atrhs ohendnihigs nctg-

    dgktuhdgs, ca pugigc ohkgrda1, par qu uch sakng-

    ihi kac uch rnkh ogrgcknh y uch dhrmh trhygktarnh

    gc das snstgfhs ig giukhknc, kac fukosnfas

    fs rgkursas phrh gd igshrradda pgihmmnka ig

    dhs ohendnihigs nctgdgktuhdgs, ca nfpdnkh hvhckgs

    snmcnkhtnvas, ucnvgrshdgs, mgcgrhknachdgs, gc dhs

    kafpgtgcknhs kafucnkhtnvhs ig sus ncinvniuas1

    Kgrgerhknc y dgcmuhlg,

    uch gvaduknc phrhdgdh

    Dh dgcmuh, gc dh kafucnkhknc ohedhih y gskrn-

    th, kafa snstgfh y kafa das ninafhs qug trhlnchc

    oay par dhs kudturhs y das tgrrntarnas, gs rgsudthia

    ig fndgcnas ig gvaduknc enadmnkh, hctrapadmn-

    kh, cguradmnkh, saknhd, gc gspgknhd ig uch gvadu-

    knc kgrgerhd qug ihth ig fs ig kuhtra fnddacgs

    ig has.

    Gc dh hktuhdnihi, gc gd kgrgera oufhca hiudta ohy

    gctrg 8:: y 7:: enddacgs ig kacgxnacgs cgur