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Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends: Latin America

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Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends : Latin America. Law and Policy of Relevance for the Management of Plant Genetic Resources in Latin America. Megadiversity!. South and Central America are quite possibly the most diverse regions in the world - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Objetivos específicosReview of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends:
Latin America
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Law and Policy of Relevance for the Management of Plant Genetic Resources in Latin America
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Megadiversity!
South and Central America are quite possibly the most diverse regions in the world
Together they hold the greatest diversity of reptiles, birds and mammals in the world
They are centres of origin and diversification of a wide range of crops and their wild relatives
They are also home to a great variety of cultures and indigenous populations
The economic, cultural and social importance of biodiversity in the region is incalculable
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Key Issues in These Regions
Access to genetic resources and benefit sharing
Intellectual property
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Ratified by all countries in Latin America
Pivotal in raising policy and legal profile of issues
Effects of the CBD:
General biodiversity laws (ABS, TK, biosafety...)
Adjustments and amendments to sectoral legislation
Administrative measures
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing
Access and benefit sharing (ABS) is a critical concern for most Latin American countries
Many bio-prospecting projects in the regions
Genetic resources represent an important scientific, political and legal asset for varying reasons
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Decision 391 of the Andean Community on ABS
Enacted in July 1996 by the Andean Community of Nations
The first regional set of principles and obligations on ABS
Genetic resources are part of the national patrimony (State control)
Operates through a set of mechanisms and instruments and an administrative procedure overseen by national competent authority
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Other ABS Legislation
Argentina:
2002, Draft Law on Access to Genetic Resources of Biological Diversity
Brazil:
1997, ABS legislation enacted at State level in Amapa and Acre;
August 2001, Provisional Measure 2.126-16 on access to the genetic patrimony
Chile:
1999, CONAMA initiated a policy process to develop ABS regulations and re-launched in 2003 by Fundación Sustentables
Costa Rica :
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Current Situation Regarding ABS in the Region
Control over genetic resources = rigid, complex legislation, difficult to implement
Limited progress in implementing Decision 391 (and most laws). Andean Community will undertake an overall assessment of the ABS regime (FTA with the US !!!)
Group of Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries: negotiations on an international regime on ABS (idea raised by Mexico and Colombia)
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Biosafety:
Adopted in Montreal in January 2000
New international system for trans-boundary movement, transit, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs)
LMOs result from genetic engineering that may have an adverse effect on conservation of biodiversity and human health
The Protocol set an international procedure by which export and import of LMOs is conditional on advanced informed agreement (AIA) of Parties
The precautionary principle is recognized as the guiding principle of the Protocol
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Latin America and the Protocol
Clearly divided during the negotiations of the Protocol between members of the Miami Group and those countries more cautious and resistant to a free flow
Brazil has taken a cautious approach and until recently prohibited the cultivation of genetically modified soya varieties as result of strong citizen resistance and campaign
Of the Miami Group, neither Argentina, Chile nor Uruguay have ratified the Protocol. Likewise, for different reasons, Guyana, Paraguay and Suriname have not ratified
Most countries have developed national laws and regulations (pre- and post-Protocol)
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
PGRFA:
The FAO International Treaty (IT)
Latin American countries have only recently began discussing the legal and policy implications of the IT on existing ABS legislation (i.e., Decision 391)
Countries in the region (especially the Andean Community) need to address:
the relation of the Treaty to existing ABS regimes
IPR provisions in the Treaty / national laws
The situation of ex situ collections and CGIAR centres
how to implement an effective Farmers’ Rights regime
El Salvador, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru have ratified the IT
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
TRIPS
Key issues and emerging trends in the international IPR agenda are being considered :
broadening subject-matter protection
creating new rights
FTA
Most Latin American countries have adapted their national legislation to meet TRIPS standards
Brazil and the Andean community have been very active in the ongoing revision of article 27.3.b of TRIPS
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
PBR Protection
Almost all countries in the region have some form of legal protection for new plant varieties or cultivars, based on UPOV-like protection for plant breeders’ rights
Decision 345 Common Regimen on PBR (1994)
In some countries, discussions are being carried out on the impact of legal protection of new plant varieties on biodiversity, the environment and small farming communities
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Traditional Knowledge (TK)
Debates on TK can be traced to 1992–93 when efforts were undertaken in the Andean Community to regulate PBRs
Decision 345 provides that new plant varieties will be protected if
they comply with typical PBR requirements
scientific knowledge is applied in the improvement
Decision 391 recognizes the rights of indigenous peoples over their knowledge, innovations and practices
Brazil's Provisional Measure 2.186-16 specifically refers to the protection of TK
Defensive protection: the Andean Community (Decision 486 on Industrial Property), Costa Rica and Brazil are implementing provisions and principles for defensive protection
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Traditional Knowledge (TK)
(continued)
In 1998, Bolivia initiated a political process towards the development of a TK protection regime
Colombia has undertaken wide participatory processes towards developing national policies
Panama enacted Law 26 for the protection of collective creations and folklore of indigenous communities (2000)
Peru has become the first country to adopt a sui generis regime for the protection of TK
Note : It’s critical to engage indigenous peoples in the policy process from the start
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Phytosanitary Agreements
Important international and regional agreements are
The International Plant Protection Convention (1989)
The Andean System for Plant Health
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Regional Networks on Genetic Resources
Consortium for the Ecoregional Development of the Andean Region (CONDESAN)
PROCITROPICOS
Andean Network on Plant Genetic Resources (REDARFIT)
Network on Technical Cooperation for Plant Biotechnology in Latin America and the Caribbean (REDBIO)
Thematic programmes and networks include:
Latin America Fund for Rice Production (FLAR)
Regional Project for Beans in the Andean Region (PROFRIZA)
The Regional Network on Forest Information for Latin America and the Caribbean
Respuestas a Nuevas Demandas Tecnológicas: Agroindustria
Review of Regional Policy Instruments, Developments and Trends /Latin America – 1.*
Ex Situ Centres
CGIAR Centres: