reteach unit 7 antebellum america

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  • Antebellum America:North vs. South

  • Setting the Scene Unit PreviewMid-1800sDifferences between the North and the South grew so strong that compromise no longer seemed possibleTragically, Americans turned to civil war to settle their disagreements.The long and bloody war resulted in defeat for the South and victory for the Union

  • America DividedEconomic changes created divisions in the United StatesThree areas of conflict:North economy based in manufacturing and tradeSouth relied on slaves to raise crops for economyWest settlers wanted cheap land and good transportation

  • Antebellum NorthRise of Urbanism

  • The North: FarmingMostly small farmsLabor provided by family membersSubsistence agriculture: food crops and livestockSlavery not profitable in this system

  • The North: IndustryFactories first began in New England92% of the nations industries were in the NorthProduced fabric and shoesThis is called the Industrial RevolutionGoods made in factories rather than in homes75% of Nations Wealth in North

  • The North: LaborFactories required workersFirst factory workers were young women, called Mill GirlsPaid an hourly wageFree Labor no slaves

  • The North: LaborWages were lowWorking hours longWorking conditions often dangerousChild labor

  • The North: LaborBy 1850, most Mill Girls replaced by immigrants in the factoriesImmigrants willing to work for lower wagesCreated a working class

  • The North: CitiesFactories and workers in citiesSeveral large cities: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, ChicagoCrowded conditions and urban slums22 Million Americans

  • The North: TransportationFactory goods needed to be moved to marketCanals were builtErie Canal linked the Hudson River with Lake ErieAlso steamboats and railroads improved transportation75% of Americas Railroads were in the North

  • The North: Social ClassesThe wealthy: businessmen, factory owners and professionalsWorking classServants and urban poorFree blacks

  • Antebellum SouthVictorian Era America

  • The South: FarmingPlantation economyCash crops like tobacco, sugar, cotton and riceLarge farms Purpose was to make a profitAlso small farms on poor land and in the mountains

  • The South: King CottonIn 1790, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin, which cleaned cotton by machine.More cotton grown & more slaves needed.By 1820s, cotton was 1/2 of our total exports big business!

  • The South: LaborSource of labor on cotton plantations was slaves4 million by 1860Slaves were 1/3 of total population of SouthSlavery was allowed by the 3/5s CompromiseIn some places, slaves outnumbered whites

  • The South: Chattel SlaveryA system of slavery in which one human being owned another as propertyLife-long conditionSlavery inherited children of slaves were also slavesOften cruel and brutal

  • The South: Social ClassesWealthy white plantation ownersLived on rich flat land near rivers10,000 wealthy families in 1860Owned more than 50 slaves A minority, but political & economic power

  • Slave CostSlave trade banned in 1808Slave demand rises as does the cost of slaves1790 - $3001860 1500Slave traders began to smuggle Slaves into the United States1790 500,000 Slaves1850 4 Million Slaves

  • Slave-ocracy(plantation owners)The Plain Folk(small slave-owners & yeoman farmers)6,000,000Black FreemenBlack Slaves250,000U.S. population in 1850 was 23,000,0009,500,000 lived in the South (40%)3,200,000Southern Society in 1850

  • The South: Social ClassesYeoman farmers9 Million SouthernersSome owned a few slaves2/3 of all whites owned no slaves at allSubsistence agriculture lived on poor land

  • The South: Social Classes

    Slaves the lowest social classNo rights, could be sold at any time, families were split up, most did hard labor in the fields.

  • The South: Southern White Social Class - 1860Non-Slave holders76.1%1-9 slaves17.2%10-99 slaves6.6%More than 100 slaves0.1%

  • The South: Industry, Cities and TransportationEconomy entirely focused on agricultureVery little industryFew citiesFew canals or railroadsRural society

  • Southern Agriculture50% of all slaves lived in the Black Belt (Cotton Belt)

  • Southern Population

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