research project - chapter 1

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  • STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS

  • In research writing, the most difficult part to write is Chapter 1 (Introduction).

    Asthey (2010) points out that the most difficult part

    of any endeavor is the starting point.

  • The first chapter is where you conceptualize your

    entire research. The whole research can be reflected in

    Chapter 1 including expected results or

    outcomes.

  • Choose a TopicSelect a topic which interests

    and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put

    into your research.

  • Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on

    a full-scale research. Select a subject you can

    manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or

    specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range

    of source materials.

  • Find InformationFor general or background

    information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online

    such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as

    a starting point.

  • Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu

    (educational institution), .gov(government), or .org (non-profit

    organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to

    be more reliable

  • Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain, invalid/misinformation,

    advertisements for products and nothing else.

  • Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can

    help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time.

  • Check out other print materials available in the Library:

    Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs,Encyclopedias and Dictionaries,

    Government Publications, Journals, Guides, Reports,

    Magazines, NewspapersVertical Files, Yellow Pages, and

    Telephone Directories

  • 1.1 Background of the StudyWhy did you conduct the study?

    -describes the circumstances that suggested in the research.

  • 1.1 Background of the StudyStart with sentences that are simple

    enough to understand even for those who are not exactly experts

    in the topic. Begin with presenting a broad perspective of the problem or issue which will lead to the next

    sub-section 'Statement of the Problem'.

  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem

    What did you study?--clearly, accurately and briefly states the issue that was studied.--may be stated either in the declarative form or interrogative form.

  • 1.2 Statement of the ProblemThis provides the context for the research study and the questions

    which the research hopes to answer. A problem statement

    articulates the issue to be addressed and indicates the need

    for the study.

  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem

    Aim to motivate the reader and provide understanding

    on why your research topic is important.

  • It is advisable to keep your statement as concise as possible ..between (100-250words), but

    with enough information to convince readers that the

    research is feasible, appropriate and worthwhile.

  • 1.3 Hypotheses a statement that can be

    proved or disproved. When you make specific

    predictions regardinganswers to a research question

    posed, then you arebuilding a hypothesis that can be

    tested empirically.

  • 1.3 Hypotheses--should be clear & brief.--should be based on past experiences or

    observations or on information gatheredfrom your research.

    --must be testable.

    Its is advisble to make at least three of suchstatements to comfirm your findings.

  • 1.4 Conceptual Framework Is a general statement which forms

    theframe of reference for your inquiry orinvestigation. Sets out the rationale which

    underlies--Why you do/What you do?--How you do your research?

  • 1.4 Conceptual FrameworkTWO TYPES OF DIAGRAMS

    REPRESENTING OF:1. Relationships of the KEY

    CONCEPTS involved in the study.2. Relationships of the KEY

    VARIABLES to be investigated.

  • 1.5 Significance of the Study

    The relevance of the research to felt needs.

    How the research output may be directly useful to people?

  • Focus should be on the following: Why is your work important? What are the implications/effects

    of your study? How does it inform policy making? What new perspective does your

    study bring to the field? Who would you share your findings

    with when the study is completed?

  • The significance should be able to show how the study will contribute to knowledge.

    You must also specifically state the beneficiaries of the study and how they stand to gain

    from the finding of the research.

  • Begin with a general contribution of your study and then proceed towards its contribution to

    individuals such as practioners (such as teachers, managers), parents,

    administrators, policy planners and so forth.

  • 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

    Tell the reader the shortcomings, conditions or influences that you

    could not control. You have to mention them because they may

    influence the results of your study.

  • 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

    Coverage of the study: Area Subject/problem Research apparatus, equipment or

    Instrument Time frame Any limitations in the referencepopulation, sample size

  • 1.7 Definition of Term

    Includes terms which should be interpreted in a manner unique to your research.

    Includes all the important variables in the study.

  • 1.7 Definition of TermsIncludes terms which should be

    interpreted in a manner unique to yourresearch.

    Includes all the important variables in thestudy.

    The definitions may be:1. CONCEPTUAL based on concepts orhypothetic ones which are usuallytaken from dictionary, encyclopedia &

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