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RESEARCH PROCESSDr.T.V.Rao MD
26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 1
What is Research Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge,Medicine is a wider field for exploration
26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 2
Questions are Many Answers are Few When starting your research you may or may not have a clear question but by starting with an idea and formulating this idea into a question you will be able to review the literature already written on this topic which will likely help you to refine and narrow your questions
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What is the research process?It is the systematic manner in which a researcher approaches their area of study to produce knowledge which the community will consider to be worthwhile within the field. There are four principles stages in the research process that we will cover here: Inquiry Collection Organisation Presentation 26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 4
Series of various actions, which are necessary to effective research work. Research process consist of a number of closely related activities.Various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive; nor they are separate & distinct.
What is research process???26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 5
DevelopHypothesisResearch DesignMeasurementData AnalysesWrite ReportAction Plans
Research Process26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 6
Academic IntegrityAcademic Integrity means honesty and responsibility in scholarship.. Intellectual contributions from others must be consistently and responsibly acknowledged. Academic work completed in any other way is fraudulent
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The scientific research process is a multiple-step process where the steps are interlinked with the other steps in the process
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7 STEPS OF RESEARCH PROCESSStep One: Define research problemStep Two: Review of literature Step Three: Formulate hypothesesStep Four: Preparing the research designStep Five: Data collectionStep Six: Data analysisStep Seven: Interpretation and report writing
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Step One: Define Research ProblemThere are two types of research problem, viz., thoserelate to states of nature relationship between variables. Essentially two steps are involved in define research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly and rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an point of view.26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 10
We have a problem Identify the ProblemThe first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 11
Step Two: Review of LiteratureOnce the problem is define, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D. degree to write a synopsis of topic and submit it to necessary committee or the research board for approval.
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Review the LiteratureNow that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem.
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Review of Literature Helps to Move from Past to Future The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area.
26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 14
Step Three: Formulate HypothesisFormulate hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.
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What is Hypothesis HYPOTHESIS - a contention based on preliminary evidence of what appears to be fact (an educated guess), which may or may not be true.
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Hypothesis should keep you on Right TractThe role of the hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.
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Searching for sourcesIdentify important concepts in your topic.Once you have articulated your topic, try to pick out important concepts or keywords which you can use when you search for articles.Identify the subject areaConsider how recent or historical your search is.Do not take outdated topics
26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 18
Searching Literature enlightens on the Matters of Interest
The information discovered during this step helps the programmer fully understand the magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a strategy to combat obesity (i.e., walking).26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 19
Step Four: Preparing the Research Design The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. Research purpose may be grouped into four categories, viz., Exploration, Description, Diagnosis, Experimentation.26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 20
Step Five: Data CollectionPrimary data can be collected through: By Observation Through personal interview Through telephone interview By mailing of questionnaries Through Schedules
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Collect DataOnce the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question.
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Step Six: Data AnalysisThe analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories.This stage mainly include :CodingEditingTabulation
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Analyse the DataAll the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally has data to analyse so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan
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Evaluate your resultsLook at the number of article citations you were able to retrieve. If you retrieved more articles than you expected and they don't seem to be relevant to your topic, you may need to add another concept or keyword to your search statement in order to narrow your search. 26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 25
Step Seven: Interpretation and Report WritingResearcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him.Writing of report includes:the preliminary pages;the main text, and End matter. Finally it is in Black and White
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CITE WHAT YOU FIND USING A STANDARD FORMAT Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources. Citing or documenting the sources used in your research serves two purposes, it gives proper credit to the authors of the materials used, and it allows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as references. 26-07-2016Dr.T.,V.Rao MD@ Azeezia Medical college 27
References Basic Social Work Research library University of Michigan USASteps of the research process Applied Research and Evaluation Methods in Recreation By Diane C. Blankenship :Human KineticsThe Research Process University Library University of Illinois
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