research (practical applications) by william allan kritsonis, phd

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RESEARCH (Practical Applications) by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

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  • 1. Research(Practical Applications) William Allan Kritsonis, PhDPublished by The Alexis/Austin Group 42563 Musilek Place Temecula, California 92592Distributed by National FORUM JournalsCopyright 2011 by William Allan KritsonisExcept as permitted under the United States Copyright Act Of 1976, no part of thisprofessional publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by anymeans, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the proper writtenpermission of Dr. William Kritsonis. No unauthorized reproduction of the text ispermitted.ISBN: 0-9770012-5-2Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataPrice (Includes Shipping and Handling)$49.00 (United States)$59.00 (Canada)$79.00 (All others)To order, make payment to National FORUM Journals and send to: National FORUM Journals 17603 Bending Post Drive Houston, Texas 77095 www.nationalforum.comPublished in the United States of America1

2. Research (Practical Applications)By William Allan Kritsonis, PhD ProfessorPhD Program in Educational LeadershipPrairie View A&M UniversityMember of the Texas A&M University SystemPrairie View, Texas 77446Distinguished Alumnus (2004) Central Washington UniversityCollege of Education and Professional Studies Ellensburg, Washington Invited Guest Lecturer (2005)Oxford Round TableUniversity of OxfordOxford, England Doctor of Humane Letters (2008)School of Graduate Studies Southern Christian UniversityHall of Honor (2008) William H. Parker Leadership AcademyPrairie View A&M UniversityThe Texas A&M University System 2 3. Dedication This book is dedicated to any person that has taken a class from me over the years. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The purpose of this attempt is to provide content and knowledge in the area of research with students at both the masters and doctoral levels. A list of acknowledgements and credits is provided in the Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements at the end of this text. Any omissions are not intentional.CONTENTS 3 4. PagePART I: Practical Applications of Research and Basic Statistics ..........................6Chapter 1: Development of Research .................................................................7Chapter 2: Historical Research .........................................................................14Chapter 3: Descriptive Research ......................................................................18Chapter 4: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research ............................22Chapter 5: Qualitative Research .......................................................................30Chapter 6: Methods and Tools of Research ......................................................33Chapter 7: Descriptive Statistics and Normal Distribution ...............................39Chapter 8: Inferential Data Analysis ................................................................55Chapter 9: Parts of the Research Proposal .......................................................61Chapter 10: Parts of a Field Study ....................................................................67Chapter 11: General Statistics Information ......................................................73Chapter 12: Types of Statistical Data ...............................................................77 Page4 5. Chapter 13: Descriptive Statistics ....................................................................81Chapter 14: Types of Distributions ..................................................................88Chapter 15: Formulas .......................................................................................90Chapter 16: Understanding and Using Statistics. The Basics ..........................92Chapter 17: Getting Started With Research: Avoiding the Pitfalls ...................96Chapter 18: Ethics and Research ......................................................................99Chapter 19: Ethics in Research on Human Subjects and the role of theInstitutional Review Board - Frequently Asked Questions ............................101Chapter 20: Working with the IRB Suggested Frameof Mind for Researchers .................................................................................104Chapter 21: Research, Writing & Publication ...............................................106PART II: Fundamental Terms for Research and Basic Statistics.............110Fundamental Terms in Educational Research and Basic Statistics .................111PART III: Partial Listing of Selected Referencesand Acknowledgements ...............................................................................144Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements .....................145PART IV: About the Author .......................................................................1545 6. PART I:Practical Applications ofResearch and BasicStatistics6 7. Chapter 1 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Development of Research1. Key Points a. Observations b. Experience c. Intuition d. Hand me down e. Revelation f. Definition or Decree g. Philosophy or Logic h. Instinct2. Centuries ago, medicine men, religious authorities, and elders were knowledge sources? (No one questioned them.)3. With time, people began to observe orderliness and cause and effect relationships in the universe. Events were recorded and analyzed.4. Some things could be predicted. Events could be predicted in relation to the time of year and the seasons.5. This brought on a conflict. a. Religious authority versus curious thinkers b. Authority versus empirical evidence c. Elders versus personal experience6. People eventually began to think systematically. A few great thinkers led the way.7. Aristotle (Ancient Greece) a. First approach to reasoning. 7 8. b. Deductive Method - moving from general assumptions to specificSyllogism1) Major Premise: All men are mortal.2) Minor Premise: Socrates is a man.3) Conclusion: Socrates is a mortal.8. Centuries later-Francis Bacon a. Direct observation of phenomena b. Arriving at conclusions or generalizations through evidence of manyindividual observations led to inductive reasoning.9. Combining the deductive and inductive methods of reasoning results in the emerging of the scientific method or scientific approach.10. In 1930, John Dewey detailed the scientific method or scientific approach as follows: a. Identify and define a problem b. Formulate a hypothesis c. Collect, organize, and analyze data d. Formulate conclusions e. Verify or reject hypothesis, modify hypothesis There are many ways to specifically approach the scientific method and there are numerous generalizations of scientific approaches. The deductive approach is hypothesizing and anticipating the consequences of events. 8 9. 11. Researchers go back and forth--inductive-deductive-inductive-deductive. An example would be to hypothesize-observe and collect data-reject hypothesis-reformulate new hypothesis-observe and collect more data- partially accept hypothesis-then collect more data.12. Science 1) Definition: An approach to the gathering of knowledge, rather than afield of study. 2) Two Functions of Science i. Develop theoryii. Test hypotheses deduced from theory13. The Way a Scientist Works a. Empirical Approach - collect data b. Rational Approach - logical deductive reasoning14. Researcher attempts to develop theories and predict events in hopes of possibly controlling events. a. Piagets Theories - Cognitive development b. Behavior of gases - Air-conditioning, refrigeration c. Atomic Theory - Nuclear power d. Celestial Theory - Space travel, NASA, Satellites, and other technicaladvances.15. Two Types of Hypotheses a. Research Hypothesis (Alternative Hypothesis) (Symbol=Ha)1) Affirmative statement that predicts a single outcome2) Examples:i. Teaching Method A is better than Teaching Method B. ii. Cigarette smoking causes heart disease.iii. Extra curricular activities improve academic performance.iv. Computer Assisted Instruction improves academic achievement. v. Homework improves academic achievement. 9 10. b. Null Hypothesis (Symbol=Ho) 1) This hypothesis is stated negatively so that the logic of statisticalanalysis can be applied. 2) The null hypothesis is saying the difference, if any, is due tochance. 3) Rejecting the null hypothesis with a probability statement wouldsupport the research hypothesis (Ha). 4) Examples: i. There is no difference in heart disease between smokers andnonsmokers.ii. There is no difference in academic achievement betweenMethod A and Method B. iii. There is no difference in grades between CAI students andnon-CAI students. iv. There is no difference in academic achievement due toparticipation in extra curricular activities.16. Sampling Definitionsa. Population-----------------------parameterb. Sample---------------------------statisticc. Sample: a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysisd. Statistic: a value from a sample used to infer the parameters of a population17. Types of Samplesa. Simple Random Sample: every subject has an equal chance to be selectedb. Systematic Sample: every nth numberc. Stratified Random Sample: subdivide population and select sample proportionally-A random sample of each of the subgroups is done.d. Cluster Sample: most complex of all samples, used for very large groups; costly and take time. 10 11. 50 states---------------------Randomly choose 20 states. 20 states---------------------Randomly choose 80 counties. 80 counties------------------Randomly choose 50 school districts. 50 districts------------------Randomly choose 10 teachers from each of the 50 school districts. Total Sample 500 teachers e. Non-probability Sample: (Use subjects available) f. Purposive Sample: participants are chosen not by chance butintentionally to yield data for evaluation purposes18. Sample Size (Test for Beta, or use a table.) a. The larger the sample, the less error. b. The larger the s