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Download Research Paper  Quotations

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  • 1. Quotations Basic Principles

2. First Principle

  • Use sources as concisely as possible, so your own thinking isnt crowded out by your presentation of other peoples thinking, or your own voice by your quoting of other voices.
  • Mention or summarize your source, perhaps quoting occasional phrases, unless you have a good reason to paraphrase closely or quote extensively

3. Good reasons to quote:

  • Source author has made a point to clearly and concisely that it cant be expressed more clearly
  • A certain phrase or sentence in the source is particularly vivid or striking
  • An important passage is sufficiently difficult, dense, or rich
  • A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said

4. Second Principle

  • Never leave your reader in doubt as to when you are speaking and when you are using materials from a source
  • Avoid this ambiguity by citing the source immediately after using it
  • Announce the source in your own sentences or phrases preceding its appearance

5. One further rule . . .

  • Mention the nature or professional status of your source if it is distinctive
  • Describe the nature of a source that is especially authoritative or distinctive

6. Rules for Quoting General Principles 7. Quote only what you need orwhat is really striking

  • If you quote too much, you may convey the impression that you havent digested the material or that you are merely padding the length of your paper.
  • Keep your quotations under a sentence whenever possible.
  • Try to embed quotes gracefully into your sentences

8. Usually announce a quotation in the words preceding it

  • Your reader should enter the quoted passage knowing who will be speaking.
  • Withholding the identity of a source until a citation at the end of the sentence is acceptable when you invoke but do not discuss a source OR when the identity of the quoted source is much less important than, or a distraction from, what the source says

9. Dropped Quotation

  • NOT -Although the bald eagle is still listed as an endangered species, its ever-increasing population is very encouraging.The bald eagle seems to have stabilized its population, at the very least, almost everywhere (Sheppard 96).
  • Correct:Use a Signal Phrase -According to ornithologist Jay Sheppard, The bald eagle seems to have stabilized its population, at the very least, almost everywhere (96).

10. Choose your announcing verb carefully

  • Dont say Diamond states that unless you mean to imply a deliberate announcement.
  • Choose a more neutral verb such as writes, observes, suggests, remarks
  • OR Choose a verb that catches the attitude you want to convey such as protests, charges, replies, admits, or claims

11. Example

  • Original from Giving Teachers More Can Reduce Youth Violence by Stephen Goode:
  • More and more educators are viewing discipline as a kindness on the part of teachers, a necessary part of growing up, as necessary to personal growth, says Wallis (78).

12. Construct your own sentence so the quotation fits smoothly into it

  • If you must add or change a word in the quotation to make it fit into your sentence, put brackets []around the altered portion.
  • The true test of ethics is [w]hen a person does the right thing and the wrong thing would be easier (Jones n.pg.)
  • Always try to construct your sentence so that you can quote verbatim, without this cumbersome apparatus.

13. Technical Rules for Using Quotes 14. Dont automatically put a comma before a quotation

  • Quotations are not dialogue
  • Use a comma ONLY if the grammar of your sentence requires it

15. Punctuate the end of a quotation embedded in your sentence with whatever punctuation your sentence requires

  • Do not automatically use the source-authors punctuation

16. Quote Verbatim

  • Double check carefully
  • If the source passage is misspelled or ungrammatical, add in brackets after the relevant word or phrase the Latin word [sic], meaningthus , to make clear that the mistake is in the source

17. Ellipsis

  • Nonessential parts of a quotation can be cut if the overall meaning of the quotation is not changed.
  • Indicate omissions of nonessential material from a quotation by using ellipsis points, a series of three dots, within brackets.
  • Use three dots [] when cutting material within a single sentence.Use four dots []. when cutting a full sentence, a paragraph, or more than a paragraph from a quotation.

18. Example of Omitting Material

  • Original taken from article by Stephen Goode:
  • What to do? School administrators are hiring more security personnel and installing metal detectors at entrances. But more importantly, teachers' unions are urging schools to adopt strict behavior codes--and enforce them. In some places, teachers have taken disruptive students to court and persuaded judges to fine the students and their families as well as have the students expelled from school.

19. Omitting Part of A Quote

  • Now, what if you only want to usethe 2 ndsentence and themiddle partof the 4 th ?
  • Can you simply write:
  • School administrators are hiring more security personnel and installing metal detectors at entrances. Teachers have taken disruptive students to court and persuaded judges to fine the students and their families.
  • ????????

2 ndSent. Middle of 4th 20. NO!!!

  • You must show that you have omitted material between the quotation marks.
  • This is the correct way:
  • School administrators are hiring more security personnel and installing metal detectors at entrances. []. [] teachers have taken disruptive students to court and persuaded judges to fine the students and their families.

This means you have omitted one or more sentences. This means you have omitted words at the beginning of this sentence 21. A Quotation within A Quotation

  • If you are writing a direct quote that already has a direct quote in it
  • Change the double quotations to single
  • Keep the name of the original speaker
  • Put double quotation marks around all of the information you take directly from the source.

22. Parenthetical Documentation And Quotations 23. Documentation

  • As you write the first draft, you must document.
  • You will transfer the authors last name and page number from the source to your paper and enclose this information in parentheses.
  • This is calledparenthetical documentation.

24. Online Sources and Page Numbers

  • If the source is online, but is a PDF file, meaning you must use Acrobat Reader to access it, itwill most likely have page numbers .
    • It will look like a photocopy of the original page in a magazine or journal.
  • All other online sources will most likelyNOThave page numbers.

25. Online Sources and Page Numbers

  • Yes, if you print from an online source, the page you have printed will have page numbers, butthose numbers can change.
    • A quote on your page 2, if your font is at 12 pt. with 1.25 inch margins, might be on page 1 if printed from my computer set on 10 pt. font and 1 inch margins.
  • Even if the publication information tells you that the article you are looking at wasoriginallypublished on page 14, it is not on page 14 online. So you will write the abbreviation:n. pg.

26. Basically

  • Unless you can actuallySEEpage numbers on your screen while viewing a source online, you should write n. pg.
  • the state of man (Marksn. pg.).

27. No Author?

  • If the source has no author, place the title of the article or book (whatever you have listedfirston your bibliography entry) in your parentheses.
  • Forlong titles , you may abbreviate in your citation:
    • Complete title onBIB ENTRY :Giving Teachers More Can Reduce Youth Violence
    • Title inCITATION : Giving Teachers More

28. Tricky, Tricky.

  • I know your tricks!Continually referring to the 7+ words of a complete title is not an effective use of space.
  • Abbreviate very long titles, but be sure to use the first word of the original title because it is the one you will use to alphabetize the title on your Works Cited.

29. Parenthetical Documentation

  • To avoid interrupting the flow of your writing place the parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur (preferably at the end of a sentence), or near as possible to the material documented.
  • The parenthetical documentationprecedesthe punctuation mark that concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the borrowed material (except in a block quote).

30. Example:

  • A reference directly after the quotation follows the closing q