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Reproductive system physiology

Reproductive system physiologyByKhorrami [email protected] http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com

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Testis Seminiferous tubules900*50cm ..450m80% volume of testisRete testis(anastomosing tubule)Efferent ductulesEpididymis5m longHead immature spermBody.sperm maturationTail .sperm maturationVas deferens . Decapacitation Ejaculatory duct

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Spermatogenesis needsSertoliLeydigGerm cellsMyoepithelial cellsEpithelial cells

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SpermatogenesisMitosis MiosisSpermiogenesisspermiation

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Spermatogenesis Stem cellsMitosisSpermatogoniaFirst spermatocyteFirst miosisSecond spermatocyteSecond miosisSpermatidsperm

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Spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis: The production of spermatozoa in the sertoli cellsSpermiogenesis: Conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa Spermiation: Release of the spermatazoon into the lumenCapacitation: Final maturation of the spermatazoon in the female genital tract

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11SPERMATOGENESIS

SPERMATOGONIA (DIPLOID)PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES(DIPLOID)

MITOSIS

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SPERMATOGENESIS

PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES

SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES(HAPLOID)MEIOSIS I

SPERMATIDS (HAPLOID)

SPERMATOZOA (HAPLOID)MEIOSIS IISPERMIOGENESIS

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14FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM

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SERTOLI CELL

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SpermatogenesisInhibited by:ToxipholeHypokalemia

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Functions of Sertoli cellsBlood-testis barrier(sertoli-cell barrier) by tight junctionAdluminal compartmentBasal compartmentSupportive effects on germ cellsNutritive effects on germ cellsSecretions

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22FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLSSecrete ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN & LUMINAL FLUID.Secrete PARACRINE AGENTS Stimulating proliferation & differentiation.

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23Secrete the regulatory protein INHIBIN. Secrete paracrine agents: FACILITATING LEYDIG CELL FUNCTION.PHAGOCYTOSIS of defective spermSecrete MULLERIAN INHIBITING HORMONE(MIH)FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS

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Secretions of Sertoli cellsMullerian inhibitory factor (MIF)Aromatase Androgen binding protein (ABP)Inhibin Estrone/estradiol DHTGnRH-like peptideCeruloplasminPlasminogen activatorFollistatin IGF-1TGFTransferrinCytokines

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Functions of leydig cellsSteroidogenesis 8-18th week of gest.LH receptor/PRL(potentiate LH function)Testosteron ..5-7mg/dayAndrostenedione Relaxin-like factorA good marker for fully differentiated adult-type Leydig cellsWeakly expressed in prepubertal Immature Leydig cellsBy insulin-like factor 3 gene

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Relaxin-like factor 3(RLF)In estrogen-induced cryptorchidism, RLF levels in the testis are significantly reducedRLF secreted by theca cells of small antral folliclesRLF secreted by the corpus luteum of the cycle and pregnancy

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Testicular steroidogenesis

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28MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATIONHYPOTHALAMUSGONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONEANTERIOR PITUITARY

TESTESFSHLHSERTOLICELLLEYDIG CELLTESTOSTERONEINHIBINREP.TRACT& OTHER ORGANS

SPERMATOGENESIS

- ve feedback- ve feedback

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29SEMEN ANALYSISA test for infertilitySemen contain:SpermsSecretions:Seminal vesiclesProstateCowpers glandsBulbo-urethral glands

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30Volume: 2.5 to 3.5 ml/ejaculateSperm count: 100 M/ml.