Report on Baby Diaper

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<p>TABLE OF CONTENTSS.No. Topics Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract Introduction About the organization Introduction of Project Scope of study Limitation of study Introduction of Baby Diaper Market Demand India Market World Market Baby Diaper Market-2008 Main Market Players Description of Manufacturing Process Product Recipe Flow Chart of Manufacturing Process Plant Description Layout for the Baby Diaper Manufacturing Plant Machines and Productivity Raw Material Quality Control &amp; Standards Packing Specifications Manpower Requirement Costing Plant and Machinery Suppliers Procedure for using the Baby Diaper Products Page No. ii iii iv 1 1 2 2 3 4 10 10 12 16 17 19 19 21 22 23 25 26 27 29 29 29 31 36</p> <p>11.1 1.2 1.3 1.4</p> <p>2 33.1 3.2 3.3 3.4</p> <p>44.1 4.2</p> <p>5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14</p> <p>IntroductionAbout the OrganizationKamtech Associates Private Limited is established in 1997, Kamtech has earned professional repute in providing value added consulting services and solutions with the enhanced customer's satisfaction. With varied domain expertise, international experience with world leading companies and wide network of international alliance partners, they offer clients cost effective high fidelity total consulting solutions that are fined and tuned to each clients specific requirement to face the growing global business challenges. Kamtech is the first Knowledge Processing Company (KPO) in the Rajasthan state, head quartered in Jaipur. It has now spread its wings across the continents to offer world class dedicated Knowledge Processing Services through its sprawling 24 x 7 operational most modern development centre. It is an ISO 9001:2000 certified leading total solution provider consultancy company. In their development centre, there expert professionals provide round the clock services.</p> <p>About CEO of the CompanyAjay Kumar Gupta, a meritorious Mechanical Engineer with management qualifications, is the promoter of Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Gupta has also joined in as consortium partner with leading consultancy companies like Dastur Co, WSP International, and Black &amp; Veatch in the various infrastructure projects in Rajasthan. He is also the founder member and Honorable NGO in Rajasthan in IT, knowledge and entrepreneurship development sector. Secretary of</p> <p>Foundation of Information &amp; Technology Transfer Society, first</p> <p>2</p> <p>Services Offered by Kamtech Associates Pvt. Ltd. Customized Software Module Developments, IT Outsourcing &amp; Consultancy Services, Offshore Development, ERP Software Development and Implementation, Software Requirement Studies &amp; Documentation, Process Mapping, Website / Portal Development, Web Promotion, e-Commerce Solutions, Corporate Training in ERP and other knowledge areas, Project Management, Feasibility Studies, Detailed Project Reports, Policy Research, Quality Checks, Evaluations and Software Quality Testing, CAD/CAM and Engineering Services, Documentation &amp; Implementations of best practices like ISO 9001, CMMI and TQM etc.</p> <p>Introduction of the Project:This report has been made for a South African investor Mr. Somnath Poojary, who wants to establish a Baby Diaper Plant. The project demands for a thorough study of market demand of baby diaper in India as well as in World and main market players of this particular product. The project also includes manufacturing process, raw material required for manufacturing of baby diaper, plant layout, manpower required. The quality control &amp; standards required and costing of the project.</p> <p>Scope of Study: As more and more women starts working, so the market of Baby Diaper is huge because of the lesser time they will give to their child. Also the living standards of people are growing on a rapid pace. They will spend more money for baby care products.</p> <p>3</p> <p> Increase in population will also reflect the increase of sale in baby diaper. In India only 2% children of the total population are using baby diaper. It predicts a huge scope of baby diaper. Similarly in other countries also except US where the 95.5% children wear baby diaper.</p> <p>Limitations of Study: Unavailability of Relevant Data: As this project report based on secondary data so the data available on internet was not in detail and this has been the main limitation of this report. Time Constraint: As the time limit for my project was fixed and lots of components were there to be analyzed, As time needed for this report was much more than available, so I was not able to study and analyze each component to utmost depth possible. Selective study: There are lots of baby diaper companies in the baby care product industry each having too many products. So it was not possible for me to analyze all the data of each company. So I concentrated on few major players in the market. . Rely On Secondary Sources: As per the policies, baby Diaper Company did not gave the information to unauthorized persons. So I was not able to access primary source and I had to rely on secondary sources.</p> <p>4</p> <p>2.0 Introduction of Baby Diaper :Diapers are personal hygiene products engineered to absorb and contain urine and faeces of a baby. They are placed and fastened around babys legs and bottom to form a leak proof seal, preventing contamination of babys clothes. The history of diapers is a story of continuous design improvements and development of new materials. The main duty requirements of diapers are : The device should be comfortable for the baby It should be easy to place and remove on the baby It should have the capacity to absorb urine and semisolid stool It should be capable of being wrapped without spilling contents on removal It should be disposable and affordable It should be of such inert materials as will not affect babys delicate skin Types of Baby Diapers </p> <p>Teen baby diaper, Boy baby diaper, Baby napkin, Big baby diaper, Newborn diaper, Paper diaper, Disposable baby diapers, Girl baby diaper and cotton baby diaper etc.u e ie t o e n ia e is o y A quick review to diaper H istory before 1960 A q ickr v wa m d r d p rh t rM aria A llen1870 First M ass Production O f cloth diapers</p> <p>Inventors of SAP Billy Gene Harper Carlyle Harmon1966 Vic Mills 1961Fluff replaced Tissue1972</p> <p>Leg Cuffs 19861978 Hourglass Shape </p> <p>Modern Diaper 2005</p> <p>1949 First pin free diaper</p> <p>Marion Donovan 1946</p> <p>G eorgeShroder 949 1</p> <p>Figure 1 Stages of Development of Baby Diapers</p> <p>5</p> <p>2.1 General Baby Diaper specification and weight details are as follows: Series S M L Xl Min sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff sap fluff Max 10 13 16 19 Product 7 14 9 18 11 22 13 26 Length /Width 405mm 450mm 485mm 500mm Product 290mm 315mm 335mm 350mm weight 18-29g 22-36g 28-45g 32-52g</p> <p>Table 1: General Baby Diaper Specification and weight Details</p> <p>2.2 Baby Diaper:</p> <p>Figure 2: Baby Diaper</p> <p>2.3 Most baby diapers are made with the following basic components: 1) Polyethylene or cloth-like film: This is used as the back sheet that prevents the liquids from leaking out of the diaper. The back-sheet can also be given a cloth-like look, by adding 6</p> <p>a thin polypropylene non-woven sheet to the film, using either the hot melt process or the heat and pressure method. 2) Tissue: A special tissue paper that is different from the regular bathroom tissue and has a higher elasticity and wet strength is another important component of a diaper. The tissue essentially serves as a carrier for the pad (the pad is the absorbent core of the diaper) and helps reduce the pin holes created during the compression process carried out by continuous drum forming systems. 3) Hot Melts: They are used to glue the different components of the diaper, such as the pad and the elastics. They are made of a mixture of resins and oils. The hot melt adhesive is applied in molten form and when it cools down it provides the required bonding force to glue the materials. 4) Hydrophobic Non-woven: It is used as a top sheet for the leg cuffs; it prevents water from passing through. It is made of polypropylene resin without any added surface surfactants. The hydrophobic nonwoven prevents leakage out of diaper. By applying a surfactant to a restricted area, it is possible to make a roll of hydrophobic nonwoven only partially philic. 5) Hydrophilic Non-woven: It is the main top sheet, the top surface that is in contact with the baby's skin. It allows the liquids to flow into the diaper core. The difference between the two non-wovens (philic and phobic) is the surfactant treatment used in the process. 6) Elastics: Used to improve the fit of the diaper, usually made of polyurethane or polyester foam, synthetic rubber or Lycra (also known with the generic name Spandex). They are used in cuffs, for the waist and the legs; they can also be used as lateral side panels and in tape construction. 7) Lateral Tapes: In premium diapers, Velcro type materials have been used to provide mechanical grip, it is also known as the "hook tape". In lower priced diapers, adhesive tapes 7</p> <p>made of polypropylene are used. Then there are new versions of elasticized Nonwoven Velcro Tapes. 8) Frontal Tapes: This is used to facilitate multiple repositioning of the lateral tape without tearing the back-sheet, it is made of polypropylene film and attached to the front of the diaper with adhesive. Its use has helped to reduce the thickness of the poly film without the risk of potential tears associated with the opening of the lateral tapes from the back-sheet. 9) Cellulose: Used in the construction of the pad, it gives integrity and absorbing capacity to the diaper. The capacity of normal cellulose pulp is around 10 cc of water per gram of pulp when the diaper is in "free swell". 10) Acquisition and Distribution Layer: Also known with itsFigure 4: Cellulose Figure 3: Polypropylene film in Baby Diaper</p> <p>abbreviation ADL, it is a sub layer used between the top sheet and the absorbent core. Sometimes used in full length but mostly preferred as a patch near the target zone where urine is most likely to be deposited. 11) Sodium Poly-acrylate: Also known as super-absorbent or "SAP" (super absorbent polymer), Kimberly Clark used to call it SAM (super absorbent material). It is typically used in fine granular form (like table salt). It helps improve capacity for better retention in a disposable diaper, allowing the product to be thinner with improved performance and less usage of pine fluff pulp.</p> <p>12) Top Sheet surface add-on lotions: In order to create novelties for product differentiation, several topical lotions are added to the nonwoven top sheet, among others:</p> <p>8</p> <p>Aloe Vera, Vitamin E, Petrolatum, Almond Oil, Vitamin D, Oat Extract, Jojoba, etc. There is another trend to use antibacterial lotions (such as tertiary ammonia or silver salt compounds). However, many pediatricians are against its use for obvious reasons. 13) Decorated Films and wetness indicators: For even greater product differentiation, some diapers use decorated films underneath the cloth-like back-sheet. Some use as many as nine inks with all kinds of well known characters such as Disney, Sesame Street, Soccer teams, etc. Another gimmick they use is a wetness indicator. This is typically used for adult products but some baby diapers also use it. 2.4 Facts &amp; Figures:</p> <p>An average diaper weighs between 45 and 50 g and is primarily made of pulp (fluff pulp), polypropylene, polyethylene, super absorbent polymer (SAP), as well as minor amounts of tapes, elastics and adhesive materials.</p> <p>Nowadays, SAP is used in the diaper core to help hold urine away from the skin and faecal enzymes. This helps prevent the conditions that lead to diaper rash. The health benefits of modern diapers based on SAP and other advanced technologies provide advantages in skin care, dryness, and leakage protection.</p> <p>There are several methods used to control the quality of disposable diapers, and most of these relate to the product's absorbency. In the diaper product development area, each major component is tested separately to assess safety under conditions that are appropriate to the potential exposures consumers.</p> <p>Approximately 75% of the superabsorbent polymers used worldwide are sold in diaper products from five major companies. These manufactures include Proctor &amp; Gamble (P&amp;G), Kimberly-Clark, and other diaper manufacturers.</p> <p>The global market for disposable diapers is $20 billion annually. Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), materials comprising long chains of intertwining molecules with the happy ability to soak up lots of liquid, now dominate the disposable diaper market. 9</p> <p>Growth for baby diapers is considerably higher in other parts of the world, particularly in Asia but also in Latin America and Africa. In Europe, approximately 25% of the market for baby diapers consists of retailers brands.</p> <p>In the United States, Proctor &amp; Gamble is a well-known diaper manufacturer, which produces the popular Pampers diaper. The superabsorbent polymer used in the Pampers diaper holds approximately thirty times its own weight in body fluid.</p> <p>The P&amp;G Corporation developed a unique three-piece construction diaper to absorb the moisture and distribute it evenly. The transmission of fluid to the absorbent core allows the fluid to be engulfed, therefore not passing it back to the skin. P&amp;G diapers are now sold in more than 80 countries worldwide with $4 billion in sales.</p> <p>2.5 Mathematical Models for Disposable Diaper Manufacturing To set up the most economical design for a given diaper market segment, it requires the use of sophisticated statistical tools and plenty of field data on diaper use. Most diaper producers rely on simple trial and error for defining the right mix of absorbing materials; some other companies try to copy the performance of a larger competitor without taking into account the individual diaper features. The result is either a misuse of the materials or underperformance of the diaper. The fact of the matter is that even small changes in the core mix can result in significant changes in leakage performance. The correlation between diaper leakage and diaper cost is not linear; most of the times it is a polynomial equation(*). In order to be able to optimize the cost of the diaper for a given market segment, one need to understand the mathematical correlation between diaper performance and diaper cost. For each diaper design there is a corresponding mathematical formula that can be optimized to improve diaper performance without increasing its cost. . Example of a mathematical correlation between % of leakage (Y) and total retentive capacity at 5 KPa (X) for a mid-market segment diaper. Using this equation in conjunction with variable cost, enables to maximize performance at a given cost level when use this very specific diaper design: 3.0 Market Scenario: According to the survey (2003) on both the domestic and overseas markets conducted by the Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan, the world averages some...</p>