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Re n De sca rtes (1596 -16 50 ) A major proponent in the scientific revolution MATHEMATICS Invented the Cartesian coordinates MECHANICS, COSMOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY Furthered the advancement of these sciences PHILOSOPHY Dualism between body and soul
Du ali st M etap hy sics His view about mans body and soul is somehow the same as that of Platos The presence of an absolute distinction between those who have incorporeal souls and those who do not have Between all men and all animals (brutes) Absolute distinction BRUTES bodily machines having no rationality and sensation Supported by two tests proving that ONLY men are rational soul USE OF LANGUAGE ALL-ROUND NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE
Animals have no intelligence and rationality as that of man, therefore they are not capable of communicati on through which man is understood.
Consci ou sn ess and Du alis m Our senses tend to deceive us, leading us to imagine of different things since our senses tend to deceive us, we have the tendency to imagine things the imagination of things, which may not always be true, is a reaction to the action made by the senses
Everything that passes through the mind is not truer than the illusions while dreaming The one who is thinking must be something I am thinking, therefore I exist. First principle Descartes was seeking
Man has the tendency to misinterpret the actions of the senses, thus resulting to his imagination of things that may or may not exist in the real world.
Consci ou sn ess and Du alis m Man is a substance and his essence (nature) is to be conscious His being does not require place and does not depend on any material object
The rational soul is entirely different from the material body The material object (body) and the formal object (soul) are two different things and each is understood on an idea different from that of the other
Even if the body is absent, the soul remains to be present as it is The soul does not cease to exist even if the material object, which is the body, is not present
The soul and the body are two different things and mans being does not depend on any material object (body). The absence of the body does not affect the existence of the soul. The soul continues to live even if the body is not there to serve as the
Lan gu age an d Ration ality 2 means identifying the authentic man Machines are unable to communicate using words or other constructed signs Machines actions are not caused by their knowledge but by the disposition of their organs ORGANS in need of special arrangement for each special action Impossible for machines to act to different circumstances of life because ONLY reason, that is only present in man, allows us to do such
Lan gu age an d Ration ality Man can make use of words by arranging them to form a sentence to express their thought and be understood. No brute (animal) can do such not because they lack organs (e.g. parrots, magpies) They can talk but they are unaware of what they say
Brutes come up with signs to be understood by those who are with them and by those who have the chance to learn their language A very small amount of reason is needed in order to talk and express ideas
Man is created with the capability to speak and communicate with the rest of his species. Only species like him is being gifted with the intelligence to arrange words and compose a sentence that may express his ideas and emotions. Animals and machines, on the other hand, does not posses the reason and intelligence in order to speak. Although in some cases, like those pf the parrots, they only imitate what they hear but they do not have the
Lan gu age an d Ration ality It is inappropriate to compare a brute and a man because each is a different human organism created with distinct faculties and senses Natural movements (expressions of emotions) can be imitated by machines and by brutes and should not be misunderstood Man must not think that brutes can talk, only that we do not understand them, because reason is required in order to do such Nature that which acts in animals with accordance to the arrangements of their organs Each has a whole different nature from the other and should not be compared and weighed against
Man and animals are not ought to be compared because each is being created entirely different from the other.
THE RATIONAL SOUL cannot be extracted from the potentiality of matter.
The soul cannot be measured in terms of the capacity of the material object.The soul is specially created and it is not enough that it resides in a human body.
To have feelings and appetite, the soul and the body must be united more closely.
When the material object dies, the soul does not die with it.There are no causes by which the soul can be destroyed, therefore it is IMMORTAL.