rene descartes (1596-1650)

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Rene Descartes (1596-1650). French Rationalist philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer who spent most of his adult life in Holland. . Rationalism / Empiricism. Basic Ideas of Descartes’ Philosophy. Biography / Bibliography Method’s problem Rules of method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Who am I? Someone who is able to think!

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)French Rationalist philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer who spent most of his adult life in Holland.

1M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia1Rationalism / EmpiricismRationalismEmpiricism Knowledge OriginReasonExperienceBest MethodDeductionInductionSciences ModelMathM. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia2

Basic Ideas of Descartes PhilosophyBiography / BibliographyMethods problemRules of methodApplying method: provisional morality.Reality structure: dualism of substances AnthropologyOther Rationalists: Leibniz, Spinoza, MalebrancheM. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia3

http://www.fotolog.comBiography.

1596 : born at La Haye near Tours, France1606-14 He attends Jesuit College of La Fleche in Anjou, really good math teachers and he was a good talented math student.1616 Descartes takes doctor of law at University of Poitiers1618 He goes to Holland and joins the army of Prince Maurice of Nassau 4M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia41619 He travels in Germany; on 10 November in Ulm has dream of a unified scientific system based on mathematics1622 He returns to France, during next few years spends time in Paris, but also travels in Europe1628 (or 29) He composes Rules for the Direction of Mind

5M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia51628 Descartes distinguished himself in a confrontation with Chandoux, who claimed that all science is based on probability while Descartes claimed that only certainty could be the basis of human knowledge and that he had a method for attaining certainty. 1628 Descartes leaves for Holland which is to be his home until 1649

6M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia61633 The condemnation of Galileo leads Descartes to abandon 1635 The birth of Descartes daughter, named Francine1637 Descartes publishes Discourse on Method, with Optics, Meterology and the Geometry1642 Descartes meets Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia

7M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia71643 Cartesian philosophy condemned at the University of Utrecht1644 Visits France.1647 Descartes is awarded a pension by the King of France.1649 He goes to Sweden on invitation of Queen Christina; the Passions of the Soul published1650 11 February: dies in Stockholm

8M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia8Bibliography 1637 Discourse on the MethodRules for the Direction of the MindDioptrique(theOptics) Meteors(theMeteorology)Le Monde(The World) Traite de l'homme(Treatise on Man)Meditations on First Philosophy Principles of PhilosophyThe GeometryThe Passions of the SoulThe Correspondence between Elisabeth, Princess of Bohemia and Descartes

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia9

Methods ProblemM. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia10Nothing is more fairly distributed than common sense: no one thinks he needs more of it than he already has. Discourse on Method

Common sense is the most fairly distributed thing in the world, for each one thinks he is so well-endowed with it that even those who are hardest to satisfy in all other matters are not in the habit of desiring more of it than they already have. Discourse on MethodMethods ProblemHow do I know that what I know is truth?How can I be sure of my knowledge?After so many mistakes, which method (path) could be the most secure to obtain knowledge without the shadow of a doubt?

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia11http://breakiingdawn92.blogspot.com11Rules of the methodAccept as true only what isindubitable. EVIDENCE Divide every question into manageable parts. ANALYSIS Begin with the simplest issues and ascend to the more complex. SYNTHESIS Review frequently enough to retain the whole argument at once. ENUMERATION

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia12Appling the method: moralityProvisional Morality, a few rules The first was to obey the laws and customs of my country, holding constantly to the religion in which by God's grace I had been instructed from my childhood. The second maxim was to be as firm and decisive in my actions as I could, and to follow even the most doubtful opinions, once I had adopted them, with no less constancy than if they had been quite certain. My third maxim was to try always to master myself rather than fortune, and to change my desires rather than the order of the world. Finally, to conclude this moral code I thought I could do no better than to continue with the [occupation] I was engaged in, and to devote my whole life to cultivating my reason and advancing as far as I could in the knowledge of the truth, following the method I had prescribed for myself (Discourse) M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia13Applying method

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia14If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things. R. Osborne and R. Edner, Philosophy for beginners. 14Rationalism: Descartes PhilosophyIf I am able to doubt, therefore it is not true.Doubt as a method.

15M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia15Mathematical axioms: not true.Internal brain information: not trueI can only be sure that I think: I am a person who thinks, that is what I am.My reason is my only guide.

16M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia16IS THE BRAIN IN THE WORLD OR THE WORLD IN THE BRAIN?

17M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia17

Ren Franois Ghislain Magritte (18981967) Belgian surrealist artist; 18M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia18Reality structure: dualism

Though substance: spiritual substanceOntological argument, there is a eternal substance: GodGod is the guaranty of material existence of the universe: mechanical laws. Mechanic material substance M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia19Except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power. Discourse on MethodR. Osborne and R. Edner, Philosophy for beginners. Anthropology: dualism Soul: rex cogitansBody: rex extensa (mechanical mater) Pineal Gland: connection between both.

Western Dualism is mainly based on this conception of the universe and human beings.

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia20http://misteriosenlaweb.blogspot.com

B. Spinoza (1.632-1.677)Jew /Spanish / HolandSubstance, attributes and modes: Pantheist, pan-atheist, or atheist?Ethical philosophy: Spinoza's Ethics (mathematical ethics)Spinoza's political theorySpinoza's religious criticism

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia21

http://myjuryduty.netG. Leibniz (1.646-1.716)Monads: substance.Pre existence harmony: Gods creation following rational principles. Theodicy and optimismSymbolic thought: universal language, formal logic and Math Invented (with Newton) ofinfinitesimal calculus(differential and integral calculus)

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia22http://filosofia.laguia2000.comNicolas Malebranche(16381715)French catholic rationalist philosopher.Dualism:I am unable, when I turn to myself, to recognize any of my faculties or my capacities. The inner sensation which I have of myself informs me that I am, that I think, that Iwill, that I havesensory awareness, that Isuffer, and so on; but it provides me with noknowledgewhatever ofwhatI am - of the nature of mythought, my sensations, mypassions, or mypain- or the mutual relations that obtain between all these things [...] I have no idea whatever of my soul. Dialogues on MetaphysicsBlaise Pascal(1623 1662)Frenchmathematician,Catholicphilosopher

M. Torres History of Western Philosophy. IES Campo San Alberto, Noia23

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