rene descarte 1596-1650

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RENE DESCARTE 1596-1650. BORN IN LA HAYE, FRANCE LIVED AT THE SAME TIME AS GALILEO KNOWN AS THE “FATHER OF PHILOSOPHY” HE “DISMISSED” ARISTOTILEAN IDEAS AS “INCOMPREHENSIBLE” AND HE RARELY MENTIONED HIM. MATHEMATICIAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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RENE DESCARTE1596-1650BORN IN LA HAYE, FRANCELIVED AT THE SAME TIME AS GALILEOKNOWN AS THE FATHER OF PHILOSOPHYHE DISMISSED ARISTOTILEAN IDEAS AS INCOMPREHENSIBLE AND HE RARELY MENTIONED HIM.MATHEMATICIANHE REASONED THAT THE SPACE OF THE GEOMETERS WAS THE SPACE OF THE REAL WORLDHE MAINTAINED THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS INFINITE AND UNIFORMLY DENSE. HE CALLED IT THE CARTESIAN UNIVERSE.THE CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM IS NAMED IN HONOR OF HIS CARTESIAN UNIVERSE.HE DEVELOPED ANALYTICAL GEOMETRYPHYSICISTHE ARGUED THAT SPACE AND MATTER WERE IDENTICAL AND THE IDEA OF VACUUM WAS ABSURD.MOTION IS WHAT DIFFERENTIATED OBJECTS.THE SUN WAS JUST ANOTHER STARTHE PLANETS WERE KEPT IN THEIR ORBITS BY FORCES CAUSED BY THEIR INTERACTION WITH SPACE

DESCARTETHE DIFFICULTY WITH THE WIDER APPLICATION OF THE METHOD OF THE GEOMETER WAS THAT GEOMETRICAL REASONING BEGAN FROM ESTABLISHED TRUTHS, WHEREAS, IN EVERY DAY LIFE, PEOPLE TOOK FOR TRUE WHAT MAY IN FACT HAVE BEEN MISTAKEN ASSUMPTIONS THAT THEY HAD ADOPTED IN CHILDHOOD AND HAD UNTHINKINGLY ACCEPTED EVER SINCE.DESCARTES SOLUTION TO DETERMINING WHAT WAS FACTUAL WAS TO DOUBT EVERYTHING, REASONING THAT TRUE FACTS COULD STAND THE SCRUTINY.HE EVEN DOUBTED HIS OWN EXISTANCE UNTIL HE REASONED THAT, IF HE DIDNT EXIST HE WOULDNT BE ABLE TO THINK. HENCE HIS STATEMENT, I THINK, THEREFORE I AM. HE ALSO REASONED THAT GOD EXISTED.SIR FRANCIS BACON1561-1626BORN IN LONDON1ST VICOUNT OF ST. ALBANPHILOSOPHERSTATESMANLAWYERJURISTAUTHORKNIGHTED IN 1603

FRANCIS BACONPRIMARILY REMEMBERED AS THE DEVELOPER OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHODFOUNDED THE NEW ATLANTIS FOUNDATION OF SCIENCEKNOWN FOR HIS PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF SCIENCE

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIESACCADEMIA DEI LINCEI (ITALY)Founded in 1603 by Federico CesiNAMED AFTER THE LYNX BECAUSE IT HAD SHARP VISIONGALILEO WAS A MEMBERACCADEMIA DEL CIMENTO (ITALY)FOUNDED IN 1657 BY STUDENTS OF GALILEOFUNDED BY GRAND DUKE FERDINANDO II DE MEDICIEXPERIMENTALISTSCREATED STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENTROYAL SOCIETY (ENGLAND)FOUNDED IN 1660CHARTERED BY CHARLES IICALLED THE INVISIBLE COLLEGEMET IN HOMES AND AT GRESHAM COLLEGEALONG WITH THE CURRENT U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, THE MOST PRESTIGIOUS SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY IN THE WORLDACADEMIE DES SCIENCES (FRANCE)ESTABLISHED IN 1666FOUNDED BY LOUIS XIV AT THE SUGGESTION OF JEAN BATISTE COLBERT

WILLIAM GILBERT1544-1603PROFESSIONALLY HE WAS A PHYSICIANIN ON THE MAGNET HE ARGUED THAT THE EARTH IS A MAGNETHE ARGUED, CORRECTLY, THAT THE CENTER OF THE EARTH WAS IRONHE MAINTAINED THAT THE MAGNETIC FORCE OF THE SUN ON THE PLANETS KEPT THEM IN MOTIONTHE GILBERT, A UNIT OF MAGNETISM, IS NAMED FOR HIMHE ORIGINATED THE TERM ELECTRICITYHE WAS A STAUNCH COPERNICAN

ROBERT HOOKE1635-1703A RENAISSANCE MAN CAPABLE IN PHYSICS, MATH, ASTRONOMY AND PHILOSPHYPROFESSIONALLY AN ARCHITECTHE COLLABORATED WITH CHRISTOPHER WREN IN REBUILDING LONDON AFTER THE GREAT FIRE OF 1666A ROYALIST AND CHURCHMAN WHO MAINTAINED THAT SCIENCE AND THE BIBLE SHOULD AGREE IF BOTH WERE INTERPRETED CORRECTLY. HE FOUGHT WITH CHURCHMEN WHO CLAIMED THAT THE BIBLE TAUGHT A STATIONARY EARTH. BACON HAD INTRODUCED THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD NEARLY A CENTURY EARLIER.PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY AT GRESHAM COLLEGE, THEN OXFORDCURATOR OF EXPERIMENTS FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETYPROFESSOR OF GEOMETRY AT GRESHAMHIS SQUABBLES WITH NEWTON ARE SAID TO HAVE LED TO NEWTONS FAILING TO PRESERVE ANY PORTRAITS OF HIM. THE ONE ON THE RIGHT IS A MODERN RENDITION (2004)HE WAS AN EARLY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY

HOOKES ACCOMPLISHMENTSHOOKES LAW OF ELASTICITY F = -kx, , If you pull on an elastic member with a force F it will stretch an amount x where k is the spring constant.THE ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM FOR A WATCH HE HAD A BITTER DISPUTE WITH CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS OVER THE RIGHTS TO IT.ASSISTED ROBERT BOYLE (OF BOYLES LAW, PV=K) , IN FACT HE MAY HAVE DEVELOPED THE MATHEMATICS FOR BOYLES LAWDEVELOPED AN AIR PUMP FOR BOYLES EXPERIMENTSTHE EFFECT OF CAPILLARY ACTION

HOOKES CONTRIBUTIONS TO PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMYALL CELESTIAL BODIES ATTRACT THEMSELVES AND OTHER CELESTIAL BODIESTHIS FORCE WAS EITHER INVERSE OR INVERSE SQUARE HE WAS PARTIAL TO THE INVERSE SQUARE AS LIGHT INTENSITY VARIES WITH THE INVERSE SQUARE OF THE DISTANCE.ALL BODIES IN MOTION WILL CONTINUE IN MOTION UNLESS A DEFLECTING FORCE IS APPLIED

HOOKES STATEMENTS ON GRAVITY"I will explain," says Hooke, in a communication to the Royal Society in 1666, "a system of the world very different from any yet received. It is founded on the following positions. 1. That all the heavenly bodies have not only a gravitation of their parts to their own proper centre, but that they also mutually attract each other within their spheres of action. 2. That all bodies having a simple motion, will continue to move in a straight line, unless continually deflected from it by some extraneous force, causing them to describe a circle, an ellipse, or some other curve. 3. That this attraction is so much the greater as the bodies are nearer. As to the proportion in which those forces diminish by an increase of distance, I own I have not discovered it...."MORE ON THE HOOKE/NEWTON CONTROVERSY"One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".HOOKES ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONSIN 1669 HE CLAIMED (ERRONEOUSLY) TO HAVE DETERMINED THE STELLAR PARALLAX OF GAMMA DRACONIS. FLAMSTEED ALSO THOUGHT HE MEASURED IT.ABOUT 65 YEARS LATER WILLIAM BRADLEY DISCOVERED THE ABERRATION OF STARLIGHT BY STUDYING THE SAME STAR.HE DISCOVERED ONE OF THE FIRST DOUBLE STAR SYSTEMS, GAMMA ARIETIS, IN 1664

CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS1629-1695BORN IN THE HAGUEEXPERTISEMathematicianAstronomerPhysicistHorologistWriter of early science fiction

HUYGENSMEMBER OF BOTH THE FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND THE ROYAL SOCIETYINDIVIDUAL ACCOMPLISHMENTSINTRODUCED THE WAVE THEORY OF LIGHTDESCRIBED THE QUALITIES OF CRYSTALS CALLED BI-REFRINGENCE (DOUBLE REFRACTION) AND SHOWED HOW IT DESCRIBED POLARIZED LIGHTINVENTED THE PENDULUM CLOCKDEVELOPED THE EXPRESSION, T = 2(L/g)1/2, GIVING THE PERIOD OF A PENDULUM INVENTED AN ESCAPEMENT MECHANISM FOR A WATCH (CHRONOMETER) (DISPUTED WITH HOOKE OVER WHOSE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IT WAS)DESIGNED AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE RUN BY GUN POWDER: HOWEVER, HE NEVER ACTUALLY BUILT ONE.

HUYGENSHUYGENS DESCRIPTION OF CENTRIPETAL FORCE: F = mv2/rACCORDING TO KEPLERS 3RD LAW, P2=a3. IF ONE HAS A CIRCULAR ORBIT P = circ/v = 2r/v.SO P2 = (const x r2/v2) = r3This implies v2 = const/rTherefore F = m x const /r2This implies that the force obeys the inverse square law

HUYGENS TELESCOPETUBELESS ONLY STRINGSNEEDED VERY LONG FOCAL LENGTH AS LENSES WERE NOT VERY RELIABLE AT THERE EDGES SO THEY USED ONLY THE PARAXIAL RAYSPROBLEM WAS THAT AMBIENT LIGHT INTERFERED WITH THE OBSERVATIONS

HUYGENS TELESCOPIC DISCOVERIESSATURNS RING IN 1655"a thin, flat ring, nowhere touching, and inclined to the ecliptic."SATURNS MOON TITAN IN 1659USING A 50 POWER TELESCOPETHE ORION NEBULAIN 1661 HE OBSERVED A TRANSIT OF MERCURY ACROSS THE FACE OF THE SUN.

ORION NEBULA

HUYGENSIN 1695, JUST BEFORE HE DIED HE PROPOSED THE EXISTENCE OF EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL LIFEHE POSTULATED THAT WATER WOULD HAVE DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DIFFERENT PLANETSHE CLAIMED THAT HE SAW DARK AND BRIGHT SPOTS ON MARS AND JUPITER SUGGESTING THAT WATER EXISTED THERE.JOHANNES HEVELIUS1611-1687

BOHEMIAN/GERMAN LIVED IN DANZIGA BEER BREWER , HE BREWED THE FAMOUS JOPENBIERA COUNCILMAN IN DANZIGCHIEF INTEREST WAS ASTRONOMYHEVELIUS TELESCOPEIN 1641 HE BUILT AN OBSERVATORY ON THE ROOFS OF HIS THREE CONNECTED HOUSESHE BUILT A LARGE 45 METER FOCAL LENGTH KEPLERIAN TELESCOPE WITH A WOOD AND WIRE TUBE.FIRST GERMAN MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETYCHARTED THE LUNAR SURFACEDISCOVERED THE MOONS LIBRATION IN LONGITUDE

HEVELIUS ACCOMPLISHMENTSCHARTED THE LUNAR SURFACEDISCOVERED THE MOONS LIBRATION IN LONGITUDEDISCOVERED FOUR COMETSPROPOSED THAT COMETS ORBIT THE SUN IN PARABOLIC ORBITSDESCRIBED 10 NEW CONSTELLATIONS, SEVEN OF WHICH ARE STILL RECOGNIZEDLAST ASTRONOMER TO OBSERVED WITHOUT A TELESCOPEHOOKE HAD SENT HALLEY TO CONVINCE HEVELIUS TO USE HIS A TELESCOPE TO DO HIS OBSERVATIONSHEVELIUS DECLINED SAYING THAT NAKED-EYE OBSERVATIONS WERE SUFFICIENT LEADING TO A CONTROVERSY WITH HOOKE.HIS LUNAR MAP

JOHANNES HEVELIUSHIS OBSERVATORY AND BOOKS WERE DESTROYED BY ARSON IN 1679HE REBUILT THE DAMAGE AND NAMED THE CONSTELLATION SEXTANS IN MEMORY OF HIS LOST INSTRUMENTS.IN 1683 KING JOHN III SOBIESKIS FORCES WON THE BATTLE OF VIENNA. HE NAMED THE CONSTELLATION SCUTUM SOBIESCIANUM (SOBIESKIS SHIELD)ITS CALLED SCUTUM NOW.GIOVANNI DOMENICO CASSINI1625-1712ITALIAN/FRENCH ASTRONOMER, BORN IN THE REPUBLIC OF GENOAPROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNADIRECTOR OF THE PARIS OBSERVATORY UNDER LOUIS XIVSERVED AS ASTROLOGER TO LOUIS XIV

CASSINIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO ASTRONOMYFIRST TO OBSERVE FOUR OF SATURNS MOONS INCLUDING IAPETUS WHICH SHOWS VARIATIONS IN BRIGHTNESS HE CORRECTLY ASCRIBED TO DARK MATERIAL IN ONE HEMISPHEREHE DISCOVERED THE GAP IN SATURNS RINGS WHICH WE CALL CASSINIS DIVISION TODAY.SHARES CREDIT WITH HOOKE FOR DISCOVERING JUPITERS GREAT RED SPOTSUCCESSFULLY MEASURED MARS PARALLAX (WITH ASSOCIATE JEAN RICHER) FIRST DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE TRUE DIMENSIONS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMFIRST TO USE JUPITERS MOONS AS A CLOCK IN CALCULATING LONGITUDE ON THE EARTHHIS MEASUREMENT OF LONGITUDE ALLOWED HIM TO DETERMINE THE TRUE SIZE OF FRANCE FOR THE FIRST TIME.THE CASSINI DIVISION ON SATURN

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