Reindeer Herding, Traditional Knowledge, & Adaptation to Climate Change & Loss of Grazing Land

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Final Report of the EALAT project to the Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group. Published by the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry and the Association of World Reindeer Herders

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  • A PART OF THE IPY EALT CONSORTIUM. THE EALT PROJECT (IPY # 399), REINDEER HERDERS VULNERABILITY NETWORK STUDY: REINDEER PASTORALISM IN A CHANGING

    CLIMATE. AN ARCTIC COUNCIL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WORKING GROUP PROJECT LED BY NORWAY AND ASSOCIATION OF WORLD REINDEER HERDERS (WRH).

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR REINDEER HUSBANDRYPB 109, N-9520 KAUTOKEINOPHONE +47 7860 7670FAX +47 7960 7671OFFICE@REINDEERCENTRE.ORG

    WWW.REINDEERPORTAL.ORG / WWW.EALAT.ORG

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  • Ole Henrik Magga, Svein D. Mathiesen, Robert W. Corell, Anders Oskal (eds)Contributing authors: Rasmus Benestad, Mathis P. Bongo, Philip Burgess, Anna Degteva, Vladimir Etylen,Inger Marie G. Eira, Ravdna Biret Marja Eira, Ole Isak Eira, Nils Isak Eira, Eirik Frland, ChristianJaedicke, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Dagrun V. Schuler, Ditte Hendrichsen, David Griffiths, Jennifer Gebelein,E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Vladimir Kryazhkov, Roza Laptander, Anne-Maria Magga, Nancy G. Maynard, Lars Moe, Christian Nellemann, Eli R. Nergrd, Helena Omma, Nils Oskal, yvind Ravna, Mikhail Pogodaev, Kirsti E. Prsteng, Erik Reinert, Monica A. Sundset, Ellen Inga. Turi, Johan Mathis Turi,Elna Sara, Mikkel Nils Sara, Nicholas J. C. Tyler, Ingunn I. Vistnes and Mattias hren.

    Front cover photo by Ellen Inga Turi: Young nenets reindeer herder Vita Seretetto, Brigade 8 in YamalNenets AO, Russia, expressing that reindeer herding is a human coupled ecosystem.

    Layout / printing: Fagtrykk Id AS, Alta, Norway

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    A project led by Norway and Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) in Arctic Council, Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG).

    Photo: Mon

    ica A. Sun

    det

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  • 5. KEY FINDINGS7. INTRODUCTION

    11. CLIMATE IMPACT ON REINDEER NOMADISM14. REINDEER PASTURE USE AND LAND USE CHANGE21. REINDEER HERDERS TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE:

    CODIFYING HERDERS ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE27. REINDEER HERDERS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ADAPTATION

    - INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE AS CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES31. CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE ON REINDEER35. WELFARE OF REINDEER AND HERDS OF REINDEER - TWO WAYS OF KNOWING39. EALT COMMUNITY BASED WORKSHOPS IN THE CIRCUMPOLAR NORTH51. OUTREACH OF EALT KNOWLEDGE: THE REINDEER PORTAL53. TEACHING, LEARNING AND BUILDING COMPETENCE LOCALLY IN REINDEER

    HERDERS SOCIETIES57. IPY EALT LEGACY59. VULNERABILITY, RESILIENCE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY IN REINDEER HERDERS SOCIETY65. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM EALT66. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS67. AFFILIATION OF CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS69. REFERENCES

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 3

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

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  • The IPY EALT project (EALT: Reindeer herding, traditional knowledge, adaptation to climate change and loss of grazingland), led by Norway and Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) in Arctic Council, Sustainable Development WorkingGroup (SDWG) was initiated in 2006. The project has been coordinate by International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry(ICR), Kautokeino, and by Sami University College (SA) also in Kautokeino, Norway, and was designed to gather informationabout the environmental changes which Arctic reindeer herders are facing and to give concrete examples of herderstraditional knowledge leading their adaptation to changing conditions, e.g. traditional uses of grazing land. In all, 21 workshopshave been held in local herding communities in the reindeer herding regions of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia in20072011 and recently in Canada. The challenge of EALT is to transfer herders knowledge into action for sustainabledevelopment of the rapidly changing Arctic. The legacy of IPY EALT work has therefore developed into local informationcenters for different types of reindeer husbandry in Russia, as well as the UArctic EALT Institute - University of the ArcticInstitute for Circumpolar of Reindeer Husbandry. This report is produced for the 7th Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting inNuuk, Greenland, as a Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG) executive summary report. The report builds oninformation collected during IPY EALT including the community-based workshops, and includes key findings andrecommendations. The report also is based on the IPY EALT scientific report (Magga, Mathiesen, Corell and Oskal inprep.). A 30-minute documentary EALT People and Reindeer in a Changing Climate has been produced and is deliveredwith this report. We acknowledge the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON), the Saami Council(SC) and the Reindeer Herders Union of Russia (RHUR) for partnership and fruitful cooperation and more recently theArctic Athabaskan Council (AAC), the Gwich'in Council International International (GCI) and the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC) for holding a workshop as part of the Norway-Canada High North Dialogue in Canada. The Arctic is the home ofindigenous peoples like reindeer herders and is now changing rapidly. The ambition of EALT and this report is to contributeto increased cooperation between Arctic nation states and indigenous peoples to secure future sustainable development incircumpolar north and maintain a highly resilient society for reindeer herders.

    Ole Henrik Magga, Svein D. Mathiesen, Robert. W. Corell and Anders Oskal

    4 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    PREFACE

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  • KEY FINDINGS

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 5

    1. Climate and socio-economic change are now evidentacross the Arctic, and is particularly evident in reindeerherding cultures and in their traditional areas.

    2. Global and regional scenarios project dramatic changesin temperature, precipitation and snow conditions in thekey areas for reindeer herding and in social-economicchanges for reindeer herding communities in the Arctic.

    3. Indigenous traditional knowledge, culture, and languageprovide a central foundation for adaptation and buildingresilience to the rapid changes in the Arctic. Reindeerherding cultures and traditional knowledge are nestedwithin and inevitably affected by institutional governance,economic conditions and other regulatory practices andconditions.

    4. Both scientific and traditional experience-based know-ledge, knowledge transformation, education and trainingof future leaders and others are key factors for thefuture sustainability of reindeer herders societies andtheir adaptation.

    5. Degradation of pasture lands combined with the

    consequences of a changing climate present substantialchallenges to the future of reindeer husbandry.

    6. Engaging reindeer herding youth directly in herdingpractices and providing enhanced education is a key factorin the future sustainability of reindeer husbandry and itscultural foundations.

    7. A vision of a self-sustained and adaptive reindeer com-munity in the circumpolar north is increasingly facedwith rapid climate change, regulatory challenges, andaltered or degraded pasture lands. The future for thesecommunities is dependent on reindeer herders use oftraditional knowledge and integrating scientific know-ledge in implementing risk spreading through diversity insocial organization, economy and through understandingbiological diversity.

    8. The reindeer husbandry communities of the circum-polar north are guided by three cultural constructswithin which they seek to: (1) Control their own destiny,(2) Maintaining their cultural identity, and (3) Be able tolive close to and rely on nature for their livelihood andwell-being.

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  • Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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  • INTRODUCTION

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 7

    Reindeer husbandry is a traditional livelihood in Eurasia,carried out by more than 20 different ethnic indigenousArctic peoples in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Mongoliaand China, involving close to 100 000 herders, 2.5 millionsemi-domesticated reindeer, and covering some four millionsquare kilometers of pastures. The traditional livelihood ofreindeer pastoralism represents a model of sustainableexploitation and management of northern terrestrial eco-systems based on experience accumulated over generations,conserved, developed and adapted to the climatic and po-litical / economic systems of the north. It is therefore neces-sary that any vision of sustainability related to the Arcticreindeer herding areas must take account of the knowledgeand lessons learned by those who practice reindeer hus-bandry and related subsistence activities in the region.Reindeer herding peoples have lived and worked across wideareas of Eurasia since time immemorial. Recently Nenetsreindeer pastoralism in the Yamal Nenets AutonomousOkrug (hereafter referred to as YNAO), Russia was datedto be more than 2 000 years old (Fedorova, 2003). TheYNAO in western Siberia is one of the largest reindeer hus-bandry regions in the world with about 600 000 reindeerand over 14 500 people who practice nomadic reindeer hus-bandry. In Norway there were about 180,000 reindeer inFinnmark where around 1 500 people are active reindeerherders. In Chukotka there are 200 000 reindeer and ap-proximately 1 500 herders, while in the Nenets AutonomousOkrug there are approximately 160 000 reindeer andaccording to official statistics there are 912 herders. Finally,

    in Sakha (Yakutia) there was 180 000 reindeer and 2 252herders in 2010. During the International Polar Year (IPY)reindeer herders societies across Eurasia have been engagedin knowledge documentation and production through theEALT project. The project has focused on Western Finnmarkin Norway and the Yamal peninsula in the YNAO but alsoincluded community based workshops which have been heldin the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in Russia, in Finland andSweden, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Chukotka and mostrecently in Inuvik in Canada.

    Reindeer herding represents a human-coupled ecosystemwhich has developed a historical high resilience to climatevariability and change (Turi, 2008). The explanation to this isthat reindeer herding is a system based, as a rule, oncontinuous change due to the practice of seasonal migrationsand day-to-day changes. The core survival strategy ofreindeer communities is based on knowledge about how tolive in a changing environment. The concept of stability isforeign in the languages of reindeer herders. Their search foradaptation strategies is not connected to stability in thenormal meaning of this word, but instead is focused on cons-tant adaptation to changing conditions. (Johan Mathis Turi,World Environmental Day 2007). The basic needs for theanimals are access to food and water, space for rest andshelter and space for physical activity. A cycle through theyear, through a season and through day-night periodsincludes variations like grazing, resting, rutting, giving birthto calves, snowing, melting of snow, hot weather and

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  • 8 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Figure 1. The distribution of reindeer and reindeer peoples in Eurasia.

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 9

    prevalence of predators and insects. In additions there arethe activities which derive from human needs for or-ganization of reindeer herds such as identifying animals, earmarking, slaughtering, castration, separation, moving of herdsand training of animals for transportation and other needs.In addition to the handling of herds and individual animals,there are many detailed techniques a reindeer herder needsto master. All these elements are dependent on conditionsin nature and hence are exposed to multiple changes.

    Indigenous peoples in the Arctic now face major challengesrelated to changes in their societies, and a changing northernclimate, which might be the first indications of coming majorglobal changes effecting Arctic societies. IPY EALT was ori-ginally initiated by the Association of World ReindeerHerders (WRH) to address the challenges of climate changeand the degradation of pastures, in order to maintain anddevelop robust reindeer herding societies in the circumpolarnorth in the future. EALT is a multicultural and multidis-ciplinary vulnerability study of reindeer herders society andprojected climate change. The term ealt is from the languageof the indigenous Smi people of Fennoscandia, and meanssomething to live on (especially for reindeer), such as (sufficient)pasture. This word is related to the term eallu, which meansherd, while the origin of these terms derive from the wordeallin which means 'life'. Thus pasture is the foundation for thereindeer herd, and reindeer herds are the foundation for thelives of indigenous reindeer herding peoples throughout thecircumpolar North. A deep understanding of and insightsinto the sustainability and resilience of reindeer herderssocieties is often embedded in their knowledge, languagesand traditions. There are already many indications thatprojected changes in future climate in Finnmark, Yamal, Sakhaand Chukotka will influence reindeer and reindeer herding.

    Changes in climate is likely to modulate the availability offorage, especially in winter due to changing snow conditions,but may also influence the growth of plants and lichen andeffect the balance between different species which are im-portant to reindeer. Climate driven modulation of the foragesupply will have both direct, short term effects and indirect,lagged and persistent effects on reindeer herding. Furthermoreherders ability to adapt to the consequences of climatechange is influenced by a variety of non-climate factors in-fluenced by governance and socio-economic change.

    IPY EALT has been a consortium of different activities andpartners in the circumpolar north including research,documentation of traditional knowledge, education, learning,outreach and information. Arctic indigenous peoples insightsand understanding, as they are documented by EALT andother related projects such as the SIKU (Sea Ice Knowledgeand Use) project organized by the Smithsonian Institution, willcontribute to more human, holistic and multidimensional pers-pectives on the Arctic (Krupnik, et al. 2010). The results andanalyses provided will bring new and important perspectivesto sustainable management, research and teaching in Arcticsocieties. This Summary report to Sustainable DevelopmentWorking Group (SDWG) in the Arctic Council and is basedon information from 21 community based workshops inreindeer herders societies throughout the Eurasian northand Canada, documentations, new insights and results fromthe IPY EALT scientific report comprised of 16 differentchapters (Magga, Mathiesen, Corell and Oskal in prep) and theIPY EALT consortium report 20072011. IPY EALT is afollowing up of the Arctic Council report Arctic ClimateImpact Assessment (ACIA 2004) chapter 17 (McCarthy et al.2004) and uses the previously developed vulnerability frame-work for climate change and reindeer husbandry (Tyler et al. 2007).

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  • 10 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    I AM NOT TOO CONCERNED ABOUT CLIMATECHANGE IF IT IS DUE TO NATURE ITSELF. BUT IFITS DUE TO PEOPLE, THAT PEOPLE HAVE BEENDESTROYING NATURE, THEN I AM WORRIED. KAREN ANNA LOGJE GAUP, REINDEER HERDER

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  • Climate analyses show that the area, from Finnmark, Norwayin the west to Chukotka in the far east of Russia, mostly ischaracterized by cold and dry winters with permafrost. FromFinnmark in Norway to Sakha (Yakutia) in Eastern Russia thewinters become gradually colder and dryer the farther eastone goes (Vikhamar-Schuler et al. 2010 a). In Sakha theaverage winter temperatures are usually from -35 to -45oC.Even further east in Chukotka, the winters are milder, butstill colder than in Fennoscandia. In Finnmark, the winterstend to be colder in the inland than on the coast, where theopen sea adds warmth (Vikhamar-Schuler et al. 2010 b). Furthereast, the contrasts between coast and inland are small, as theArctic Ocean for the most part is ice covered in winter. Insummer the temperature differences between east and westare smaller, but the coastal stations clearly tend to be coolerthan the inland stations in all regions. Nearly all stations havetheir precipitation maximums in summer. Time series oftemperature show large inter-annual variability. In Finnmarkand Yamal this variation is partly correlated with the NorthAtlantic Oscillation (NAO)-index (R0.5). In Sakha the NAOcorrelation is highly variable, and in Chukotka it is slightlynegative (Vikhamar-Schuler et al. 2010 a). Series starting in1900 or earlier show positive long-term temperature andprecipitation trends, though not all these trends are statis-tically significant. Temperature has increased primarily inspring, while precipitation seems to have increase in allseasons (Vikhamar-Schuler et al. 2010 a,b,c).The longestsnow season is in general found in the central regions, wherethe ground typically is snow covered 220250 days a year.

    The snow depth, however, is usually smaller in this area than inFinnmark and Chukotka. The largest maximum snow depth onfound at the coast of Northern Norway. At the westerlystations, the tendency is that the snow now melts earlier in

    Climate scenarios indicate that summer temperatures inFinnmark and the YNAO may increase by 2 to 4oC in 100years, while winter temperatures may increase by 7 to 8oC(Benestad, 2011). Mainly, the largest temperature increase isprojected in the inland, but a large warming is calculated alsofor the Yamal peninsula. This may be caused by changes inthe sea ice conditions. Future scenarios indicate that YNAOwinter temperatures in 20702100 may be comparable withFinnmark winter temperatures between 19611990. Inlandtemperatures in Finnmark, Norway by then may resemblethose of the coastal area of Finnmark (Nordreisa) today.More detailed scenarios for Finnmark (Engen-Skaugen, 2007)show that the annual precipitation may increase by 5 to 30%,the snow season may be 13 months shorter, and annualmaximum snow depth may increase by 5 to 60%. The largestreductions in snow season and snow depth are projected incoastal areas. A comparison of reindeer herders reports onfavorable and unfavorable winters in Finnmark and climatedata from the area indicate that temperature andprecipitation conditions alone are not critical for thereindeer. However, various combinations of these variableslead to different snow structures which make the pasturesmore or less available for the reindeer. In order to investigatethis closer, a model describing structure and density of

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 11

    CLIMATE IMPACT ON REINDEER NOMADISM

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  • different snow layers was set up (Eira, in preparation).The results so far are promising, as there is years that have beenreported as problematic by the herders come out with highdensity snow layers.

    12 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Figure 2A. Annual and seasonal mean temperatures in coastal Finnmark, Norway (Nordreisa, yellow), inland Finnmark, Norway(Karasjok, red) and Yamal Nenets AO, Russia (Salekhard, blue). Unbroken lines show 1961-1990 observed values. Dotted linesshow scenarios for 20712100.

    Figure 2B. Annual and seasonal temperature average for1961-1990 measured at Tompo (full drawn line) and thesimilar averages calculated from 50 downscaled climate modelsfor the year 2085 (dotted lines). An EALT workshop was alsoheld in the settlement of Topolinoe in the Tompo region in Eastern Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. This is the homeland of Evenand Evenki reindeer nomads and one of the coldest regionswhere reindeer herders live.

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  • REINDEER HERDERS HAVE CONTROLLED VASTAREAS OF THE ARCTIC FOR CENTURIES ANDONLY RECENTLY HAS THE PETROLEUM SECTORBECOME INTERESTED IN THESE REGIONS. OIL ANDGAS HAS APPEARED AND IT WILL DISAPPEAR,BUT THE REINDEER WILL BE THERE FOREVER.TAKE CARE OF OUR REINDEER! DMITRY O. KHOROLYA, FORMER WRH PRESIDENT

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  • 14 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    In this chapter, reindeer pastures and land use change willbe described through a closer look at two major reindeerherding regions of Yamal the YNAO. The YNAO in WesternSiberia, Russia, with a population exceeding 522,000 is oneof the most urban regions of the Arctic, compared to only72800 inhabitants in the county of Finnmark in Norway. TheYNAO is characterized by tundra, permafrost and bogvegetation with rivers and lakes, including rich larch forestin the winter pastures, while in Finnmark the pasturesinclude nutrient rich Atlantic coastal vegetation and interioralpine birch forest with lichens.

    In the YNAO reindeer herding is based on a strong family-based coupled ecosystem and nomadism. Nomadic herdersregularly migrate with transportation reindeer in thetraditional Nenets way. The longest migrations constitute upto 1000 km one way from the winter pastures near Nadymsouth of Ob Bay to the coast of the Kara Sea on thenorthern part of the Yamal Peninsula in summer. In contrastSmi reindeer herders in Finnmark may migrate up to 350 kmfrom inland winter pastures to the coastal summer pastures.Reindeer husbandry in Norway is highly dependent onmotorized support (snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles(ATVs) which make it possible to maintain a semi-nomadiclifestyle; while reindeer husbandry in Yamal is completelynomadic and the family follows the reindeer all year round.With a changing climate and increased industrial develop-ment, the ability to adapt the fine-tuned survival skills ofreindeer herding in an Arctic landscape has become jeopardized

    as development can terminate, block or delay criticalmigrations between winter and summer ranges. Infrastructure designed to extract oil, gas, hydropower andminerals may appear insignificant in a seemingly vastundeveloped landscape, but may remove or compete for thefew (or even only) migration routes possible across the land,leaving remaining herders highly vulnerable in a changingclimate (Degteva and Nellemann, in preparation, Maynard etal., 2010; Oskal et al., 2010, Vistnes and Nellemann 2001,2008, Barlindhaug 2005, Vistnes et al. 2009). Both on theYamal Peninsula and in Finnmark two industrial develop-ment projects gas and copper mining respectively mayblock the migration routes of tens of thousands of reindeerwith negative impacts on the herders. Such developmentscan alter the use of pasture areas through avoidance effectsof reindeer to such development, infrastructure and humanactivity (Nellemann et al. 2002). The YNAO holds approxi-mately 90% of Russian gas production and 20% of theworlds (www.novatek.ru). In fact, the future welfare of theRussian state and implementation of Russia's Energy Strategyto 2030 is now closely linked with the development of newgas fields in the YNAO region. For example, production fromthe peninsula's largest field, Bovanenkovo, is expected tobegin in 2012. However, the Bovanenkovo area also containsrich and important summer reindeer pastures. The complexplan for industrial development of the peninsula includes theconstruction of a railway (Obskaya-Bovanenkovo-Kharasavey),renovation of the Kharasavey port, an LNG plant and exportterminal associated with the Tambey fields development,

    REINDEER PASTURES USE AND LAND USE CHANGE

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 15

    railway and pipelines for oil extraction in the Novy Port area,plus accompanying pipelines, roads, airports and other in-frastructure (www.gazprom.com, SibNAC).

    Recent EALT-NASA studies in Eurasia, which combine re-mote sensing data with indigenous observations of changesover the past 30 years illustrate the magnitude of large-scaledevelopment of oil and gas related infrastructure which hastaken place in the area (Degteva and Nellemann, inpreparation, Kumpula et al. 2011, Maynard et al. 2010; Oskalet al. 2010). A series of cloud-free Landsat scenes between1972 and 2010 combined with reindeer herder maps andphotos provide both space-based and land-based obser-vations of the growth of pipelines, roads, drill pads, buildingsand other structures across the grazing areas and migrationroutes. (Oskal et al. 2010). Reindeer herders migratingthrough Bovanenkovo area are already experiencing negativeimpacts, but as long as they are able to migrate through theindustrial developed areas to the nutrient rich summer pastures on the other sides of the petroleum field, they arewilling to accept the development so far. The ability tomigrate though these heavily developed pastures might beexplained by the close coupling between herders andreindeer, which still is maintained in the YNAO. However, ifthe development becomes so dense that it is physicallyimpossible to pass through the industrial complex or ifmigration through the industrial facilities becomes forbiddenlike for instance in the Hammerfest zone in Norway, it mayseriously threaten reindeer pastoralism in the entire Yamal

    Peninsula (EALT workshop report 2009). Significantindirect effects of hydrocarbon development on reindeerherders include herders lack of access to fish, theintroduction of wild dogs, pollution, and an increased numberof people visiting the region who have little knowledge aboutreindeer pastoralism (Forbes et al. 2009).

    Petroleum development is also influencing and partlythreatening Smi reindeer husbandry in Finnmark. The Oiland gas resources in Finnmark, unlike Yamal, are found onlyoffshore, but generate direct and indirect infrastructure andother development projects on shore in reindeer grazingareas (Vistnes et al. 2009). The future of Smi reindeer hus-bandry in Finnmark is highly dependent on the availability ofgrazing land, and loss of pastures is seen as the mainchallenge for herding in Norway. Extensive offshore oil andgas production, hydro electric dams and power lines, as wellas wind power development will lead to loss of vital grazingranges, in particular coastal summer pastures and calvinggrounds in Northern Norway. New calculations confirm thatcontinued piecemeal development will substantially reducegrazing grounds in coastal areas, even without additionalpetroleum development, creating conflicts between herdersand new industrial initiatives. However, it has been estimatedthat, when coupled with extensive petroleum development,an additional 21 000 km2 of grazing grounds could be de-graded in Finnmark. By 2050, up to 78% of the coastal rangesin Northern Norway may be severely disturbed bydevelopment, with major impacts on reindeer husbandry

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  • 16 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    (Vistnes et al. 2009). Continued loss of grazing land willconstrain reindeer husbandry practices and make thelivelihood less capable of handling other future challengessuch as climate change. Herd production will likely decrease,while internal and external conflicts will become morecommon as the competition for resources increase.

    Thus, a multi-faceted, long-term adaptation and mitigationstrategy must be developed to increase the resilience ofreindeer husbandry to these many challenges from land usechanges as well as climate change. For example, unless a no-net loss of reindeer grazing ranges is implemented, continuedpiecemeal development, mainly as a result of activitiesindirectly associated with petroleum activity, will seriouslythreaten reindeer herding. Identifying alternative ranges, res-toration of current ranges, or the development of mitigationschemes to reduce impacts of current and new activity willbe required in order to ensure long-term sustainability andsurvival of reindeer husbandry.

    Furthermore, impact assessment methods must be improvedand made to also include reindeer herders knowledge ontraditional land use. This must be combined with estimatesof projected future changes in development and climate suchas increases in oil and gas infrastructure and associateddevelopment, general impacts on the environment, andclimate-related changes in order to create long-termpredictions of potential adaptation strategies and resilienceof local reindeer herding communities in these areas.Reindeer herding communities believe that there is a needto develop Arctic ethical standards, contracts and guidelines

    which apply to industry regarding the involvement ofreindeer herders in the industrial development processes. Itis also important to raise awareness and enhance capacitybuilding involving all parties by the development of moreimpact assessment courses about both industrial andindigenous adaptation processes. It is recommended thattransparency and increased involvement in industrial and infrastructure development processes in reindeer herderscommunities and other nature-based livelihoods be developed.

    An important finding from the EALT activities and work-shops voiced reindeer herders lack of information aboutcomprehensive industrial plans on the reindeer pastures.There is an urgent need for these plans to be made availablefor the public and reindeer herders to understand the futurecumulative effects of industrial development and to prepareadaptive strategies to climate change and other changes.

    There is also a need to educate both herders and industrialleaders regarding the importance of improved cooperationand communication between the two parties about theongoing changes in the Arctic. Finally, it is important to establishagreements between indigenous reindeer herders, industryand governments to ensure flexible access to historical pastures and migration routes which can co-exist withincreasing development in a changing climate. There is noquestion that the protection of grazing lands used byreindeer stands out as one of the most important adaptationstrategies that can be implemented to ensure long term sustainable reindeer pastoralism as well as to secure flexi-bility and robustness when facing climate change.

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  • 0 50 km2010 0 50 km2030

    Figure 3. Development scenarios for the reindeer pastures in Finnmark, Norway using Globio 2model (www.globio.info.) assuming varying levels of industrial development planed in future. Theleft map shows to days level of impact of development in the grazing land, while the figure tothe right show the impacts with future planned development Black indicate hard impact, redindicate medium to high impacts and yellow indicate low impacts, finally green indicatereindeer pastures (non impacted areas). The GLOBIO2-model is being developed for andtogether with UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) to help assess and map theenvironmental impact of human development (UNEP 2007). The model has been used by abroad range of regional and global scenarios by several UN-programmes, including UNESCO,UNDP and UNEP. GLOBIO compiles scientific knowledge on global environmental change into aformat that is compatible with facilitating policymaking. The model incorporates buffer zones ofprobability of reduced abundance of wildlife around infrastructure features, such as roads,human settlements, industrial development and more. By using distance zones with varying degree of impacts caused by infrastructure, it is possible to predict the approximate area ofimpact zones in the future by simple regression analyses using different alternatives of growth,communicating and visualizing environmental changes in such a way that it can be used in sustainable development planning and protection of biodiversity and natural habitats. Fordetailed methodology, please see appendix 3 and www.globio.info. The scenarios withoutadditional petroleum development (assumption a) are based on the policy first scenarios inUNEP (2003).

    Low - M edium Im pact

    Medium - High Impact

    High Impact

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  • 18 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Figure 4.The opening of the Snhvit (Snow-white) liquid natural gas (LNG)field in the Barents Sea outside Hammerfest in Finnmark, Norway provides atextbook example of how a single industrial project results in a series of associated infrastructure development activities which directly affect reindeerhusbandry. In the Snhvit case, proposed locations of new infrastructure andsettlements will hinder access to important reindeer calving grounds on theMylingen Peninsula. This peninsula also holds historic Smi sacred sites and offering stones, sites which generally seldom seems to be mapped and takeninto consideration in development projects. Alternative locations of new infrastructure could modify negative impacts on reindeer husbandry and keepthe corridor to the Mylingen Peninsula open. Landsat satellite image 2009 ofKvalya, Hammerfest Finnmark Norway (left, courtesy of NASA, 2010Projected development in Hammerfest (right) (Vistnes et al 2009).

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  • Figure 5. Development scenarios for thereindeer pastures in Yamal Nenets AO, Russia using GLOBIO 2 model(www.globio.info) assuming varying levels of industrial development planned in thefuture. The left picture shows to days levelof impact of development in the grazingland, while the figure to the right showimpacts with future moderate planneddevelopment. Black indicates hard impact,red indicate medium to high impacts andyellow indicate low impacts, finally greenindicate reindeer pastures (non-impactedareas).

    2010

    0 100 km

    2030

    0 100 km

    Figure 6. LANDSAT Satellite mage from 1987 before industrial development started in Bovanenkovo. YNAO (left) and thecomparable image from 2009 (right).The routes shown on the left demonstrate the migration route options for herders in 1987,contrasted with the options for migration through this area that remain viable in 2009, as drawn by herders from Brigade 4. White symbols represent traditional camp sites. (Oskal et al. 2010).

    Low - M edium Im pact

    Medium - High Impact

    High Impact

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  • 20 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IS NOT UTILIZED MUCH. THE PRIMARY REASONS FOR THIS ARE THREEFOLD; ACCESSIBILITY, STATUS AND POWER RELATION. IT HAS NOT BEEN EASY TO OBTAIN THE KNOWLEDGE BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN ACCESSIBLE ONLY TO A LIMITED DEGREE OUTSIDE THE LIVELIHOOD. FURTHER, THE KNOWLEDGE HASNOT BEEN APPRECIATED BY DIFFERENT ENTITIES. PROFESSOR OLE HENRIK MAGGA, SAMI UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

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    REINDEER HERDERS TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE:

    CODIFYING HERDERS ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE

    Within reindeer herding much knowledge has been gene-rated over time about the reindeer and man's relationshipto each other and the relationship between animals andhuman beings to the natural environment. It is part of whatBerkes has defined as traditional ecological knowledge acumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving byadaptive processes and handed down through generations bycultural transmission, about the relationship of living things (including humans) with one another and with theirenvironment (Berkes 2008).

    Many studies have demonstrated the correlation betweenbiological knowledge and indigenous and local knowledge.There is also accumulated knowledge of the dramaticchanges in the natural environment in the past that hascaused years of crisis, and about strategies to adapt to suchchallenges. This kind of knowledge still forms the main basisfor the survival of reindeer herding communities in theArctic, and has not been replaced or superceded byresearch-based knowledge. It is available and is in use everyday. Nevertheless, such knowledge has been neglected byresearch and authorities in the circumpolar north. TheEALT project tried to understand more about strategieswithin reindeer herding by combining traditional knowledgewith modern scientific knowledge. Norway is one of thecountries that have committed itself to protect and respecttraditional knowledge and our studies can be seen as a be-ginning to fulfil these obligations.

    We have collected and analyzed traditional knowledge ofSmi and Nenets reindeer herding, focusing on winterecological conditions. Documentation of reindeer herderstraditional knowledge related to snow change andadaptation to climate change was carried out in thecommunity based workshops. Furthermore the project hasinterviewed over 60 elder reindeer herders in western Finn-mark about snow and its role in reindeer herding and abouthistorical events, with particular emphasis on bad years(called goavvejahki in Smi language). This material includesnearly 1,000 pages of transcribed text in Northern Smi,which is the professional reindeer herding language in onethe areas investigated. A novel method was developed forSiida based monitoring of snow change and grazingconditions, based on a herds diary, where weather, snowconditions and herd behavior were recorded daily by theherder. A Siida is the traditional Smi reindeer herding unit.Five siidat in the west Finnmark reindeer grazing area wereincluded during the period 20072009 and show large localvariations in snow conditions from early winter to spring.Measurements of temperatures were compared with bothreindeer herders' descriptions and meteorological observationsin the same area (Eira et al. in preparation). The study is acontribution to the understanding of traditional knowledgestrategies for dealing with changes in snow conditions underin future climate scenarios. This is a first step to get an insightinto the temperature and wind effects on snow conditionslocally, through both objective measurements and evaluation

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  • 22 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    by the herders. by the herders. This represents a novel startthat might eventually form a basis for the better predictionof the development of grazing conditions for reindeer. Inaddition, similar material has been collected from Nenetsherders in the YNAO, though less systematically.

    According to reindeer herders traditional knowledge,reindeer behavior patterns can best be understood in theterms of cycles on the basis of the year, the lunar monthand the day-and-night cycle. Nutrient uptake, space formovement, space for rest and shelter are basic elementswhich in their turn form the prerequisites for growth,physical condition, rutting and calving. The periods withineach cycle are related to each other. Some are easily ob-servable such as rutting and calving, while others are morecomplicated and require experience and deeper studies tobe understood. The patterns are influenced by environmentalfactors, so that flexibility and change are the prerequisitesfor survival. The cycles are different according to reindeersex and age. EALT is a contribution of documentation, ana-lysis and dissemination of reindeer herders' understandingand knowledge, from a perspective from within herding

    society. It is important to include this kind of traditionalknowledge about reindeer in development of future adaptivestrategies for managements of reindeer herding. Themethods used are interdisciplinary, with emphasis on linguis-tics. We recognize that reindeer herders ability to adapt tochange is based on traditional knowledge embodied in theirlanguages, in the institutions of herding and in the action ofindividual herders. Since snow covered ground and accessto pasture plants is a most serious challenge for reindeerforage in terms of climate change, this part of EALTfocused particularly on knowledge related to snow, reflectedin the Smi terminology of snow conditions and the use thethis terminology in herding reindeer The designation of'(good) grazing' guohtun (of the verb guohtut 'grazing') is usedby the majority of reindeer herders with focus on snowconditions. Recently, Roturier and Roue (2009) investigatedthe concept of guohtun related to Swedish forestry and Smireindeer husbandry in Sweden. Smi and Nenets reindeerherders traditional knowledge about snow related toreindeer, reindeer herders and animal welfare representsconcrete examples of how traditional knowledge can beused to monitor and adapt to future conditions.

    Figure 7. The gradation from hard snow to less dense snow in Smi reindeer herding terminology. (from Eira et al. 2010:11-12.)

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    According to (Eira et al. 2010) Smi reindeer herders usebasic terms as oppas and iegar, with regard to meaningand characteristics, evaluate the possible survival or grazingcondition for the reindeer. The starting-point for theherders characterization is oppas, which describes an areain winter which is unused or untrodden by reindeer (Nielsen1979 (193262) III: 178). If the pasture is not described asoppas, then it is iegar to a greater or lesser degree; an areain winter that is trodden/trampled, where reindeer havegrazed and changes the snow condition and made thegrazing condition poor (Nielsen 1979 (193262) I: 382). Theterms oppas iegar are antonyms, which have oppositemeanings in reindeer husbandry. They have a mutuallyexclusive value, and are a dichotomy. When the snow is soft,it is called luotkko muohta (Eira 1994: 140), and grazingconditions are good.

    The study confirms that the Smi language is probably thelanguage with the richest terminology on snow, and certainlyeven richer than the Inuit languages which since the end ofthe 1800s by linguists have been believed to have most snowwords of all languages (Krupnik et al. 2002). In North Smilanguage alone EALT we have documented more than 300noun stems designating various types of snow and snowconditions (Eira in preparation). The central conceptsdescribe snow consistency (vahca, sea, earga, geardni,njhcu), strength of surface layers of snow (cuou, moarri,luotko muohta) snow quantity / snow depth (oppas,muovhllahat, seaggi) and distribution of snow on the ground(bearta, bohkolat, asttas). Essential is also the influence of theanimals themselves on snow where the untouched snow(oppas) and grazed snow ground which has become hard(iegar) form the extremes. The last one, iegar, is a commonword in both Smi, the easternmost Fenno-Ungrianlanguages and Nenets with identical meaning. It is thus anold Arctic word perhaps dating 6000 years back in time(Toivonen, Y. H.1955).

    The Nenets language, which belongs to the Samoyediclanguage group, is also a professional language for reindeer

    herding, very rich in words for reindeer, snow and thereindeer herding economy. An initial comparison of itsterminology with Smi shows great similarities between Smiand Nenets in terms of the structure of concepts, i.e. Thesame kind of meaning elements are found in the concepts inboth languages.

    According to Eira et al. (2010) reindeer herders usedescriptions as the basis for the definition of the snow termswith regard to the factors that govern our understanding ofit, and to this they add the physics of snow and thus they areable to see what characteristics the snow term possesseswith respect to everyday reindeer-herding, as regards bothdimension and use.

    Traditional concepts of snow have both similarities anddifferences with terminology used by snow scientists (Eiraet al. in preparation). Differences are that the concepts thatsnow scientists use are based on measurable andquantitative characteristics and less colored by the context.Also, traditional snow concepts often have objectivecharacteristics as a core, but they also contain informationand associations to practical matters such as grazingconditions, weather and movement opportunities for thereindeer and the future welfare of the herd.

    The fact that the Smi languages differ significantly from eachother is demonstrated by comparison of snow words inNorth Smi and South Smi languages. In the description ofthe crust and ice sheets, Southern Smi is more accuratethan Northern Smi. A layer of ice or hard snow may befound both at the top and bottom of the snow pack. Southern Smi has 17 terms for different kinds of layers inthe upper layer of snow. The thinnest layer is cut 'incipientcrust of snow (later to become host)' skaevie. Medium-hardcrust is 'hard snow that carries small reindeer' tsievie andhardest is 'ice crust' njahpedihkie. Between these, there are7 words for 7 degrees of hardness. The richness of SouthSmi in this respect is remarkable. One reason for this rich-ness is probably that the shifts in the snow has been and is

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  • 24 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Photo: Ellen Inga Turi, EALT

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    more frequent in the south than in the inland to the northin Scandinavia. Southern Smi language also showsindependence in this respect in a way that the form of thewords themselves are historically different from those ofNorthern Smi.

    Across the Arctic region there is rich tradition of knowledgeabout reindeer and reindeer husbandry. The systematictraditional knowledge about reindeer and their environment(Magga 2006) should be further collected and analyzed be-cause it is a source for insight on strategies for survival inthe face of climate change, insight into the naturalenvironment, insight into the history of reindeer husbandryand in this may also provide us with knowledge about thepeople who live there. We firmly believe that all kinds ofknowledge should be taken into account, and all kinds ofknowledge must also be subject to scrutiny. Elements oftraditional knowledge deserve respect if they provide uswith better understanding, rather than for any other vaguereasons.

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  • 26 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    THE AREAS OF THE FAR NORTH ARE HISTORICAL AREAS FOR SETT-LEMENT OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES THAT THAT HAVE DEVELOPED ANDADAPTED THEIR CULTURES AND LIVELIHOODS TO THESE MARGINALARCTIC AREAS. THERE IS A GREAT DANGER THAT CLIMATE CHANGE INARCTIC AND INCREASING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN THE NORTH WILLESPECIALLY IMPACT INDIGENOUS PEOPLES THAT CARRY OUT THEIRNATURE- AND RESOURCE DEPENDENT LIVELIHOODS HERE. THOSE WHOARE MOST DEPENDENT ON NATURE WILL ALSO BE MOST VULNERABLE.BERIT OSKAL EIRA, REINDEER HERDER, PREVIOUS VICE MINISTER TOTHE NORWEGIAN GOVERNMENT

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    Reindeer herding is based on sequential and flexible usufructof a wide number of different ecological niches underdiffering climatic conditions. This flexibility allows herders toadapt to climatic variation and produces resilience: The abilityto cope with and adapt to change. An objective of EALThas been to determine what and non-climate related factorsaffect reindeer herders adaptive capacity and resilience ofto changing climatic conditions, factors associated withnational and international institutions, governance and cus-tomary rights. In this regard there has been a focus on threetasks: i) Determine to which degree national and inter-national law gives support and recognition to protectreindeer herders traditional knowledge and customarywhich can be used to strengthened adaptive capacity andresilience of reindeer herders societies to climate change.ii) Determine how ownership and access to markets can beinfluenced by climate change. iii) To identify how structuresand processes related to multi-level governance influencereindeer herders adaptive capacity and resilience.

    Comparative qualitative case studies with an approach ofreindeer pastoralism in Finnmark, and the YNAO wereconducted. Analysis has focused on integrating data spanningfrom the local, regional, national and international scale togain an understanding of how developments in andinteractions between these scales influence reindeer herdersresilience and adaptive capacity. A general review and analysisof relevant legal and governance frameworks in the two caseareas has been conducted and combined with interviews

    with reindeer herders belonging to strategically selectedherding groups. Integration with the findings in the sub-sequent working packages of the EALT project, incombination with studies of the social organisation ofreindeer pastoralism (Turi, 2008) shows that reindeer herd-ing has developed an integrated resilience for coping withclimatic uncertainty based on traditional ecologicalknowledge. The social organisation through family-basedreindeer herding siidas or brigades, i.e. groups of householdsthat keep their animals in a joint herd, and cooperate ontasks associated with reindeer herding, is an importantframework for climate change resilience. Governanceframeworks at the regional, national and international scaleshowever, have a fundamental impact on reindeer herding andcan directly or indirectly influence resilience and adaptivecapacity by affecting the livelihoods ability to maintain anddevelop flexibility, mobility and social-ecological diversity. Asa place-based coupled social-ecological system, reindeer pas-toralism is primarily a local practice (Sara, 2009), andstrategies for building and maintaining resilience based ontraditional knowledge are implemented at this level. Suchstrategies involve building social ecological diversity andflexibility, by preserving institutional flexibility, by preservingherd and pasture diversity as well as preserving diversity insocial capital, and applying pastoral mobility as a means forsecuring social ecological flexibility (Turi, 2008) and diversity.Governance frameworks at the regional, national andinternational scales however, have a fundamental impact onreindeer herding and can directly or indirectly influence

    REINDEER HERDERS SOCIAL AND ECONOMICADAPTATION - INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE AS CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

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    g.rybkinacompletely identical sentences at one page!!!!

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  • 28 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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    resilience and adaptive capacity. An institutional settingwhere reindeer herders traditional knowledge and or-ganisation is restricted poses a significant challenge toreindeer herders inherit resilience based on traditionalknowledge. Greater focus on the clarification of siida-basedland rights, and siida rights to self-determination in internalaffairs is needed (Sara, 2010). Modifying policy incentives thatcounteract traditional herd diversity and organisation(Reinert, 2006), limit obstacles to access to pastures by re-establishing trans-boundary reindeer herding across Fenno-Scandinavian borders (Reinert et al. 2009), and limiting thepermanent loss of grazing land, and improving the economicbasis for reindeer herding by re-establishing access and ownership to important activities in the value chain such asslaughtering and marketing (Reinert 2006), are identified ascrucial strategies whereby governance structures can be applied to increase reindeer herders adaptive capacity tounprecedented climate change. It is argued that the presentloss of the most profitable parts of the reindeer meat valuechain (slaughtering and marketing) seriously hampers theherders ability to cope with change. Coping is costly, andthese costs can best be met by giving herders access to theprofitable end of the market (Reinert et. al. 2009). Anothermeasure is to re-establish legal autonomy in the social organisation. In order to re-establish the autonomy of thesiida, traditional siida knowledge must be the starting point(Sara, accepted for publication). Further, legal acknow-ledgement must imply self-management based on siida landrights, customs, traditions, and autonomous processes ofknowledge. (Sara, 2009: 176). Both Norwegian and Russianlegislation protects reindeer herders customary rights andtraditional use of grazing areas, which is anchored in

    international human rights and international indigenouspeoples legislations and declarations. Based on thedevelopment of indigenous peoples rights internationally, webelieve these legislations account both in Finnmark and inthe YNAO in Russia when conflicts occur because ofcompeting interests when climate change in the grazing areacreates new opportunities and constrains on the sus-tainability of Smi and Nenets reindeer husbandry.

    Studies in the Nordic context have showed that forestrycompanies in Sweden were prepared to voluntarily assumelarger responsibilities in relation to reindeer herding so asto potentially avoid mandatory requirements developed inrelation to international policy in the future (Keskitalo 2008).Studies in the Nordic countries and Russia (Keskitalo et al.2009) have also shown that forest certification, i.e. thedevelopment of voluntary market-based labelling systemssetting social and ecological production requirements i.e.regulation beyond the state has played a large role as aninternational norm requiring forestry companies to adhereto specific social and ecological demands in their production,among which is included requirements on indigenous rights.Recently, Brandlund and Axelsson (in press 2011) havedemonstrated that although reindeer management was amuch more diverse enterprise earlier than it is now, themajor adaptation strategy and constraining forces weresimilar to those of today. The foremost adaptation strategywas, and still is, the flexible use of pasture area, and theclearest constraints during the 19th century were the lossof authority over the land and the imposed regulation ofreindeer management-both of which were strongly connectedto the process of colonization.

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    g.rybkina

  • 30 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    I HAVE FEW BIG MALES NOW SO WHO ELSEWILL BREAK THE ICE?SMI REINDEER HERDER, THE LATE MATTISASLAKSEN SARA WHEN ANSWERED WHY HEKEPT BARREN FEMALES IN HIS HERD

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    What effect will warming and associated climatic phenomenahave on reindeer pastoralism? This question has a beguilingsimplicity. Concealed behind it is a web of relationships,extant within and between the natural and societal environ-ments, which simultaneously confer resilience on reindeerpastoralism and shape the course of its development.Biological interactions which influence the life history ofreindeer - the subject of this section are, thus, a subset ofthe greater scheme. Ecological relationships do not definethe trajectory that reindeer pastoralism will follow over thenext human generation; however, they represent funda-mental constraints and opportunities with which herdersadapting to a changing world must work.

    The aim of this part of EALT was to examine annual andindividual variation in the body mass of reindeer calves interms of the simultaneous effects of environmental variationand mother effects which, sensu Loison et al. (2004), arethe combined effects of the genetic and non-genetic qualitiesof individual mothers on their offspring. We predicted fourkey results:

    1. Variation in the live body mass of calves within annualcohorts greatly exceeds variation between them.

    2. Growth of calves is influenced by variation in weatherconditions in winter (i.e., during gestation) and insummer (i.e., during the first growing season). Both as-pects of environmental variation influence the mean

    body mass of calves at the end of summer although notnecessarily to the same extent.

    3. The position of individual calves relative to the annualmean body mass is strongly influenced by variousqualities of their mothers.

    4. Complex interactions exist between effects of environ-mental variation and maternal effects, and betweendifferent maternal effects. These potentially conferresilience on the system.

    There was considerable variation in the body mass of calvesboth at the end of summer and late in winter. The body massof males and females in late summer was, on average, 37%and 22%, respectively, greater in heaviest cohort comparedwith the lightest. The heaviest individual males and femaleswithin given cohorts weighed nearly twice as much as thelightest. Many calves lost weight in winter. The cohort meanrates of weight loss varied from 3% to approximately 16%of body mass at the end of summer. Weight loss wasprobably due largely to partial emptying of the gastro-intestinal tract (stomach and intestines) as appetite reducedin winter.

    The rank order of cohorts, in terms of body mass, persistedacross winter: high or low cohort mean body mass inautumn was usually succeeded by high or low cohort meanbody mass at the end of winter in both sexes, respectively.

    REINDEER: CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE

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    g.rybkinamaybe variation of body mass?

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    g.rybkinapercentage of what?

  • Thus, cohorts of calves generally did not compensatethrough winter for poor early growth, and neither did theylose through winter the advantage of a good start in life.Both observations illustrate the importance of the firstgrowing season for the subsequent development of calves. We analyzed variation in the body mass of calves in termsof the simultaneous effects of 1 year or environmental variables (annual variation) and 11 mother effects (individualvariation) using linear mixed effects models. Environmentalvariables included precipitation, population density, snowdepth and ambient temperature.

    Body mass in late summer was influenced by sex (M>F) andincreased with date of capture, age and body mass of thedam, and with ambient temperature in winter and insummer, respectively. Body mass decreased with mothersage at first reproduction (young first time breeders per-formed better), with increased snow in the winter of ge-station and with increased population density in summer.

    Uniquely among 12 variables tested, the effect of age of thedam on body mass was sex specific: no interaction with sexwas detected in any of the remaining 11 variables. Body massincreased with age of the dam across three categories: 2, 3and 4-9 yr., and the effect was more pronounced in malethan in female calves. Thus, there was no sex difference inthe independent effect of age on body mass in calves rearedby 2 yr. old dams (which almost without exception were firsttime breeders), but male calves reared by dams aged 3 yr. or49 yr. old enjoyed superiority in body mass of 0.9 and 3.6kg, respectively, compared with females. In contrast, althoughheavy females wean heavy offspring, absence of sex depen-dence indicates that this relationship is governed chiefly bythe physiological stochiometry of lactation. Differential reproductive effort in favour of males therefore appears tobe a function of the age of the dam but not her growth.

    Age at first successful reproduction ranged from 2 to 5 yr.Calves of late first time breeders were smaller, at a givenbody mass of the dam, than those of early first time breeders,

    resulting in partial reversal of the age effect. Thus, calves bornto young females are likely to be heavier than those born toolder ones of similar size where the latter are first timebreeders. Consistent with lack of cost of reproduction inthis species (Weladji et al. 2008), body mass of calves wasinfluenced neither by the reproductive status at conceptionnor the fertility of their mothers.

    Calves body mass at the end of winter at was influenced by1 their sex (M>F), 11 their body mass at the end of thepreceding summer and 111 qualities of their mothers includingtheir body mass and fertility (both positive) and age at firstreproduction (negative). Calves body mass decreased withpopulation density in summer and snow in winter. Wedetected no independent effect on the body mass of calvesat the end of winter of mothers reproductive status atconception or of ambient temperature in winter. Thepowerful effect of calves body mass in summer on theirbody mass at the end of winter emphasized the overwhelm-ing importance of the first growing season for the sub-sequent development of reindeer calves.

    Snow depth varied threefold across the eight years of thestudy and was strongly related to variation in climate (theNorth Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) winter index). Thenegative effects of snow on body mass were, however,inconclusive in terms of a putative climate driven trend. First,no trend in depth of snow was apparent across the 40 yr.record (1970-2009). Second, the association between snowdepth and the NAO broke down in the larger data set. Theassociation between depth of snow and the NAO during theyears of the study and, in particular, a strong negativerelationship between body mass in late winter and the NAOin raw data (but not in model results) were therefore almostcertainly fortuitous.

    In contrast with snow, the positive effect of ambienttemperature in the winter of gestation on body mass in latesummer is potentially highly significant in terms of directionalchange in the growth of calves owing to a marked rise in

    32 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

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    g.rybkinawhat does this mean? I'm not sure I understood this right!

  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 33

    temperature at the winter pasture over the last decade. Thistrend, although only weakly associated with the NAO in the40 yr. record, is consistent with projections for the regionas a whole. The mechanism underlying the association be-tween winter temperature and body mass remains to beelucidated. The positive effect of summer temperature onbody mass, by contrast, is inconclusive in terms of directionalchange owing to absence of a trend in temperature acrossthe 40 yr. record.

    Substantial variation in the body mass of calves at two stagesof their early development can be explained in terms of thesimultaneous but, contrary to prediction 4 (above), largelyindependent effects of environmental variation and maternity.The functional relationships between factors in these twoclasses are highly complex. Recognizing this provides new

    understanding of the basis of heterogeneity of body sizeobserved in reindeer herds and of the potential influence ofclimate variation on it. Thus, mean ambient temperature inthe winter of gestation was the only one among six abioticenvironmental variables tested that could be associated witha putative climate driven trend in growth of calves. Warmerwinters projected for the region seem likely to enhancegrowth of calves in summer. The body mass of calves of bothsexes is modulated by powerful maternal effects, some ofwhich enhance and some of which depress growth. These,and similarly powerful effects of environmental fluctuationin five variables besides winter temperature, will probablycontinue to generate considerable heterogeneity in thegrowth of calves. The resulting variation in the body mass ofcalves within and between years will inevitably obscuretemperature driven trends in this important variable.

    Photo: Philip Burgess, ICR

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    AVKAS ARE VERY IMPORTANT, SINCE THEY FACILITATEMANAGING OF THE HERD. THEY OBEY PEOPLE AND LEADTHE REST OF THE HERD, RESPOND TO HUMAN CALL ANDCAN BE HARNESSED IN CASE OF EMERGENCY.NYADMA KHUDI, BRIGADIER YNAO, RUSSIA

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    Reindeer are highly adaptable ruminants with specializeddigestive mechanisms that enable them to cope with thevery large seasonal changes in the nutritional quality andavailability of forage characteristic of northern habitats. Thewinter reindeer pastoralism of the YNAO, is almost entirelybased on the sustainable exploitation of natural pasturesbelow the snowpack south of the Ob Bay, likewise the rein-deer in Finnmark eat a variety of different plant like lichens,grasses and shrubs.

    In both regions investigated, lichens are utilized as a mainenergy supply by reindeer in winter, but this dietary substratealso contain an antinutrient called usnic acid as a protectionagainst UV-B radiation, herbivores and microorganisms. Thepredicted increase in exposure to UV-B radiation in thenorth may increase the content of phenolic secondarycompounds in lichens and plants eaten by reindeer reducingtheir taste and digestibility (Turunen et al. 2009). We have,in a classical western scientific way, studied the interactions between usnic acid and the reindeer rumen microflora withone particular goal: to better understand reindeer adaptivecapacity and welfare related to UVB and usnic acid. We haverevealed a novel bacterium (Eubacterium rangiferina) in thereindeer rumen that has adapted mechanisms to deal withthe antibiotic usnic acid (Sundset et al., 2008). Usnic acid isdegraded by microbes in the reindeer rumen, and conse-quently not absorbed by the animal itself (Sundset et al.,2010).

    This is an example of a new and unique understanding ofreindeer welfare and the effect of UVB radiation. It is alsoan example of adaptive Physiology in Reindeer. Phenoliccompounds such as usnic acid have the potential to depressrumen methane production (Patra & Sacena 2010), andhence reduce the loss of energy from the animal andmitigate greenhouse gas emissions. We are consequentlysearching to identify the effect of usnic acid on the densitiesof rumen methanogens. Numbers of rumen methanogensare lower in reindeer compared to those found in domesticruminants (Sundset et al. 2009). Low numbers of rumenmethanogens found in reindeer suggest that reindeer mayemit less methane compared to other ruminants investi-gated. Greenhouse gas emissions are currently used as anargument to reduce the number of reindeer in Norway. Weconsequently aim to quantify the emissions of methane andthe energy loss this entails for the reindeer at different timesof the year and on different diets.

    Contrasting from this way of studying reindeer welfare, wealso have found that reindeer husbandry as an indigenousproduction system in extreme, variable and unpredictableclimates are based on risk minimization strategies such ascrop diversification, and skilled, flexible utilization of existingecological and climatic niches. In such areas, we argue thatlong-term climate change will magnify already extremeweather conditions, with unpredictable effects. Adaptive re-sponses to dramatic environmental change are oftenencoded in traditional knowledge (Reinert et al. 2009).

    WELFARE OF REINDEER AND HERDS OF REINDEER TWO WAYS OF KNOWING

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    g.rybkina

    g.rybkinawinter case in YaNAO is compared with Finnmark case without specification of season - no logic!!!

  • According to Berkes et al. (2000), traditional knowledge, asa way of knowing, is similar to Western science in that it isbased on an accumulation of observations but it is alsodifferent from science in some fundamental ways. Theanthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (1962) argued that thesetwo ways of knowing are two parallel modes of acquiringknowledge about the universe, the two sciences werefundamentally distinct in that the physical worlds is ap-proached from two opposite ends in two cases, one is su-premely concrete and the other supremely abstract. Instudies of welfare of reindeer and reindeer herds we haveincluded reindeer herders insights of animal welfare andscientific understanding. The findings document uniqueknowledge about animal welfare in both Finnmark and theYNAO, and demonstrate the potential bridging betweenwestern and indigenous ways of knowing.

    Reindeer herders have traditionally maintained high levels ofphenotypic diversity in their herds (N. Oskal, 2000; Magga,2006). The Smi concept of a beautiful herd of reindeer(ppa eallu) incorporates, therefore, a diversity which is theantithesis of the monoculture of homogeneity observed ina pure-bred herd of livestock developed by selection to suitthe requirements of modern, high-yielding agriculturalruminant production systems. The traditional diversity of thestructure of the reindeer herds reflects a strategy aimed atreducing their vulnerability to the consequences of unfavor-able and unpredictable conditions. In this way apparentlynon-productive animals have particular roles, whichcontribute to the productivity of the herd as a whole. Forexample, in the 1960s reindeer herds in Finnmark typicallycomprised as much as 50% adult males, many of which werecastrated (Paine, 1994). Surprisingly this is very similar totodays herd structure in the YNAO. They may also havelowered the general level of activity of the females, hencecontributing to increased net energy gain in the herd.Modern agronomists have considered adult males un-productive and today few herds in Finnmark comprise morethan 10% large bulls, but variation is large (Nilsen, 1998).

    The structure of reindeer herds contrasts dramatically frome.g. sheep farming: Within normal sheep rearing, meatproduction based on old uncastrated rams is unthinkable.No sheep farmer would use the winter feed the marginalfactor on a herd of rams that produce less meat than theewes can produce through the yield of lambs. Today, the lineof thinking should be the same in reindeer herding. Maleanimals that are superfluous from the point of view ofprocreation occupy grazing grounds that could be employed,instead, for cows. A herd of male animals larger than what isnecessary for good insemination results should in that casebe based on factors other than meat production, such astourism or special management techniques (Lenvik, 1990).

    According to Yuzahakov (Yuzhakov and Muhhachev 2001)during the long history of practicing scientific selection, inRussia, not a single breed of reindeer has been created byscientific selection. People (reindeer herders) selection hascreated five breeds. The concepts of peoples selectioninclude herds comprised of avkas (Smi: gesat) and khaptarkas(Smi: sainat), non productive animals which add in modulatingthe herd behavior. Avkas are reindeer in Nenets reindeer herd-ing which from a young age are fed with fish soup, bread ormilk regularly by the herder, and can live inside the tents andwith herd. Over the last decades in Norway, reindeermanagers have reduced the number of castrates for severalreasons. One was introduced by the Norwegian AnimalWelfare Act. Accordingly, castration of reindeer bulls wasonly allowed with anaesthesia performed by a veterinarian.In the field, only a bloodless method using the castrating for-ceps, e.g. the Burdizzo instrument, can be used. The spermaticcord and blood-vessels to the testicles together with thesensitive nerves are crushed and damaged. This is consideredpainful, and anaesthesia is required. The procedure is costlyand time consuming, and in addition to other reasons, thepractice has been reduced (Nergrd et al. 2010).

    Vladimir Etylin, from Chuckhi reindeer herding commentedon this in 2007:

    36 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

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    g.rybkinawhat does this system produce?

    g.rybkinamaybe "breeder", as agronomist relates to plants cropping:)

  • Being an indigenous representative and having been born on thetundra myself, I consider [proposed] a ban on castration as a seriousthreat to all reindeer husbandry. [] Castrated males do have theirown place in the herds structure too. Humans would not have beenable to domesticate reindeer without castration. It is one of thecornerstones of the domestication process. []Without castrationsit is not possible to build up a controllable reindeer herd. Geldingshave many functions in a reindeer herd. The first one is that theyare the calmest animals of a herd. Which means that a reindeerherd with castrates quiets down easily. For example: In Chukotka itis impossible to survive without crushing ice during a so-called blackice period, when everything gets covered with a layer of ice. Whenthis happens only castrates are strong enough to break such ice.[] Reindeer cows follow after them and eat the fodder left over.

    Castrates do not go into rut, are calmer, heavier and we be-lieve, are better snow-diggers in the winter. When wintertemperatures rise, thawing and freezing may induce worseice conditions than earlier, and the access to food for femalesand calves may be more difficult. We have proposed that there-introduction of castrates could be a strategy for betterwinter survival and welfare for individual animals and for theherd. The Smi castration method gaskit, was traditionallyperformed with the teeth, without anaesthesia. Animals castrated with gaskitmethods sometimes behave differentlyfrom those castrated with the Burdizzo (Nergrd et al. 2010).In our present study we have compared different castrationmethods, describe the mechanism behind the gaskitmethod and to ask how they affect the animal and the herd.Furthermore, combining traditional knowledge and new tech-nologies we have preliminarily demonstrated the effectivecastration after immunization of reindeer bulls with an anti-GnRH vaccine. We hope that the reintroduction of an oldmethod to support herders adapt to climate change by bridg-ing new technologies with traditional knowledge, will increasethe number of castrates in the herd thereby buildingresilience to climate change in Smi reindeer herding.

    As a consequence of the changes, in Smi reindeer hus-bandry during the last 30 years, described, the increased

    supplementary feeding in winter in Finnmark Norway hassubsequently increased. The provision of small amounts ofsupplementary feed can improve survival in winter andincrease the degree of tameness of the herd. The pattern ofincreased feeding might alter if the incidence of unfavorablesnow conditions increase. Restricted access to pastureduring winter due to crusted snow or ice may exposeanimals to starvation that depresses rumen fermentationresulting in weight loss or even death. A probiotic mayalleviate these problems and hence increase animal welfare.The reindeer rumen represents a unique and complexsymbiotic microbial ecosystem evolved through a long his-tory of feeding on Arctic plants and lichens (Mackie et al.,2003; Sundset et al., 2007). We have thus searched forputative probiotics among anaerobic rumen bacterial isolatesfrom reindeer to increase welfare related to winter feeding. Climate change is likely to affect the Smi region in Norwayand the YNAO in Russia with greater variability intemperature, precipitation and wind, and higher wintertemperatures. Resilience thinking draws therefore attentionto the importance of recognizing all present knowledge bothscientific and traditional knowledge including restructuringof herds to decrease vulnerability to or increased supp-lementary feeding of reindeer.

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 37

    Figure 8. Reindeer herders build resilience in reindeer hus-bandry by spreading the risk through investing in biologicaldiversity such as maintaining different kind of phenotypicreindeer like castrated animals in the herd.

    Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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    g.rybkina

    g.rybkina

  • 38 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    WE LIKE EALT BECAUSE IT IS ABOUT LIFE. CLAUDIA TIKHONOVA, EVENKI REINDEERHERDER, SAKHA (YAKUTIA), RUSSIA

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 39

    Local community based workshops organized within thereindeer herding societies in tundra and taiga reindeer herd-ing regions focus on information on climate change howtraditional knowledge is used and how traditional grazingland is lost. One part of the IPY EALT consortium wasEALT-Information, which aimed to be the voice of reindeerherders to the Arctic Council on climate change issues, pro-moting local competence building for indigenous peoples.The challenge of EALT-Information is to take reindeerherders knowledge into action for sustainable developmentof the Arctic and, in particular, involve Russian andScandinavian reindeer herders in this process, and give someconcrete examples how herders traditional knowledgerelates to adaptation to changing conditions, includingtraditional use of grazing lands.

    The community based workshops have provided an arenawhere scientific and traditional knowledge could meet, bemeasured up against each other, facilitating dialogue andsharing of understanding between reindeer herding commu-nities and scientific communities. The concept has alsoincluded local authorities, bringing governance in as a thirddimension. In this process, the participants of the differentcommunities have gained increased insights into the othersknowledge base, understandings and perspectives. Theworkshops have thus provided a format where it has beennatural to seek to integrate the different ways of knowing(I. M. G. Eira) with each other.

    With EALT a collaborative process between science, herdingcommunities and authorities throughout the circumpolarnorth has been initiated, processes which provide knowledgeand answers that neither group could have come up with ontheir own. As EALT sees the challenges of global changesin the north to be of such proportions that we need to usethe best available knowledge to adapt, these processes although arguably at very early stages could prove crucialin the search for local answers to future adaptationchallenges. In this regard, the process of EALT and thecommunity based workshops is seen as very valuable on itsown, and perhaps even the most important contributiongiven that we do not yet see the full scale and impacts of thechanges that are coming. Seen in relation to long term pers-pectives, it seems obvious that the timeframe of the actualproject can only provide us with a snapshot of thedevelopment ahead. Still, developing understanding forcurrent changes and adaptation strategies is important forbuilding a foundation of knowledge and for processingexperiences for future adaptation measures and leadership.In terms of pastures, local climate and topographicconditions, there is a high diversity in the investigatedreindeer herding regions, indicating that the original adaptivecapacity of reindeer herding as a system may be high.

    The adaptation challenges facing reindeer husbandry alsoseems to differ greatly geographically, clearly demonstratedby the community based workshops in different regions. Asa starting point, EALT sees adaptation to climate change

    EALT COMMUNITY BASEDWORKSHOPS IN THECIRCUMPOLAR NORTH

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  • 40 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    as something happening at the local level, where the actualimpacts are felt. EALT thus represents a place based approach, where local reindeer herding societies are them-selves involved in defining risks and possible adaptationstrategies, in a process of co-production of knowledge.

    A key aspect of the EALT concept is local capacity building.This is understood as building knowledge and knowledge institutions locally, in order to increase the local indigenouscommunities own adaptive capacity to coming changes. As a pilot initiative for local capacity building following the

    Figure 9. EALT Community based workshop August 3rd 2009 Yamal Peninsula, Yamal Nenets AO Western Siberia, Russia withNenets, Komi and Smi herders and youth.

    Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 41

    EALT workshops and activities in the circumpolar regions,there has now been established three local reindeer herdingcentres in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in Eastern Siberia:The Centre for Taiga Reindeer Husbandry in Khatystyr,Aldansky region, the Centre for Tundra Reindeer Husbandryin Uryung-Khaya, Anabarsky region, the Centre for Forest-Tundra Reindeer Husbandry in Olenek, Oleneksky region.There is also the initiative to establish a College for ReindeerHusbandry, Teachers and Eveny Cultural Centre in Topolinoe,in the Tomponsky region of Sakha Republic. These in-stitutions have been established as a collaboration betweenthe International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, localauthorities and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), linked toEALT and IPY. They are funded primarily by localauthorities, and are working to maintain and develop a sus-tainable reindeer husbandry in the face of change. This is avery concrete outcome of EALT locally.

    Following EALT a housing program for reindeer herdershas also been implemented in Sakha, building new houses forseasonal use by reindeer herding families in some of the leasthospitable natural environments in the world. In the wakeof this program, the citizens of Khatystyr municipality wasvoted to call the new street with such houses EALTStreet. Although this was a non-intended side-effect of anongoing process, it goes to show that the place-based work-ing model of EALT can have impacts on local societies, in-fluencing people and their lives in different ways. Allworkshops voiced the importance of private ownership toindividual reindeer to strengthen resilience in their societyand motivate people to have an active and meaningful life.

    EALT INFORMATION HAS THUS FAR ORGANIZED THEFOLLOWING COMMUNITY-BASED WORKSHOPS:

    1. Kautokeino,Norway,February2007(Startup)

    2. Nadym,Yamal-NenetsAO,Russia,March2007

    3. Anadyr,ChukotkaAO,Russia,February2008

    4. Kanchalan,ChukotkaAO,Russia,February-

    March2008

    5. Yar-Sale,Yamal-NenetsAO,Russia,September

    2008

    6. Topolinoe,SakhaRep.,Russia,April2008

    7. Khatystyr,SakhaRep.,Russia,September2008

    8. BolshoyNimnyr,SakhaRep.,Russia,

    September2008

    9. Inari,Finland,September2008

    10. Khatystyr,SakhaRep.,Russia,February2009

    11. Khralovo,Yamal-NenetsAO,Russia,August

    2009

    12. Uryung-Khaya,SakhaRep.,Russia,March

    2010

    13. Saskylakh,SakhaRep.,Russia,March2010

    14. Khatystyr,SakhaRep.,Russia,March2010

    15. Lengra,SakhaRep.,Russia,March2010

    16. Naryan-Mar,NenetsAO,Russia,September

    2010

    17. Khorey-Vertundra,NenetsAO,Russia,

    September2010

    18. Ammarns,Sweden,October2010

    19. Mittdalen,Sweden,October2010

    20. Inuvik,CanadaMarch2011

    21. Olenek,SakhaYakutia,April2011

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    g.rybkinathere should be Iengra, but not Lengra!!!!

  • 42 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Figure 10. NASA satellite image of Eurasia with snow covering the ground showing all 21 local reindeer herders communitieswhere Arctic Council SDWG EALT community based workshops have been held.

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 43

    Figure 11. Reindeer husbandry zones and sites of established network of information centers for reindeerhusbandry in Sakha (Yakutia).

    THE CASE OF REINDEER HUSBANDRY IN SAKHA (YAKUTIA), RUSSIA.

    EALT workshops (8) were hold within reindeer herdingcommunities in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in easternRussia. The Republic is the largest region of the RussianFederation with territory covering some 1/5 of the RussianFederation. With such a vast size, reindeer herding here isas diverse as the region itself. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)includes high Arctic, sub-arctic, mountain-taiga and taiga. Fivedistinct indigenous peoples herd reindeer in Sakha: Eveny,Evenki, Dolgan, Yukagirs and Chukchi. Some 25% of theentire Republic is considered as reindeer pastures though ithas been estimated that there are more lands in the Republicwhich potentially could be used as grazing lands for reindeer(National Report, 2009), signifying its potential for growth.The vast majority of reindeer pastures and potential pasturesare in the forestry zone of the Republic (State NationalReport, 2009). This is important as according to Russianlegislation, the forestry lands are under Federal management,while lands designated agricultural are under the manage-ment of local authorities.

    Currently there are over 200 000 reindeer are herded byover 2200 people who work and migrate with reindeer fulltime. Reindeer are primarily owned by various state, publicor collective organization bodies, although nearly 10% areheld privately (Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic ofSakha (Yakutia), 2010). There are a wide variety of subsidiesthat are provided to herders by the regions in areas thatinclude increasing livestock, transportation, and education.

    Participants of the EALT workshops throughout theRepublic repeatedly stated that the full extent of the loss ofreindeer pastures, due to construction and infrastructuraldevelopment such as power lines, roads etc. had not been

    Tundra zone

    Forest-tundra zone

    Mountain taiga zone

    Taiga zone

    Area where reindeer husbandry is not present or present in small amount

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  • 44 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    evaluated and that this had given rise to great uncertaintywith regard to the quality and extent of pastures. TheRepublic is rich in resources and key to the regions futureplans are the implementation of numerous large scaledevelopment projects, several of which are already underway. Herders called for a system of monitoring to be im-plemented that gave a fuller picture of pasture loss.

    For example, in the Anabar district which is representativeof tundra reindeer husbandry, pastures are being lost due tothe activities of diamond mining, as well as localized coal mining activities. Reindeer herders have had to move fromtheir pastures in this district due to such activities (EALTworkshop in Uryung-Khaya 2010). Wild reindeer haveincreasingly become a concern for herders in the North ofthe Republic and this was reiterated by participants of theEALT workshops both in Anabar and Olenek. Herderscalled for the development of monitoring systems ofmigrations of wild reindeer and to include traditionalknowledge into the monitoring process and the analysis ofthe results.

    An EALT workshop was also held in the settlement ofTopolinoe in the Tompo region. Here, large scale miningactivities (gold, copper, coal and more) are planned. However,the potential impact of these plans on reindeer herders andreindeer pastures has not yet been investigated. Traditionalland use activities has so far been ignored nor has there beenany discussion of the concept of compensation for theselosses.

    The participants of the workshops held in Southern Yakutia in Khatystyr, Bolshoy Nimnyr and Iengra were particularlyconcerned about industrial development in their territories,

    in particular with the reduction of reindeer pastures, environ-mental degradation and the lack of dialogue betweenherders and industrial companies. Herders reported thattheir interests were not being taken into consideration whendecisions regarding the development of the area were beingmade. For example, the reindeer herding communityIdzhek has repeatedly appealed to RusHydro companywith the demand to take the herders interests into accountwhen designing and constructing the Cancun hydro powerplant. The winter pastures of the community are in the areaof the proposed hydroelectric dam and will be flooded.However, no formal response was received neither from thecompany nor from representatives of the government(Results from the EALT workshop in Khatystyr, 2009)

    Photo:Anders Oskal, ICR

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 45

    Taiga reindeer husbandry is one of the most unique andancient types of reindeer husbandry practiced today in Rus-sia, China and Mongolia. Taiga reindeer husbandry differsfrom other types of reindeer husbandry in that herds aresmaller and herders ride and milk their reindeer.

    Traditionally, these communities combine herding with thehunting of wild animals and game in the taiga (Klokov, 2004).Evenki herders use reindeer as transport when they huntfor wild reindeer, sable, bear, muss etc. In taiga and forestregions, the livelihood and culture of the reindeer herdersis increasingly threatened by hunting restrictions and wildlifeconservation, development activities (such as minerals andforestry), and increased exposure to livestock diseases. All

    the while, communities face a growing need for cash in orderto access education and healthcare (Klokov, 2004). Forindigenous pastoral peoples the loss of reindeer also meansthe loss of livelihood, culture and identity, with the ultimaterisk of an indigenous people disappearing altogether. Duringthe last few decades Kets, Nganasans as well as severalcommunities of Evenki, Eveny, Chukchi and other indigenouspeoples have lost their tradition of reindeer husbandrywhich has resulted in the acceleration of their assimilation.Reindeer herders of forest and taiga zones are particularlyexposed to this risk. Therefore, a legacy of IPY EALT is tofocus on the challenges of taiga reindeer husbandry and theirsocieties in cooperation with Russia, Mongolia and the UN.

    TAIGA REINDEER HUSBANDRY

    Photo:Anders Oskal, ICR

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    g.rybkinamaybe moose:))))

  • 46 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    Despite the historical and socio-economic upheavals of thelast century, the reindeer peoples, regions and cultures ofSakha (Yakutia) remain deeply embedded within a systemthat is underpinned by traditional knowledge and anindigenous understanding of the environment as a highlycomplex system. From generation to generation the herdersof Sakha (Yakutia) have passed on their knowledge aboutherding practices, landscape, climate and weather, vegetation,biology and behavior of animals. By way of example thissystem of knowledge allows reindeer herders to protecttheir herds from insects and heat and find solutions forbetter grazing when extreme weather events occur.Reindeer herders burn a special kind of moss and reindeerdroppings to make a smoke in order to protect reindeeragainst insects. They also build shelters (khaltama) to preventthe herd from suffering from the heat during the hottest periods of summer. Herders also use ice-deposits (perma-frost) to cool the herd and diminish insect harassment. Theseare some of the strategies that may be impacted shouldclimate variability increase, as is predicted. Herders havealways adapted to climatic changes in the region, varyingtheir migration routes for example, or varying their pasturemanagement strategies according to local climate variabilitys.This is pasture management based on the traditional know--ledge of landscape, vegetation and climate. Therefore, theability to retain mobility and the continued availability ofcertain lands and the herders knowledge how and when touse them is crucial to the welfare of the whole herd and byextension, the herding community. Due to increased in-dustrial development in reindeer pastures this has createdchallenges for herders, such as disturbance of animals, loss

    and/ or degradation of pastures, loss of biodiversity andincreased poaching of reindeer. When combined, these ele-ments serve to limit herders coping and adaptationstrategies. Taiga reindeer husbandry is an ancient presencein Sakha (Yakutia) and embodies an body of knowledge ofhow to adapt to changes, including climate change in theregion and to lose this knowledge would represent a broadloss to humanity.

    As a result of EALT workshops in Khatystyr and Aldan andas a potential contribution to development of communicationand dialogue between reindeer herders and industrialdevelopers an Information Centre for Taiga Reindeer Hus-bandry was established in Khatystyr supported by thegovernment of the Aldan region and Khatystyr municipality.During the EALT work in Sakha Republic similar centreswere established in Uryung-Khaya, Anabar district (Tundrareindeer husbandry), Olenek, Oleneksky district (Forest-Tundra reindeer husbandry) and there is an initiative to establish a college for reindeer husbandry in Topolinoe,Tomponsky district. Recently, in another positive develop-ment the JSC Corporation ofIntegrated Development ofSouthern Yakutia has applied to the Association ofIndigenous Peoples of Sakha Republic to sign an agreementof cooperation to avoid conflicts, develop social partnershipand support indigenous activities in the region. The rapidchanges in the taiga region in Sahka (Yakutia) is a threat toreindeer husbandry and the herders societies. The voice ofreindeer herders should be included in further developmentof the region.

    USE OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 47

    This, of course, is the real problem.. Not having a place to be inthe winter. We have a group that has no land to be on at all.

    Martin Eriksson reindeer Herder in Handlsdalen

    In Sweden, the Smi reindeer herding area stretches fromthe Finnish border in the north to Dalarna County in thesouth of the country. The area covers 226 000 sq km, whichis 55% of Swedens landmass. The reindeer herding area isdivided into 51 reindeer herding districts, or so called SamiVillages. There were 4668 reindeer owners in Sweden in2008/2009, more than 900 were responsible for a herdinggroup or a company. The responsible owner is usually aperson who actually works with reindeer or is owner of areindeer herding enterprise. The total number of reindeerin Sweden varies between 225 000 and 280 000 and in2009/2010 there were just over 250 000 animals.

    One of the Arctic Council EALT-information place-basedworkshops in Sweden was held in Mittdalen, a small villagein the southernmost reindeer husbandry area in Sweden andSpmi within the County of Jmtland, in cooperation withthe project Eallinbiras of the Sami Parliament in Sweden andthe Saami Council. The five Smi villages of Hrjedalen(Handlsdalen, Tsssen, Mittdalen, Ruvhten Sijte and Idre)have their summer pastures in the western areas towardsthe border of Norway and their winter pastures in theSwedish inland forests. These villages are often known as theSami villages of Hrjedalen.

    In Hrjedalen the so-called Hrjedalen case (Hrjedalsmlet)was initiated in 1990 when private land owners sued the fiveSami villages of Hrjedalen, claiming that the villages have noright to graze their reindeer on land to which the land-owners

    hold formal title, but which the reindeer herders maintainconstitutes traditional reindeer grazing lands. In 1996, theCourt of First instance concluded that the Sami villages holdno customary rights to the land areas in dispute and theCourt of Appeals (2002) confirmed the first instances ruling,and finally in 2004 the Supreme Court denied further appeal.Smi villages fared so poorly in these court proceedings canto a large extent be explained by Swedish rules of evidenceat that time being influenced by Swedish cultural practice.Swedish law seemed to place the burden of proof on theSami villages, who had to prove that each specific area hastraditionally been used for reindeer pasture. Further-more,the evidence presented was evaluated by a standard rootedin Swedish culture, which rendered it difficult for Samivillages to prove that they had traditionally used a particularestate for pasture. The courts focused on written documentsand remnants in the terrain. The Smi culture is oral bynature, where knowledge is passed on orally from generationto generation, and traditionally it is the aspiration of thereindeer herder to leave no trace in nature, when one leavesa place. These factors combined implied that it was difficultfor the Smi villages to prove their traditional presence inthe area.

    The Swedish conventional legal system has been designed todeal with land conflicts were both parties claims are rootedin traditional Swedish land use, and not with conflicts whereone party pursue the semi-nomadic reindeer husbandryparticular to the Smi culture. As a consequence, when sucha legal system deals with conflicts between the Swedish andSmi society, there is a risk that the Smi villages aredisadvantaged. There seems to be essentially two possiblesolutions: Either the state amends the legislation to create amore level playing field. Alternatively, the courts take a

    THE CASE OF REINDEER HUSBANDRY IN SWEDEN: HRJEDALEN

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    progressive approach, and cater for justice by acknowledgingthe particularities of the Sami culture in their reasoning. At the time of the Hrjedalen Case, none of these paths hadbeen pursued.

    Swedish authorities have not yet found a political solution tothe problem with Swedish title-holders bringing Smi villagesto courts. The Sami villages in Hrjedalen have, since the trialstarted, asked for support from the Swedish government tofind a political solution to the conflict. For instance, they havesuggested a compensation fund so that it should not benecessary to bring the case to court. Furthermore, the Smivillages together with the landowners made a proposalwhere they asked for economical support to find an agree-ment with out a solution made (Borchert 2001: 52). Havingwon the law suit, the title holders have demanded that theSmi villages pay a tenancy fee for using the areas in dispute.The Smi villages primary position has been that the law-suit was unjust, and the Swedish state must take re-sponsibility it. They have therefore maintained that theSwedish government should expropriate their grazing rightsfrom the title-holders. According to the reindeer herders,Sweden has up until now not been able to discuss these op-portunities for solutions to this difficult issue. Instead, thegovernment has supported the title-holders in insisting onthat the only solution for continued reindeer husbandry inthe area is a negotiated agreement on a tenancy fee betweenthe Smi villages and the title-holders. Smi villages andreindeer herders report that the government has suggestedto reduce their numbers of reindeer if they refuse to signan agreement. Negotiations on an agreement has thus goneon for years, but have not resulted in an agreement since thetitle-holders have demanded a fee the villages consider theycannot afford to pay. Although the Smi villages are principally

    strongly against paying for the land they consider as theirs,and will find difficulties in paying also a relatively lowertenancy fee, they might feel forced to sign the agreement.

    Recently, on 27 April 2011, the Swedish Supreme Courtdelivered its ruling in another reindeer grazing case, the so-called Nordmaling Case. The Supreme Court found in favorof the Smi villages sued in that case. In doing so, the SupremeCourt changed its earlier practice, indicating a change inSwedish law and jurisprudence. The Supreme Court tookaccount of the particularities of reindeer herding, that it isan oral, nomadic life-style that leaves few traces on theground. It allowed the grazing-pattern of the reindeer toexercise considerable influence over the geographical extentof the grazing right. In short, the Supreme Court exercisedan unbiased model for trying whether the Smi villages hadestablished rights to their traditional territories.

    The Hrjedalen Case is an example that loss of grazing landcan also be due to governance. The Smi village of Handls-dalen for instance has lost half of their winter pastures inthe Hrjedalen case, and now has to rely on transport ofreindeer by trailers instead of their traditional nomadicmigration over spring and autumn pastures. What is more,law-suits are not the only kind of loss of grazing land thatreindeer husbandry face in this area. Piecemeal developmentis a serious issue, here as in other reindeer herding areas,and a particular strong stakeholder in the southernmostreindeer husbandry area is the tourism industry. During theEALT workshop two skiing resorts, located between theSmi villages of Mittdalen and Ruvhten Sijte, were visited.During the last 1015 years the tourism has developedgreatly with tourism activities still expanding, taking landsfrom the Smi villages in demand. The Destination Funsdalen

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    tourism development project, partly funded by the EuropeanUnion, was what concerned the reindeer herders of theEALT workshop in Hrjedalen the most, besides theHrjedalen Case. What is more, one has to remember, thatreindeer husbandry in Hrjedalen is not spared from otherkinds of industrial development, quite the opposite theyare highly affected by e.g. forestry, infrastructure and comingwind-power development. Climate change adaptation is thus

    currently not considered the most imminent issue in theregion, but will likely further add to the other challenges ofland use change. The EALT project has so far not been ableto identify traditional knowledge-based adaptation measuresthat would efficiently handle the consequences of theobserved pasture loss in Hrjedalen, indicating that thesekind of losses might make the reindeer herders vulnerableto future climate change in this region.

    Photo: Helena Omma, ICR

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    OUTREACH OF EALTKNOWLEDGE: THEREINDEER PORTAL

    Developing online tools to facilitate outreach and informationwas a key component of the outreach and information portionof the IPY EALT project. The Reindeer Portal (www.reindeer-portal.org), the EALT website (www.ealat.org) and theReindeer Blog (www.reindeerblog.org) have evolved intostable and effective means of implementing electronic out-reach to further the aims and goals of the EALT projectand by extension the International Centre for Reindeer Hus-bandry and by extension again, outreach information aboutthe background and challenges that face reindeer husbandryto a global audience in general. The EALT site carries in-formation about the project, the research goals, publications,new on activities, and extensive video and photography ar-chive, a document archive, live feed data on climate andseveral other innovative features and is now ranked Number1 for Google search EALAT.

    The combined traffic to all integrated websites is now over100 000 visitors who have visited over 250,000 pages arrivingfrom 161 countries (Norway, USA, Canada, Iceland, UK,Sweden, Russia, Finland, Germany and Denmark making the

    top ten visiting countries). This outreach portion of theEALT project has been intensely collaborative both interms of international technical partners (the Arctic Portal,utilizing open source software, Polarview, the MeteorologicalInstitute, NASA and others), but also in terms of partner-ships at the community level: web partnerships emphasizingcommunication between reindeer peoples which have beenestablished with several communities in the YNAO, theRepublic of Sakha (Yakutia) neighboring Finland. Thesepartnerships were established during the IPY EALT projectbut are designed to outlast the project and continue as anIPY legacy. Multiple training sessions have been carried outwith this in mind. Translation of primary texts into Smi andRussian, with English being the primary language has alsobeen prioritized and the implementation of new tools toenhance diverse and local engagement with the Portal (selfsubmission of video, multiple authorship, sms based tools,and the initial development of smart phone tools) willcontinue to ensure that this portion of the EALT projectremains relevant to end users.

    No1 for Google Search EALT. EALT home page, hosted on the ArcticPortal

    100 000 visitors, 250,000 pages, 161countries

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    EALT IS AN INSTRUMENT FOR BUILDINGADAPTIVE CAPACITY AND KNOWLEDGEIN THE CIRCUMPOLAR NORTHJOHAN MATHIS TURI REINDEER HERDER

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    TEACHING, LEARNING ANDBUILDING COMPETENCELOCALLY IN REINDEERHERDERS SOCIETIESEALT has contributed to the building of local competenceby expanding and enhancing local understanding of thechallenges facing local communities who depend ontraditional livelihoods as a result of climate change and otherfactors related to globalization, such as loss pastures, a keyconcern for reindeer herding societies. This has providedreindeer herders societies, organizations and relevant local,regional and governing agencies with new insights andknowledge through a variety of methods. These include butare not limited to a series of new university and collegecourses related to sustainable reindeer husbandry, climatechange issues and the importance taking into account bothscientific and local, or traditional knowledge.

    A specific objective has been to enhance competency inreindeer pastoralist societies in Norway and Russia. TheEALT project has demonstrated that the coupled human-ecological systems in the North, in this case, based uponreindeer pastoralism, are sensitive to climate change, due tothe high variability of Arctic climate and the characteristicsintrinsic to traditional livelihoods such as those practiced byreindeer herders. By enhancing the recruitment of youngscientists from local communities, and supporting institutionbuilding for indigenous organizations, the EALT project hassupported capacity building for indigenous societies.

    We conclude that adaptation to climate change demands thetraining of local Arctic leaders in long term sustainable thinking,based on the best available adaptation strategies and know-

    ledge, which draws upon both scientific and experienced-based traditional knowledge. We recommend that nationaladaptation strategies must recognize the specific challengesfacing indigenous peoples within their borders and recognizethe importance and validity of the knowledge embeddedwithin these communities. We also recommend that nationalpolicies should take steps to actively support indigenouspeoples traditional knowledge, and their cultural and linguistic diversity and support and invest in future educationprogrammes that support these goals.

    Bachelor course: Learning by herding

    At the Smi University College in Kautokeino, Norway, theEALT project has developed a unique course in reindeerhusbandry with a focus on human-coupled ecosystems, titledLearning by Herding which has enrolled more than 55students from reindeer herders communities over the last4 years. Leading scientists from both the natural and socialsciences have participated together with Smi reindeerherders possessing an in-depth understanding and practicein traditional knowledge as teachers, supervisors andexaminers. The students have been trained to includeknowledge from science and traditional knowledge in theirwriting, discussions and oral presentations in topics relatedto reindeer herding. One such topic was traditionalknowledge as representing a common knowledge resourceof indigenous reindeer herders and how important it is toinclude such knowledge in the management of natural

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    resources locally. By way of example the course included ses-sions that featured elder reindeer herders discussing snowcharacteristics in the field alongside cryospheric scientistsusing their tools of the trade to explain the samephenomena.

    Such sessions were not limited to Kautokeino. A series oflectures was also carried for young Nenets reindeer herdingstudents on the bachelor level at the Salekhard AgriculturalTechnical College in the YNAO. It is important to rememberthat learning about adaptation to climate change takes rootswhere knowledge about climate variability and change isdeveloped and used.

    Online education for Smi Reindeer Herders (SAJO)

    Experience shows that the school system in Norway ispoorly adapted to reindeer herding, and it has limited thepossibilities for reindeer herders to take part in educationalprograms. Students own knowledge is not acknowledged orintegrated, and the means by which programs are organizedin space and time is not adapted to the cyclical rhythms ofreindeer herding. This program is about developing and implementing a flexible and integrated education model foryoung reindeer herders, whom until now have not hadsufficient opportunity to participate in ordinary educationprograms at colleges and universities. The aim of this modelis twofold:

    Reindeer herders traditional knowledge is used as a basisfor developing the model

    Herders knowledge is combined with conventional school-based knowledge.

    Students can continue working as reindeer herders as theysimultaneously take part in educational programs adapted

    to reindeer husbandry. The link between traditional know-ledge and science contributes to knowledge of relevance tothe practice of reindeer herding conduct, and the theoriesof professional practice. That fact that research is conductedin a context involving both researchers and practitioners,will bring new knowledge to both fields of practice andresearch. As a result, the collective understanding of reindeerhusbandry will be enhanced.

    In the future, climate change will be a challenge for reindeerhusbandry. Therefore the monitoring and experience ofthese changes by reindeer herders will be important withregard to adapting to climate change. Data and informationtechnology (ICT) is a key tool in verbal activation, systemati-zation and dissemination of reindeer herding knowledge, andhas the potential to build bridges between differentknowledge traditions. Experience so far shows that it is pos-sible to implement a vocational based education modeladapted to the needs of reindeer herders in a way thatenables traditional knowledge and science to go hand inhand. Currently, there are 41 reindeer herders who havejoined the online course and program (SAJO). IPY EALTPhd student Mathis Bongo has developed this programmeand was awarded a prize for being the best online teacherin Norway in 2010.

    Higher degree students

    Both Masters and Phd students and post doctoral fellowshave contributed to work within the EALT project, in fieldsof meteorology, linguistics, geography, ecology, veterinarymedicine, biology, political science and anthropology. Multipleinstitutions have been in cooperation including the Universityof Oslo and Troms the Norwegian School of VeterinaryScience, University of Ume, St Petersburg State Universityand Smi University College.

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    Adaptation to globalization of the Arctic (AGA) a following up of ACIA and an online adaptationcourse from EALT in cooperation with UARCTIC

    Another unique delivery for IPY EALT is AGA: Adaptationto Globalization in the Arctic: The Case of Reindeer Hus-bandry. This is an online course on the Masters level in theThematic Networks programme of the University of theArctic and is a following up of ACIA Chapter 17. The entirecourse is delivered online and went live in January 2011 withover 30 students participating, either for credit (8 ECTS/ 4Credits) or for audit. Enrolled students are from Russia,Norway, Finland, Sweden, the USA and Canada. Developmentof this course was initiated in 2006 and has been co-ordinatedby International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry. The finalproduct is a collaboration between the International Centrefor Reindeer Husbandry, the Smi University College, theNorwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, the Arctic PortalIceland, the Thule Institute, and the University of Oulu, Fin-land. Participating lecturers were from USA, Canada, FinlandRussia and Norway and include scientists and reindeerherders signalling a unique cooperation in the circumpolarnorth.

    More than 30 students registered for this Master of Sciencecourse from all over the circumpolar north including Russia,Finland, Sweden, Norway, USA and Canada. The courseallows the IPY EALT project to voice that societal trans-formations associated with globalisation are leading to theloss of understanding of nomadic reindeer herding practices.This course is a unique outcome and product of an IPYproject as it disseminates information about reindeer hus-bandry to a circumpolar network of students and interestedparties, leading to a broader engagement by main-streamsociety for whom this is a marginal livelihood practiced in aremote part of the globe.

    Teacher training

    IPY EALT has organized two courses for more than 25high school teachers from throughout Norway. One coursewas in sustainable reindeer husbandry, traditional knowledgeand climate change and was held in Kautokeino, Norway inthe winter of 2008. A subsequent course was held thefollowing year on sea Smi culture, history and subsistencein the village of Tana, Norway.

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    Photo: Philip Burgess, ICR

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    IPY EALT LEGACY

    The IPY EALT consortium has established a unique in-stitutional data and knowledge sharing network in thecircumpolar North. It will be maintained for the future co-operation between peoples and states beyond the IPY era.In implementing these efforts, the Association of WorldReindeer Herders, the International Centre for ReindeerHusbandry, and the Smi University College have established

    a UArctic EALT Institute University of the Arctic Institute forCircumpolar Reindeer Husbandry (UArctic EALT Institute)as a legacy of the International Polar Year 20072008.TheInstitute shall be a tool for recruiting indigenous youth toscientific work, by continuing the work of IPY EALT byfocusing on building competence locally in indigenouspeoples societies.

    THE FOUNDING PRINCIPLES OF UARCTIC EALT INSTITUTE ARE TO: Increase the educational and research capacity of Arctic peoples, especially indigenous and reindeer herding

    peoples. Increase public understanding for Arctic issues and challenges for indigenous peoples and reindeer husbandry,

    including the monitoring of land use change. Replicating to other regions affected by climate change and globalization the lessons learned and knowledge of

    indigenous peoples and their abilities and strategies to deal with such changes. The institute shall have a circumpolar focus, and work for the benefit of Arctic residents with a specific focus on

    indigenous and reindeer herding peoples. The Institute is a legacy of the International Polar Year, where all partners in the IPY EALT Network Study and

    other partners are invited to participate on equal terms

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    VULNERABILITY,RESILIENCE ADAPTIVECAPACITY IN REINDEERHERDERS SOCIETYReindeer have major cultural and economic significance forArctic indigenous peoples and circumpolar reindeer hus-bandry has a long history in the North; reindeer herdershave managed vast areas in the Arctic over millennia(Federova, 2003). There are few pure ecosystems withouthuman influence in the North, and human beings are an in-tegral part of nearly all ecosystems. An interdisciplinary andmulticultural approach to the factors that influence howclimate change affects land-based ecosystems in northernregions is therefore important. Reindeer peoples responseto changes in the environment have developed operatingpractices that are now hampered because of several non-climatic factors such as the degradation and/or loss ofgrazing land, and inability in some jurisdictions toownreindeer privately. Terrestrial ecosystems in the north arevery complex. Changes in these ecosystems are now takingplace rapidly due to climatic changes and the effects of theindustrial development in the Arctic. It is therefore importantthat we use all available knowledge, both scientific andindigenous peoples' traditional ecosystem knowledge in ofecosystems order to understand the changes and developnew management models. This will require a new type of co-operation between industry, research, management and po-litics. It is important to use herders traditional knowledgeto understand the ecological contexts. Indigenous and localcommunity participation in research is the key to improvingthe management of nature in the North and to avoid con-flicts related nature use. According to O'Brien et al. 2009The Norwegian social contract currently focuses on auto-

    nomy and rights, fails to recognize the factors and knowledgethat underlie the livelihoods of Smi reindeer herders, suchas the importance of maintaining diversity in reindeer herds.The state-assumed responsibility for regulating reindeerproduction undermines the resilience of reindeer pas-toralists by insisting on the use of equilibrium-basedmanagement tools such as carrying capacity. We thereforewant to contribute to a new social contract betweenscience and society through the development of knowledgepartnerships where reindeer herders traditional knowledgeis included. A self sustaining reindeer husbandry based onreindeer herders own values is important as an adaptivestrategy to future climate change.

    IPY EALT has provided new opportunities for youngreindeer herders to meet other young herders in work-shops, lectures, research projects and cultural exchange.Today, views regarding traditional knowledge have evolved.The global community has again begun to demand the im-plementation of local and traditional knowledge, and eveninstitutions such as the United Nations require andencourage that traditional knowledge be embedded into themanagement of the natural environment. This change inattitudes has a clear connection to the challenges that ourworld is facing. Both leaders and citizens have begun torealize that we need more comprehensive perspectivesregarding the management of our natural environment. Thisis a field where traditional knowledge and scientificknowledge have the potential to complement each other.

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    g.rybkina

    g.rybkinacomma needed!

    g.rybkinato own

    g.rybkina

    g.rybkina....traditional knowledge of ecosystems in order to.....

  • 60 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    The project also revealed that the restructuring and flexibleadjustment of reindeer herds may decrease vulnerability tofuture climate change. It indicated the need to modifygovernment incentives and to improve understanding ofbiodiversity and traditional knowledge. The EALT projectis concerned with the major increase in human activitieslinked to climate change and with the resulting loss of grazingland for reindeer. Grazing land has to be protected as anadaptive measure to cope with climate change and tosupport sustainable Arctic societies.

    We therefore conclude that IPY EALT has not only beenimportant for indigenous peoples societies but also hasbeen important for the scientific communities and hasbrought forth new insights and understanding based ondifferent world views knowledge and values. It is importantthat all available knowledge has to be included whendeveloping adaptation strategies to climate change and otherchallenges in the Arctic.

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 61Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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    Photo: Mikhail Pogodaev, EALT

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF

    GRAZING LAND

    RECOMMENDATIONSFROM EALT

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    AFFILIATION OFCONTRIBUTINGAUTHORS

    REFERENCES

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    Photo: Philip Burgess, EALT

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 65

    1) Reaffirm that reindeer as a species, their grazing landand reindeer herding culture have a special significancefor human life and economy in the Arctic.

    2) Be aware that with climate change reindeer herdersability to adapt becomes jeopardized as industrialdevelopment destroy, block or delay critical migrationsbetween seasonal pastures.

    3) Support transparency in industrial and infrastructuredevelopment processes in the Arctic towards localindigenous communities and nature-based livelihoods.

    4) Support that grazing land used for reindeer and caribouhas to be protected as an adaptive measure to climatechange, biodiversity and sustainable Arctic societies.

    5) Determine the status of reindeer pastures within eachof the Arctic states and facilitate the process of survey-ing and registration of reindeer pastures within nationalstates.

    6) Support establishment of community-based monitoringof climate change in circumpolar reindeer herding areas,linked to SAON, where local languages and reindeerherders traditional knowledge is included.

    7) Improve the impact assessments related to loss ofgrazing land by including reindeer herders andindigenous peoples traditional knowledge and theirunderstanding of the ecology and the environment.

    8) Emphasize the need for capacity building for reindeerherding youth in local indigenous communities in faceof climate change and land use change in the Arctic,including courses in impact assessments and reindeerherders food cultures and security.

    9) SupportArctic indigenous peoples right to governanceof their own knowledge as an adaptive measure toclimate change and degradation of grazing land

    10) Acknowledge the established reindeer herding centersin the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic of the Russian Federationas an IPY EALT Legacy, (Information Centres for TaigaReindeer Husbandry (Khatystyr, Aldan district), forTundra Reindeer Husbandry (Uryung-Khaya, Anabar district), for Forest-Tundra Reindeer Husbandry(Olenek, Olenek district) and Reindeer HusbandryCollege in Topolinoe, Tompo district) as well as ongoingprocesses to establish similar centers elsewhere in Rus-sia and Fennoscandia.

    11) Support improvement of the family-based economy ofindigenous reindeer herders in face of climate changeand land use change, by securing their access to marketsfor their own products.

    12) Support that circumpolar reindeer husbandry should gainthe status of a world cultural heritage under UNESCO.

    13) Support further development of the work of IPYEALT, with a focus on reindeer herding youth inNorway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Alaska/ US, Canada andGreenland, and encourage further collaboration withindigenous caribou and reindeer hunting peoples.

    14) Support the continuing participation and contributionsfrom circumpolar reindeer herding peoples theircommunities, organizations and institutions in the IPYLEGACY (International Polar Decade) IPD. Further-more, strengthening the cooperation of the circumpolarreindeer herders' network, including the IPY legacy, theUniversity of the Arctic Institute for CircumpolarReindeer Husbandry, (UArctic EALT Institute)

    RECOMMENDATIONS FROM EALT

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    g.rybkinaplease, specify!(I'm not sure if I understood this correctly)

  • 66 REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    This work was supported by Norwegian Ministry of ForeignAffairs, Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration,Reform and Church Affairs, Norwegian Research Councilgrant number 176078/S30 IPY EALT-RESEARCH: ReindeerHerders Vulnerability Network Study: Reindeer pastoralismin a changing climate, grand number 176505 IPY EALAT-OUTREACH grant number 182135 IPY EALAT-OUT-REACH II and grant number 194515 Enhanced Cooperation,

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Norwegian Reindeer HerdersResearch Fund, University of the Arctic National fundingNorway, Directorate for Education, Norway, Center forInternational Universities, Norway, Sparebanken NordNorge, Republic of Sakha-Yakutia, Russia, Administration ofYamal Nenets AO, Russia, Government of Finland andEallinbiras Smi Parliament of Sweden.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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  • REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND 67

    R. Benestad, Division for Model and Climate Analysis, Researchand Development Department, Oslo, Norway.

    M. P. Bongo, Smi University College, Kautokeino, NorwayP. Burgess, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry,

    Toronto, Canada.R. G. Corell, Global Environment and Technology Foundation and

    its Center for Energy and Climate Solutions, USA, and TheClimate Action Initiative, USA, University of Troms and theUniversity of the Arctic's EALAT Institute for circumpolarReindeer Husbandry, International Centre for ReindeerHusbandry and Smi University College Kautokeino,Norway

    A. Degteva, St Petersburg State University, Dept of Geographyand Geoecology, St Petersburg, Russia, and Smi UniversityCollege, Kautokeino Norway

    V. Etylen, Russian Union of Reindeer HerdersI. M. G. Eira, Smi University College, 9520 KautokeinoR. B. M. Eira, University of Troms 9037 Troms, NorwayO. I. Eira, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, NorwayN. I. Eira, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, NorwayE. Frland, Meteorology and Climate Department, Norwegian

    Meteorological Institute, Norway.C. Jaedicke, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo, NorwayI. Hanssen-Bauer, Telemark University College, Norway and

    Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway.D. V. Schuler, Division for Model and Climate Analysis, Research

    and Development Department, Oslo, Norway.D. Hendrichsen, Centre for Smi studies, University of Troms,9037 Troms, NorwayD. Griffiths, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo,

    NorwayJ. Gebelein, Florida International University, Florida, USAE. C. H. Keskitalo, Ume University, Ume Sweden.V. Kryazhkov, St Peterburg State University of Econmica and

    Finance, St Petersburg, Russia.R. Laptander, Aksarka Musem, Yamal Nenet AO, RussiaO. H. Magga, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, Norway

    A. M. Magga, University of Oulu, Oulu, FinlandS. D. Mathiesen, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science,

    9000 Troms, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry9520 Kautokeino and Smi University College 9520 Kautokeino

    N. Maynard, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Washington,USA.

    L. Moe, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Adamstua, Oslo,Norway.

    C. Nellemann, Grid Arendal, Arendal, Norway.E. R.Nergrd, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, and

    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science 9000 Troms,Norway

    H. Omma, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, 9520 Kautokeino, Norway

    A. Oskal, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, 9520 Kautokeino, Norway

    N. Oskal, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, Norway. Ravna, University of Troms, 9037 Troms, NorwayM. Pogodaev, Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH),

    St Petersburg, RussiaK. E. Prsteng, University of Troms, 9037 Troms, NorwayE. Reinert, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, NorwayM. A. Sundset, University of Troms, 9520 Troms, NorwayE. I. Turi, Smi University College, Kautokeino, Norway and

    Ume, University, Ume Sweden.J. M. Turi, Association of World Reindeer Herders,

    9520 Kautokeino, Norway.E. Sara, International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry,

    9520 Kautokeino, NorwayM. N. Sara, Smi University College, 9520 Kautokeino, NorwayN. Tyler, Centre for Smi studies, University of Troms,

    9037 Troms, NorwayI. I. Vistnes, Northern Research Institute (NORUT), Alta

    9500 Alta NorwayM. hren, University of Troms, Norway

    AFFILIATION OF CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

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    Photo: Svein D. Mathiesen, EALT

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    ACIA 2004. Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic ClimateImpact Assessment. Cambridge University Press.Available at http://www.acia.uaf.edu. Accessed March16, 2011.

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    Branndlund I. and Axelson P. 2011 - Reindeer managementduring the colonization of Smi lands: A long-termperspective of vulnerability and adaptation strategiesGlobal Environmental Change in press.

    Benestad, R. E. 2011 - A new global set of downscaledtemperature scenarios. Journal of Climate doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3687.1 in press.Berkes, F.2008, Sacred Ecology, New York: Routledge

    Berkes F., Colding J. and Folke C. 2000 - Rediscovery oftraditional ecological knowledge as adaptivemanagement, Ecological Applications 10: 1251-1262.

    Bochert N. 2001 - Land is life. Traditional Sami ReindeerGrazing threatened in Nothern Sweden, reportSvenske Sameras Riksforbund and WWF.

    Degteva A. and Nellemann C. Competition for land use be-tween reindeer herders and industrial developers,Yamal Peninsula, Russia in preparation.

    Energeticheskaya strategiya Rossii na period do 2030 godahttp://minenergo.gov.ru/activity/energostrategy/

    Eira I. M. G, Magga O. H, and Eira, N. I. 2010 -Muohtatearpmaid sisdoallu ja geavahus. Smi dieala

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    Eira I. M. G., Jaedicke C., Magga O. H., Maynard, N., SchulerD. V. and Mathiesen S. D. Traditional Smi snowterminology and modern physical snow classification -two ways of knowing. in preparation

    Engen-Skaugen T. 2007 - Refinement of dynamically downs-caled precipitation and temperature scenarios. ClimateChange, 84:365-382, DOI 10.1007/s10584-007-9251-6

    Federova Natalia, 2003 - Migration lasting for 2000 years:human being and a reindeer in the North of West Si-beria. (... : - . published in Available athttp://yamalarchaeology.ru/index.php?module=sub-jects&func=viewpage&pageid=84Accessed March 16, 2011).

    Jernsletten J. L. and Klokov A. 2002 - Sustainable ReindeerHusbandry. Arctic Council 2000-2002. University ofTroms, Troms, Norway.

    Keskitalo E. C. H. 2008 - Konflikter mellan rennring ochskogsbruk i Sverige. I: Sandstrm, C., S. Hovik & E. I,Falleth (ed.). Omstridd natur. Trender & utmaningar inordisk naturfrvaltning. Borea, Ume, s. 248-268.

    Keskitalo E. C. H., C. Sandstrm, M. Tysiachniouk, and J.Johansson 2009 - Local consequences of applying

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    Photo:Anders Oskal, EALT

    EALAT-report:Layout 1 18.01.12 11.07 Side 74

  • Ole Henrik Magga, Svein D. Mathiesen, Robert W. Corell, Anders Oskal (eds)Contributing authors: Rasmus Benestad, Mathis P. Bongo, Philip Burgess, Anna Degteva, Vladimir Etylen,Inger Marie G. Eira, Ravdna Biret Marja Eira, Ole Isak Eira, Nils Isak Eira, Eirik Frland, ChristianJaedicke, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Dagrun V. Schuler, Ditte Hendrichsen, David Griffiths, Jennifer Gebelein,E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Vladimir Kryazhkov, Roza Laptander, Anne-Maria Magga, Nancy G. Maynard, Lars Moe, Christian Nellemann, Eli R. Nergrd, Helena Omma, Nils Oskal, yvind Ravna, Mikhail Pogodaev, Kirsti E. Prsteng, Erik Reinert, Monica A. Sundset, Ellen Inga. Turi, Johan Mathis Turi,Elna Sara, Mikkel Nils Sara, Nicholas J. C. Tyler, Ingunn I. Vistnes and Mattias hren.

    Front cover photo by Ellen Inga Turi: Young nenets reindeer herder Vita Seretetto, Brigade 8 in YamalNenets AO, Russia, expressing that reindeer herding is a human coupled ecosystem.

    Layout / printing: Fagtrykk Id AS, Alta, Norway

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND LOSS OF GRAZING LAND

    A project led by Norway and Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) in Arctic Council, Sustainable Development Working Group (SDWG).

    Photo: Mon

    ica A. Sun

    det

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  • A PART OF THE IPY EALT CONSORTIUM. THE EALT PROJECT (IPY # 399), REINDEER HERDERS VULNERABILITY NETWORK STUDY: REINDEER PASTORALISM IN A CHANGING

    CLIMATE. AN ARCTIC COUNCIL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WORKING GROUP PROJECT LED BY NORWAY AND ASSOCIATION OF WORLD REINDEER HERDERS (WRH).

    REINDEER HERDING, TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION TO

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    INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR REINDEER HUSBANDRYPB 109, N-9520 KAUTOKEINOPHONE +47 7860 7670FAX +47 7960 7671OFFICE@REINDEERCENTRE.ORG

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