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Reform Judaism. Heute 1,5 Millionen Mitglieder in den USA Begann 1824 in Charleston. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reform JudaismHeute 1,5 Millionen Mitglieder in den USABegann 1824 in Charleston.Durch die Emigration deutscher Juden bekam das Reformjudentum in den 40er/50er Jahren entscheidende Impulse wie David Einhorn (1809-1879) und Grndungen von Reform-Gemeinden in New York, Baltimore oder Cincinnati (Wise):1842 - Har Sinai Congregation in Baltimore, Maryland1845 - Temple Emanu-El New York City

1873 grndete Wise Union of American Hebrew Congregations und 1875 das Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati.1883 gab es die ersten Absolventen.Die Abschluss-Feier ging als Trefa Banquet in die USA-Geschichte ein, da es Little Neck Clams (half shell) Soft-shell Crabs a lAmerique, Salade of Shrimps und Froschschenkel gab endgltige Spaltung zwischen Konservativen und Reform.

1885 Pittsburgh PlatformEine vllige Ablehnung der rabbinischen Gesetze. Sie sehen das Judentum nicht als Nation, sondern als religise Gemeinschaft und lehnen die Zionshoffnung ab.Convening at the call of Kaufmann Kohler of New York, Reform rabbis from around the United States met from November 16 through November 19, 1885 with Isaac Mayer Wise presiding. The meeting was declared the continuation of the Philadelphia Conference of 1869, which was the continuation of the German Conference of 1841 to 1846. The rabbis adopted the following seminal text:

1. We recognize in every religion an attempt to grasp the Infinite, and in every mode, source or book of revelation held sacred in any religious system the consciousness of the indwelling of God in man. We hold that Judaism presents the highest conception of the God-idea as taught in our Holy Scriptures and developed and spiritualized by the Jewish teachers, in accordance with the moral and philosophical progress of their respective ages. We maintain that Judaism preserved and defended midst continual struggles and trials and under enforced isolation, this God-idea as the central religious truth for the human race. 2. We recognize in the Bible the record of the consecration of the Jewish people to its mission as the priest of the one God, and value it as the most potent instrument of religious and moral instruction. We hold that the modern discoveries of scientific researches in the domain of nature and history are not antagonistic to the doctrines of Judaism, the Bible reflecting the primitive ideas of its own age, and at times clothing its conception of divine Providence and Justice dealing with men in miraculous narratives.

3. We recognize in the Mosaic legislation a system of training the Jewish people for its mission during its national life in Palestine, and today we accept as binding only its moral laws, and maintain only such ceremonies as elevate and sanctify our lives, but reject al such as are not adapted to the views and habits of modern civilization. 4. We hold that all such Mosaic and rabbinical laws as regulate diet, priestly purity, and dress originated in ages and under the influence of ideas entirely foreign to our present mental and spiritual state. They fail to impress the modern Jew with a spirit of priestly holiness; their observance in our days is apt rather to obstruct than to further modern spiritual elevation.

5. We recognize, in the modern era of universal culture of heart and intellect, the approaching of the realization of Israel s great Messianic hope for the establishment of the kingdom of truth, justice, and peace among all men. We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state. 6. We recognize in Judaism a progressive religion, ever striving to be in accord with the postulates of reason. We are convinced of the utmost necessity of preserving the historical identity with our great past.. Christianity and Islam, being daughter religions of Judaism, we appreciate their providential mission, to aid in the spreading of monotheistic and moral truth. We acknowledge that the spirit of broad humanity of our age is our ally in the fulfillment of our mission, and therefore we extend the hand of fellowship to all who cooperate with us in the establishment of the reign of truth and righteousness among men.

7. We reassert the doctrine of Judaism that the soul is immortal, grounding the belief on the divine nature of human spirit, which forever finds bliss in righteousness and misery in wickedness. We reject as ideas not rooted in Judaism, the beliefs both in bodily resurrection and in Gehenna and Eden (Hell and Paradise) as abodes for everlasting punishment and reward. 8. In full accordance with the spirit of the Mosaic legislation, which strives to regulate the relations between rich and poor, we deem it our duty to participate in the great task of modern times, to solve, on the basis of justice and righteousness, the problems presented by the contrasts and evils of the present organization of society.

Konflikte zwischen den alten ehemals deutschen Juden und der neuen Welle von Einwanderern aus dem Osten

Die Ostjuden mehr als 2 Millionen kamen in die USA

Manhattans Lower East Side, zeitweise 500 000 Juden..

Schon 1890 lebten rund 300.000 osteuropische Juden an Manhattans Lower East Side in entsetzlichen Verhltnissen, und mehr als die Hlfte waren Kinder. Die etablierteren unter den deutschen Juden, die Jahre zuvor nach New York gekommen waren, frchteten um ihre schwer errungenen Positionen und distanzierten sich von den "kikes", wie sie sie nannten, d.h. von den osteuropischen Juden, deren Familienname meist auf -ki endete.

Neujahrskarte

1897 wurde die jiddische Zeitung "Forverts" ["Vorwrts"] gegrndet, die dem jdischen Arbeiterbund nahe stand und die Belange der jdischen Einwanderer vertrat.

1897 gegrndet

Abraham Cahan (1860-1951)

Einwanderer-Romane1896: Yekl: A Tale of the New York Ghetto 1917: The Rise of David LevinskyAls Herausgeber des Forverts wurde er ab 1903 der Ansprechpartner fr die Einwanderer und ihre Probleme bei der AmerikanisierungViele der Einwanderer mssen ihren Unterhalt in Fabriken, sogenannten sweat shops verdienen. 1895 gab es 6.000 solcher "sweatshops" in Manhattan und 900 weitere in Brooklyn, in denen rund 80.000 Menschen rund um die Uhr arbeiteten. Um 1885 gehrten 234 der 241 Bekleidungsfabriken Juden.

Isaac Bashevis Singer 1904?-1991

Janet Hadda, Isaac Bashevis Singer. A Life, New York 1997 Dvorah Telushkin, Master of Dreams. A Memoir of Isaac Bashevis Singer, New York 1997 Agata Tuszynska, Lost Landscapes. In Search of Isaac Bashevis Singer and the Jews of Poland, bers. M. G. Levine, New York 1998 Seth Wolitz (Hrsg.), "The Hidden Isaac Bashevis Singer", University of Texas Press, 2002 Dietmar Pertsch, Isaac B. Singers Geschichten ber die ausgelschte Welt des polnischen Judentums, Hamburg 2003.Stephen Tree, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Mnchen 2004. I.B. Singer, Lost in America - 1974, 1981.AntisemitismusLeonard Dinnerstein, Antisemitism in America, New York 1994.David S. Wyman, The abandonment of the Jews, New York 1984, dt.:Das unerwnschte Volk, Mnchen 1986.

Antisemitismus in den USASchon whrend des Brgerkriegs 1861-65 warfen beide Seiten Juden vor, auf der anderen zu stehen..Sndenbocksfunktion.Judenmissionen in ber 30 Verbnden um 1900.Ausgrenzung von Juden aus Badeorten, Clubs, Hotels No Dogs! No Jews!Rassischer Antisemitismus:Edward A. Ross The old World in the new (1914)Madison Grant The Passing of the great Race (1916)Ku-Klux-Klan (1866 gegrndet), 1924 vier Millionen Mitglieder Unterdrckung von Schwarzen, Juden, Katholiken Gottes Plan.

1922 numerus clausus fr Juden an Unis und privaten Colleges.

Verschrfte Einwanderergesetze rein englische Intelligenztest, so wurden 60000 Einwanderer (darunter viele Juden) als Schwachsinnig bezeichnet, da sie z. B. nur Jiddisch sprachen.Charles Davenport (1866-1924)

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)

Eugenics Schwarze, Asiaten, Indianer, Juden, Behinderte nordische Rasse den anderen berlegen.Biologe Charles Davenport, untersttzt von Andrew Carnegie mit 12 Millionen Dollar wurde New York Zentrum fr Eugenik. Zwangssterilisation von behinderten Menschen.Ziel war u.a. die Emigration steuern und eine homogene weie amerikanische Rasse zu bewahren..Davenport hatte auch Kontakte zu Nazi-Deutschland.Stefan Khl, The Nazi Connection; Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism, Oxford/ New York 1994 American Jewish Committee 1906American Jewish Congress 1917 (Louis Brandeis, Stephen Wise)Anti-Defamation League 1913Der Fall Leo Frank (1884-1915)

Mary Phagan

Jim Conley

Tom Watson

Leonard Dinnerstein, The Leo Frank Case, University of Georgia 2008

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