referat salter harris

22
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The present age, which are characterized by increasing individual participation in high-speed travel by land, sea and air, complex industry, and competitive and recreational sports, might well be called the age of injury, or the age of trauma. The present incidence of injuries is disturbingly high, and continues to rise. Indeed, trauma remains the number one killer of young people in North America. The epidemic of fatal injuries merits more research concerning both prevention and treatment, eventhough advances in traumatology during the past three decades have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality from trauma. (1) The estimated annual cost of trauma in North America alone is over $160 billion. Approximately 10% of all hospital beds are occupied at any given time by the victims of trauma. Of all the significant injuries that be fall humans, at least two-thirds involve the musculoskeletal system, including fractures, dislocations, and associated soft tissue injuries. thus, musculoskeletal injuries have become increasingly common and important and will continue to be so throughout your life. (1) A fracture, whether of a bone, and epiphyseal plate, or a cartilaginous joint surface, is simply a structural break in continuity. Because bone are surrounded by soft tissue, the 1

Upload: eja-azlyza

Post on 07-Nov-2014

127 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

DESCRIPTION

salter harris

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Referat Salter Harris

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The present age, which are characterized by increasing individual participation in

high-speed travel by land, sea and air, complex industry, and competitive and recreational

sports, might well be called the age of injury, or the age of trauma. The present incidence of

injuries is disturbingly high, and continues to rise. Indeed, trauma remains the number one

killer of young people in North America. The epidemic of fatal injuries merits more research

concerning both prevention and treatment, eventhough advances in traumatology during the

past three decades have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality from trauma.(1)

The estimated annual cost of trauma in North America alone is over $160 billion.

Approximately 10% of all hospital beds are occupied at any given time by the victims of

trauma. Of all the significant injuries that be fall humans, at least two-thirds involve the

musculoskeletal system, including fractures, dislocations, and associated soft tissue injuries.

thus, musculoskeletal injuries have become increasingly common and important and will

continue to be so throughout your life.(1)

A fracture, whether of a bone, and epiphyseal plate, or a cartilaginous joint surface, is

simply a structural break in continuity. Because bone are surrounded by soft tissue, the

physical forces that produce a fracture, as well as the physical forces that result from sudden

displacement of fracture fragments, always produce some degree of soft tissue injury as well.(1)

The higher incidence of fractures in children is explained by combination of their

relatively slender bones and their carefree capers. Some of this injuries, such as crack or

hairline fractures, buckle fractures, and greenstick fractures, are not serious.others, such as

intra-articular fractures and epiphyseal plate fractures, are very serious indeed. In children

not yet walking who have a fracture or joint injury, you must consider the possible but tragic

diagnosis of child abuse.(1)

The overall mortality rate of children has fallen from 1 in 250 per year in 1900 to 1 in

4,000 per year in 1986; this has been attributed to improved public education, preventive

1

Page 2: Referat Salter Harris

devices, and medical care. The leading cause of death in children age 1 to 14 is accidental

trauma. Skeletal trauma accounts for 10% to 15% of all childhood injuries, with

approximately 15% to 30% of these representing physeal injuries (phalanx fractures are the

most common physeal injury). Over the past 50 years, the increasing fracture incidence in

children has been mainly attributed to increased sports participation. From the ages of 0 to 16

years, 42% of boys will sustain at least one fracture compared with 27% of girls. The overall

ratio of boys to girls who sustain a single, isolated fracture is 2.7:1. The peak incidence of

fractures in boys occurs at age 16 years, with an incidence of 450 per 10,000 per year; the

peak incidence in girls occurs at age 12 years, with an incidence of 250 per 10,000 per year.

Open fractures in this population are rare (<5%).(1)

2

Page 3: Referat Salter Harris

CHAPTER II

SALTER HARRIS FRACTURE

Anatomy

FIGURE 1 : Anatomy of Bone

Pediatric bone has a higher water content and lower mineral content per unit volume

than adult bone. Therefore, pediatric bone has a lower modulus of elasticity (less brittle) and

a higher ultimate strain-to-failure than adult bone. The physis (growth plate) is a unique

cartilaginous structure that varies in thickness depending on age and location. It is frequently

weaker than bone in torsion, shear, and bending, predisposing the child to injury through this

delicate area. The physis is traditionally divided into four zones: reserve (resting/germinal),

proliferative, hypertrophic, and provisional calcification (or enchondral ossification). (1)

3

Page 4: Referat Salter Harris

FIGURE 2 : Zones of physeal growth plate

The periosteum in a child is a thick fibrous structure (up to several millimeters) that

encompasses the entire bone except the articular ends. The periosteum thickens and is

continuous with the physis at the perichondral ring (ring of LaCroix), offering additional

resistance to shear force. As a general rule, ligaments in children are functionally stronger

than bone. Therefore, a higher proportion of injuries that produce sprains in adults result in

fractures in children. The blood supply to the growing bone includes a rich metaphyseal

circulation with fine capillary loops ending at the physis (in the neonate, small vessels may

traverse the physis, ending in the epiphysis).(2)

Because of structural differences, pediatric fractures tend to occur at lower energy than

adult fractures. Most are a result of compression, torsion, or bending moments. Compression

fractures are found most commonly at the metaphyseal diaphyseal junction and are referred

to as buckle fractures or torus fractures. Torus fractures rarely cause physeal injury, but they

may result in acute angular deformity. Because torus fractures are impacted, they are stable

and rarely require manipulative reduction. If manipulated, they usually regain the original

fracture deformity as swelling subsides. Torsional injuries result in two distinct patterns of

fracture, depending on the maturity of the physis.(2)

In the very young child with a thick periosteum, the diaphyseal bone fails before the

physis, resulting in a long spiral fracture. In the older child, similar torsional injury results in

a physeal fracture. Bending moments in the young child cause greenstick fractures in which

the bone is incompletely fractured, resulting in a plastic deformity on the concave side of the

fracture. The fracture may need to be completed to obtain an adequate reduction. Bending

4

Page 5: Referat Salter Harris

moments can also result in microscopic fractures that create plastic deformation of the bone

with no visible fracture lines on plain radiographs; permanent deformity can result.(2)

In the older child, bending moments result in transverse or short oblique fractures.

Occasionally, a small butterfly fragment may be seen; however, because pediatric bone fails

more easily in compression, there may only be a buckle of the cortex.(2)

Types of fracture in childrens

There are two special types of fractures that are limited to childhood, namely, fractures

that involve the epiphyseal plate and birth fractures.(3)

Fracture that involve the epiphyseal plate (physis)

Epiphyseal plate fractures, or physeal special problems in relation to both diagnosis

and treatment. They also carry the risk of becoming complicated by serious disturbance of

local growth and consequent development of progressive bony deformity during the

remaining years of skeletal growth. Although the term “physis” is a relatively recent and

acceptable synonym for the epiphyseal plate, the latter term still more widely used in many

countries.(3,4)

The following classification, which the author developed with W. Robert Harris, is

based on the mechanism of injury as well as the relationship of the fracture line to the

growing cells of the epiphyseal plate. It is correlated as well with the method of treatment and

the prognosis of the injury concerning growth disturbance.(4)

5

Page 6: Referat Salter Harris

FIGURE 3 : Salter Harris classification of physeal fractures

Type A

(Salter-Harris types I & II)

The fracture line does not involve the germinal zone of the physeal plate. If a proper

reduction is carried out, no growth disturbance is to be anticipated, although exceptions exist.(3,4)

Type B

(Salter-Harris types III & IV)

The fracture line crosses the epiphysis and the germinal zone of the physeal plate. An

absolutely accurate, “watertight” reduction must be achieved, otherwise partial closure, with

resultant eccentric growth disturbance, is to be anticipated. In addition, these injuries involve

the articular surface and malunion can produce later joint degeneration. At the distal femur,

ligamentous avulsion of an osteochondral block spanning the edge of the physis may occur:

growth arrest is likely unless perfect reduction is achieved. Open abrasive injury of the

periphery of the physis, resulting in destruction of the zone of Ranvier, usually results in local

growth arrest.(3,4)

Type C

(Salter-Harris type V)

Compression of the physeal cartilage with impaction of epiphyseal bone into the metaphysis

6

Page 7: Referat Salter Harris

results in severe damage to the growth area and partial, or complete, closure of the epiphyseal

plate with consequent growth disturbance is to be anticipated. Ogden has proposed a most

detailed and comprehensive classification, but in some ways this is not necessarily

prospective, in as much as the assignment of some injuries to certain groups requires the

observation of the behaviour of the physis over a period of time after injury. (3,4)

Types VI-IX

Rare types of Salter-Harris fractures include the following: (4)

Type VI - Injury to the perichondral structures

Type VII - Isolated injury to the epiphyseal plate

Type VIII - Isolated injury to the metaphysis, with a potential injury related to

endochondral ossification

Type IX - Injury to the periosteum that may interfere with membranous growth

Preferred examination

Currently, two radiologic examinations can be performed to further evaluate fractures(4)

(1) CT scanning with multiplanar reconstruction

whereas CT shows cross-sectional bone detail and tomographic multiplanar

information.

(2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

MRI depicts marrow edema. MRI is not the standard of care.

CT is used more commonly; typically, it is used for planning surgery.

The use of point-of-care ultrasonography in the emergency department setting could

correctly diagnose Salter-Harris fractures. Findings of periosteal fluid at the level of the

metaphysic and widening of the physis allowed for the diagnosis of a fracture.

7

Page 8: Referat Salter Harris

Radiographic findings vary according to the type of Salter-Harris fracture.

Type I fracture:

Initial radiographs may suggest separation of the physis, but this separation may not be

apparent. However, soft-tissue swelling is present, and its center typically overlies the physis.

Follow-up radiographs obtained 7-10 days after injury help establish the diagnosis. New bone

growth (adjacent sclerosis and periosteal reaction) along the epiphyseal plate confirms the

diagnosis of a Salter-Harris type I fracture. (4)

Type II fracture :

The fracture line passes through the metaphysis into the epiphyseal plate, but no fracture is

observed in the epiphysis. The metaphyseal fragment is sometimes called the Thurston-

Holland fragment.(4)

FIGURE 4 : Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia

Type III fracture:

Passes through the hypertrophic layer of the physis and extends to split the epiphysis. The

fracture crosses the physis and extends into the articular surface of the bone.(4)

8

Page 9: Referat Salter Harris

FIGURE 5 : Salter-Harris type III fracture of the distal tibia

Type IV :

Fracture passes through the epiphysis, physis, and metaphysis. Similar to a type III fracture, a

type IV fracture is an intra-articular injury. (4)

Type V:

injury, initial plain radiographs may not show a fracture line, similar to images of type I

fractures. However, soft-tissue swelling at the physis is present. A compression or crush

injury of the epiphyseal plate is present without associated epiphyseal or metaphyseal

fracture. (4)

Treatment of fractures in children

1. Closed treatmentThe majority of fractures in children and adolescents will be treated by closed reduction

and casting or traction. The only way to splint and hold reduction is by applying a well-

molded cast. Most fractures heal in a few weeks, and since children cannot be relied on to tell

the doctor about pain, sensory alteration, circulatory disturbances, or other signs of

impending complications, regular and competent clinical observation is required. The cast

9

Page 10: Referat Salter Harris

should be applied only when the fracture has been satisfactorily reduced. The well-padded

circular cast with three point moulding is the only splintage that is safe enough for the

treatment of fractures in children. The circulation and neurological status distal to the fracture

must be checked frequently and thoroughly. (5,6)

2. Open treatmentIndications for surgical treatment of fractures in children include(5,6)

• Open fractures.

• Polytrauma.

• Patients with head injuries.

• Femoral fractures in adolescents.

• Femoral neck fractures.

• Certain types of forearm fractures.

• Certain types of physeal injuries.

• Fractures associated with burns.

Aims of surgical treatment

As in the adult, open fractures are surgical emergencies and must be treated

aggressively to prevent infection and possible permanent disability. Tscherne and Gotzen

divided the management of open fractures into four priorities(5)

1) life preservation

2) limb preservation

3) avoidance of infection

4) preservation of function.

In children, however, all efforts should be made to salvage limbs, unless all of the major

nerves to the extremity are irreparably damaged.

Types of fixation

The aim of internal fixation in children is to obtain an anatomical reduction and to

maintain it using a minimum amount of metal. External splintage can be used postoperatively

without the risk of fracture disease. 3.5 mm cortex screws, 4.0 mm cancellous bone screws

10

Page 11: Referat Salter Harris

(exceptionally 6.5Êmm), and cannulated screws have been used in the treatment of

periarticular and articular fractures. K-wire fixation of epiphyseal and metaphyseal fragments

is often all that is necessary for internal fixation, as the hard cancellous bone in children

affords excellent purchase.(6)

Physeal plates may, if necessary, be crossed by K-wires, but never by lag screws

unless growth is nearly complete. Transphyseal wires should be non-threaded, inserted by

hand and directed, as far as possible, perpendicular to the growth plate. K-wires can be used

percutaneously to maintain a reduction that cannot be held by closed methods. Multiple

drilling and insertion of several K-wires at the same point must be avoided. K-wires can be

left protruding through the skin and removed at 2-3 weeks as the bone heals rapidly.

Alternatively, interfragmentary screws can be used parallel to the physeal plate, either in the

metaphysis or the epiphysis, or both. This method is recommended in severely displaced

epiphyseal fractures (type B) as it produces a so-called “watertight” reduction.(6)

The disadvantage of screw fixation is the necessity for a second operation to remove

the metal. On the other hand, the drawback of using percutaneous wires is the increased risk

of infection. If growth disturbance occurs as a result of a bony tether across the physis,

resection and the interposition of fat, or cold-curing bone cement, may restore normal growth

External fixation devices are the preferred method for patients with open fractures,

polytrauma, and fractures associated with burns. The size of the child will determine whether

the large or the small fixator is used. In the application of the external fixator great care must

be exercised not to damage the growth plate.(6)

Treatment and results

Gentle reduction should be attemped initially for Salter Harris I and II fractures,

sometimes using conscious sedation protocols. With reduction and immobilization, these

fractures will do well without significant amount of growth arrest (except in the distal

femur ). Salter Harris III and IV fractures are intra-articular by definition and usually require

ORIF. Follow up radiographs are required for all physeal injuries.(7)

When fractures are minimally displaced, simple immobilization is sufficient therapy.

Type I, II, and III physeal fractures that are displaced are usually treated by closed reduction.

Type IV and V physeal fractures with 2 mm or greater displacement at the articular surface

require open reduction and internal fixation to prevent joint incongruity and traumatic

11

Page 12: Referat Salter Harris

arthropathy. Type VI fractures are, by definition, open fractures, and they require immediate

débridement, irrigation, and appropriate soft tissue closure. Physeal bars always develop after

this injury, and reconstructive surgery (ie, excision of the physeal bar, realignment

osteotomy, or both) is needed if significant growth remains.(7)

COMPLICATIONSComplications unique to pediatric fractures include the following:

Complete growth arrest: This may occur with physeal injuries in Salter-Harris

fractures. It may result in limb length inequalities necessitating the use of orthotics,

prosthetics, or operative procedures including epiphysiodesis or limb lengthening.(8)

Progressive angular or rotational deformities: They may result from physeal injuries

with partial growth arrest or malunion. If these result in significant functional

disabilities or cosmetic deformity, they may require operative intervention, such as

osteotomy, for correction.(8)

Osteonecrosis: May result from disruption of tenuous vascular supply in skeletally

immature patients in whom vascular development is not complete (e.g., osteonecrosis

of the femoral head in cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis).(8)

Types and prognosis (9)

Type Description Prognosis

ITransverse fractures through the

physisExcellent

IIFractures through the physis, with

metaphyseal fragmentExcellent

IIIFractures through the physis and

epiphysis

Good but with the potential for intra-articular

deformity; may require ORIF

IVFractures through the epiphysis,

physis, and metaphysisGood but unstable; fragment requires ORIF

12

Page 13: Referat Salter Harris

Type Description Prognosis

V Crush injury to the physis Poor, with growth arrest

VI Injury to the perichondrial ring Good; may cause angular deformities

ORIF, open reduction with internal fixation

13

Page 14: Referat Salter Harris

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

The higher incidence of fractures in children is explained by combination of their

relatively slender bones and their carefree capers. Some of this injuries, such as crack or

hairline fractures, buckle fractures, and greenstick fractures, are not serious.others, such as

intra-articular fractures and epiphyseal plate fractures, are very serious indeed. In children

not yet walking who have a fracture or joint injury, you must consider the possible but tragic

diagnosis of child abuseThere are two special types of fractures that are limited to childhood,

namely, fractures that involve the epiphyseal plate and birth fractures.

There are five type of Salter-Harris Fracture Type A (Salter-Harris types I & II). The

fracture line does not involve the germinal zone of the physeal plate. Type B (Salter-Harris

types III & IV) The fracture line crosses the epiphysis and the germinal zone of the physeal

plate. Type C (Salter-Harris type V) Compression of the physeal cartilage with impaction of

epiphyseal bone into the metaphysic results in severe damage to the growth area and partial,

or complete, closure of the epiphyseal plate with consequent growth disturbance is to be

anticipated. Currently, two radiologic examinations can be performed to further evaluate

fractures which are CT scan and MRI. Treatment depends on the type of fracture.

Complications unique to pediatric fractures include Complete growth arrest,

Progressive angular or rotational deformities, Osteonecrosis. The prognosis depends on types

of fracture, good management and traement and also the complications.

14

Page 15: Referat Salter Harris

REFERENCES

1. Robert BS, Text book of Disorders and Injuries of the Muskuloskeletal System 3rd

Ed. 2008. Chapter 15

2. Koval, Kenneth, joseph D. Handbook of Fractures. 3rd ed. Lippincott William 2008

3. Mary J.C, Denise R, What do you need to know about Salter-Harris fractures,

article. ED insider

4. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/412956-overview#923.

5. Ruedi TP, Murphy WM. AO Principles of Fracture Management. AO Publishing :

680-2

6. David W, Selvadurai N; Apley’s System of Orthopaedics and Fractures. 9th ed. UK

company 2010

7. Walter B.G, Netter’s Orthopaedics 1st ed. Elsevier 2006

8. Robert BS, Text book of Disorders and Injuries of the Muskuloskeletal System 3rd

Ed. 2008. Chapter 15

9. Miller M.D, Review of Orthopaedics 5th ed. Elsevier 2008

10. Aydin A, Topal M, salter harris type III and type IV combined fracture of the distal

femoral epiphysis, Case report in medicine. Vol 2012. Hindawi publishing 2012

15

Page 16: Referat Salter Harris

16