reasoning with dependency structures and lexicographic definitions using unit graphs

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Depling13, August 30 th 2013, Prague. Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lexicographic Definitions using Unit Graphs. Maxime Lefranois, Fabien Gandon. [ maxime.lefrancois | fabien.gandon ] @ inria.fr. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lexicographic Definitions using Unit GraphsMaxime Lefranois, Fabien Gandon

[ maxime.lefrancois | fabien.gandon ] @inria.fr

Depling13, August 30th 2013, PragueKnowledge Representationanswers recurrent needsrepresentmanipulatequeryreasonshare...

here: applied to the linguistic domainMeaning-Text Theory2Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs3Choose FormalismPopulateApplicationstLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs4Choose FormalismPopulateApplicationst1. Choose FormalismLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs5Semantic Actant Slots (SemASlots)= Participants of the linguistic situation denoted by Lthat have a favoured position in sentences constructed with LLinguistic Predicates

Need 1: Theory of Semantic Actants(Melcuk, 2004)Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsTesnire, 1893-1954, U.Montpellier, FR, Elements de syntaxe structurale, 1959

Chomsky, 1928- MIT, US,1950: grammaire gnrative et transformationnelle, linguistique gnrative

- Distinction comptence performance - Structure de surface et structure profonde- Rgles de rcriture pour gnrer analyser le langageCherche une grammaire universelle, avec des universaux et des variables

Sowa 19401984 Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine.

Melcuk 1974 dveloppement de la thorie sens-texte1988 dependency syntax

56Semantic Actant Slots (SemASlots)= Participants of the linguistic situation denoted by Lthat have a favoured position in sentences constructed with LLinguistic Predicates

Need 1: Theory of Semantic Actants(Melcuk, 2004)+ linguistic criterionsLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsTesnire, 1893-1954, U.Montpellier, FR, Elements de syntaxe structurale, 1959

Chomsky, 1928- MIT, US,1950: grammaire gnrative et transformationnelle, linguistique gnrative

- Distinction comptence performance - Structure de surface et structure profonde- Rgles de rcriture pour gnrer analyser le langageCherche une grammaire universelle, avec des universaux et des variables

Sowa 19401984 Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine.

Melcuk 1974 dveloppement de la thorie sens-texte1988 dependency syntax

67Linguistic PredicatesNeed 1: Theory of Semantic Actants(Melcuk, 2004)Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs(to eat)(Paul ; eggs ; plate)

optionallogicalpredicate Tesnire, 1893-1954, U.Montpellier, FR, Elements de syntaxe structurale, 1959

Chomsky, 1928- MIT, US,1950: grammaire gnrative et transformationnelle, linguistique gnrative

- Distinction comptence performance - Structure de surface et structure profonde- Rgles de rcriture pour gnrer analyser le langageCherche une grammaire universelle, avec des universaux et des variables

Sowa 19401984 Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine.

Melcuk 1974 dveloppement de la thorie sens-texte1988 dependency syntax

78Linguistic PredicatesNeed 1: Theory of Semantic Actants(Melcuk, 2004)Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs(outil)(Paul ; Untangle)(outil)(Paul ; Carpenter)(to eat)(Paul ; eggs ; plate)

split

optionallogicalpredicate Tesnire, 1893-1954, U.Montpellier, FR, Elements de syntaxe structurale, 1959

Chomsky, 1928- MIT, US,1950: grammaire gnrative et transformationnelle, linguistique gnrative

- Distinction comptence performance - Structure de surface et structure profonde- Rgles de rcriture pour gnrer analyser le langageCherche une grammaire universelle, avec des universaux et des variables

Sowa 19401984 Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine.

Melcuk 1974 dveloppement de la thorie sens-texte1988 dependency syntax

89Linguistic PredicatesNeed 1: Theory of Semantic Actants(Melcuk, 2004)Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs

an actant may be a predicate(outil)(Paul ; Untangle)(outil)(Paul ; Carpenter)(to eat)(Paul ; eggs ; plate)

split

optionallogicalpredicate Tesnire, 1893-1954, U.Montpellier, FR, Elements de syntaxe structurale, 1959

Chomsky, 1928- MIT, US,1950: grammaire gnrative et transformationnelle, linguistique gnrative

- Distinction comptence performance - Structure de surface et structure profonde- Rgles de rcriture pour gnrer analyser le langageCherche une grammaire universelle, avec des universaux et des variables

Sowa 19401984 Conceptual Structures - Information Processing in Mind and Machine.

Melcuk 1974 dveloppement de la thorie sens-texte1988 dependency syntax

9Existing KR FormalismsSemantic Web FormalismsRDF - oriented labelled graphs

OWL - Description Logics

SPARQL - Query, ...

10Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsExisting KR FormalismsSemantic Web FormalismsRDF - oriented labelled graphs No Semantics

OWL - Description LogicsOnly binary relationsReify ? -> No Semantics

11Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsExisting KR FormalismsConceptual GraphsSowaOriented labelled GraphsSowa drew his inspiration from TesnireRules, reasoning, (Baget, Mugnier, Chein, ...)Concepts and Relations definitions, (Sowa, Leclre, ...)

12Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsExisting KR FormalismsConceptual Graphs

Alternation Concept Relation 13

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs14tThe Unit Graphs Formalisma graph-based formalism,to represent linguistic unitsChoose FormalismPopulateApplicationsLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs15tDraw inspiration from GCandDevelop a RDF syntaxto exchange knowledgeThe Unit Graphs FormalismChoose FormalismPopulateApplicationsLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs16tThe Unit Graphs FormalismChoose FormalismPopulateApplicationsLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsDraw inspiration from GCandDevelop a RDF syntaxto exchange knowledge17tThe Unit Graphs FormalismWhat reasoning capabilities ?Choose FormalismPopulateApplicationsLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs1. Choose Formalism18Needs, problemsExisting Knowledge Representation FormalismsThe Unit Graphs formalismUnit GraphsRules and DefinitionsReasoning with Unit GraphsLogical SemanticsEntailment problemLefranois, Gandon, The Unit Graphs Framework: Linguistic Knowledge Representation19Units Representations (c.f., Meluk, 2004)Unit Types LexiconLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs20Unit TypesLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsSpecify How their units are to be linkedto other units in Unit Graphsthrough Actantial Structure:Actant Slots (ASlots)Signatures21Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs22Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsHierarchy of Unit TypesPrimitive Unit Types (PUTs) Lexical unit type ANIMALGrammatical unit type Verb, Noun, plurSurface Semantic unit type (animal) Conjunctive Unit Types (PUTs)A Unit may consist of several conjoint PUTs { def, plur, ANIMAL } ((the animals))23Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsHierarchy of Unit TypesPrimitive Unit Types (PUTs) Lexical unit type ANIMALGrammatical unit type Verb, Noun, plurSurface Semantic unit type (animal) Are pre-orderedplur pluralizable /animal\ /dog\

24Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsHierarchy of Unit TypesUnit Types specify how their units are to be linked through Actantial StructureActant Slots (ASlots)Signatures25Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsHierarchy of Unit TypesActant Slots Have Symbols Deep Semantics: lexicalized semantic roles Surface Semantics: NumbersDeep Syntax: Roman numeralsMay be Obligatory, Optional, Prohibited26Organization of the Unit Types Hierarchy with respect to a unique ASymbol sThe complete Unit Types Hierarchy is an intricated superposition of such figures

radix

obligat

prohibet

absurdLefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs27Unit Graphsare defined over a Support

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit GraphsHierarchy of Unit TypesSignatures denote the type of units that fill an ASlot s of a unit of a type t

28As we go down the hierarchy, signatures may only be specialized

Lefranois, Gandon, Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lex. Definitions using Unit Graphs29Unit Graphsare defined over a

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