Reading with English Language Learners

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Reading with English Language Learners. We learn language, we learn through language, and we learn about language. (Freeman & Freeman, 2004). Dr. Susan Rutledge, Ph.D Curriculum and Instruction in TESOL woyaoni@yahoo.com. Empathy Exercise. Close Your Eyes & Listen Song Open your eyes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Reading with English Language LearnersDr. Susan Rutledge, Ph.DCurriculum and Instruction in TESOLwoyaoni@yahoo.comWe learn language, we learn through language, and we learn about language. (Freeman &amp; Freeman, 2004)</p></li><li><p>Empathy ExerciseClose Your Eyes &amp; Listen</p><p>Song</p><p>Open your eyes</p><p>How do you feel? Lets listen again!</p><p>Now how do you feel? What made this experience different?</p></li><li><p>READING</p></li><li><p>Who are ELL learners?ELL learners come from a variety of backgroundsSpanish speakers represent the largest number of ELL learners nation wide.Some are 1st generation, some are 2nd generation, and some are 3rd generation.They can be from a foreign country and they can be born in the U.S.They may or may not have an educational background.They may or may not be literate in their native language.They may or may not be able to write in their native language</p></li><li><p> English/ Second Language Reading is ComplexPhonological processing abilities in English</p><p>Print Related abilities/ experiences in EnglishBackground Knowledge in EnglishOral language abilities in EnglishLITERACY IN NATIVE LANGUAGE</p></li><li><p>What Can Teachers Do?Have a deep Understanding of English?What does this mean?Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, &amp; Pragmatics</p><p>Understand First and Second Language AcquisitionFirst Language StagesSecond Language Stages</p><p>Language is a moving Target (Levine, 2008)Social English1-3 yearsAcademic English5-7 yearsTeaching any Subject requires teaching the language, vocabulary, and organizational structures</p></li><li><p>What Can Teachers Do?Informed: Ask questions!!Has the student gone to school in his/ her home country?</p><p>Is the student literate in his/ her native language?</p><p>What is your students English proficiency?</p><p>What does the proficiency test examine?</p><p>Understand and utilize your ELL learners proficiency level to guide your instruction.What is proficiency? The degree of skill with which a person can read, write, speak, or understand a language. (Richards &amp; Schmidt, 2002)</p><p>How do you know your students proficiency level?ASK the English language learner teacher/ tutorUnderstand the Proficiency Assessment UsedCAN DO Descriptors</p></li><li><p>What Can Teachers Do?Limited English Proficiency affects learning &amp; assessment</p><p>Not familiar to them culturally and linguistically</p><p>Reading is a cognitive and socially constructed pursuit</p><p>Incorporate students culturesMulticultural LiteratureMulticultural Video</p><p>Compare English to the Students native languageOralWritten</p><p>Communicate clearlyDoes not mean talking loudly to student!!Clear goals &amp; expectations</p><p>Collaborative:Work with the ELL providerTalk with the parents!!!!!!!</p></li><li><p>Cultural InfluencesCulture produces and develops background knowledge, words, sentences, and text structures</p><p>Spanish speaking students are accustomed to a phonetically stable alphabetic spelling in which each letter represents a sound</p><p>English readers use less consistent letter and word cues to determine the meaning and the grammatical function of a word. </p><p>The Chinese character system has no link between speech sounds and the written symbol. </p><p>Reading directionality also varies among languages.Languages such as English and Russian are read left to right, top to bottom, while Arabic is read right to left.</p><p>Making inferences, where students challenge or reinterpret text, is a critical reading comprehension skill for American readers, but is considered inappropriate and even disrespectful, in other cultures. </p></li><li><p>Oral LanguageClassroom Talk is IMPORTANT!Multiple opportunities to talk with peers and teachers</p><p>Primary source of information and language about the topics being discussed</p><p>Learners internalize and use to express their own meanings.adaptations may include speaking slowly, using short sentences, paraphrasing the same message several different ways, and explaining word meanings. use gestures, pictures, and props to make meaning more clear. </p><p>Teachers need to model how adults converse about books.</p><p>Literacy requires large blocks of time for reading, but it also must provide for discussion, conversations, reflection, and revision (Allington &amp; Cunningham, 2002). </p></li><li><p>Word Level</p><p>Word Study Activities Help ESL students understand and use Academic LanguageContent SpecificPlasma, Square, Other VocabularyDirections, fill-in the blank,Factor, compare, similarWords that have multiple meanings such as waveWave of immigrants vs. Ocean waveExamplesVocabulary</p><p>ClosedCaptioning Televisionoffers a novel experience for students to interact with the spoken and printed word simultaneously.</p><p>TPR helps the least proficient ELL students actively and physically understand vocabulary and concepts. The idea is for the teacher to choose words or concepts that are easily demonstrated physically such as commands, movement directions, prepositions, and body parts. </p></li><li><p>Whole TextPaired Readingpairing a skilled reader with a less-skilled reader. The skilled reader demonstrates appropriate reading rate, inflection, and pausing for the less-skilled readerThe skilled reader in each pair reads the connected text first. Then the less-skilled reader reads the same textThe less-skilled reader has a role model of fluent reading, as well as repeated exposure to text </p><p>Writing to Read: Gaining Knowledge from TextsHelps meaning construction and comprehensionFormal writing such as personal narrative, comparison/contrast, and expository compositions assist ELL students make deeper connections to their reading Allows students to analyze and synthesize texts Think of your experience as an immigrant. Describe a special experience you have had as an immigrant? Why was it special? What did that experience teach you about the immigrant experience in the U.S? Relate your experience to the section we read on immigration to the U.S.</p></li><li><p>CARS Content Area Reading Strategies Content Texts are ExpositoryWhat does this mean?Specific actions readers take to make meaning from text.Reading is like a conversation between author and reader. Authors make decisions about how to effectively communicate through a piece of writing. Readers use specific strategies to help them understand what authors are trying to communicate. Before, During, and After ReadingWhat are they?Higher order Thinking Skills/ QuestionsReading Strategy</p></li><li><p>ExamplesDual Language Books</p><p>Spelling City</p><p>Sight Word Activities</p><p>WordSift</p><p>ESL Class Introduction</p></li><li><p>Why?National StatisticsELL students comprise the fastest growing K-12 population in the U.S. (Reeves, 2002; Karabanerick &amp; Clemens-Noda, 2004)</p><p>10.3 % of K-12 population (Batalova, Fix, &amp; Murray, 2006)</p><p>44% of 4th grade ELLs scored below basic in Math &amp; 70% scored below basic in Reading (NCES, 2007)69% of 8th grade ELLs scored below basic in Math70% of 8th grade ELLs scored below basic in Reading</p></li><li><p>Mississippi ELL statsELL Population Approximately 1% of total student population75% free-reduced lunch6% special educationNumber of years student has been an ELLLess than 1 11.2%1 year18.3%2 years19.3%3 or more years29.2%Monitored22.1%(Kasse, AMTESOL, 2008)</p></li><li><p>Mississippi Reading Achievement on the MCT (2005) (Percent of Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced)(Kasse, AMTESOL 2008)</p></li><li><p>ConclusionRemember to think of the LANGUAGE first.</p><p>words not only have direct and literal dictionary meanings, but also have affective meanings and connotative meanings</p><p>Crawl, Walk, RunExplain &amp; DemonstratePracticePerform</p><p>Improvement in reading skills depends mostly on what students do with what they read; how they engage the text </p></li><li><p>Spasiba THANK YOU!!!GRACIASXIE XIEDoh-mo - ardei ga-toe Kamsa hamnida </p></li><li><p>ResourcesColorin Colorado www.colorincolorado.com</p><p>Mary Lou McCloskey www.mlmcc.com</p><p>Chen &amp; Mora-Flores, (2006). Balanced Literacy for English Language Learners, K-2.</p><p>Bear, Helman, Templeton, Invernizzi, &amp; Johnston, (2007). Words Their Way with English Language Learners: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction </p></li><li><p>ResourcesSmallwood &amp; Haynes (2008). Singable books: sing and read your way to English proficiency. Center for Applied Linguistics</p><p>Freeman &amp; Freeman (2004). Essential Linguistics: What you need to know to teach reading, ESL, spelling, phonics, grammar. </p><p>Balanced Reading http://www.balancedreading.com/secondlang.html</p><p>Dual Language Books http://thornwood.peelschools.org/Dual/index.htm</p></li><li><p>ResourcesHelman, L. &amp; Burns, M. (2008). What does oral language have to do with it? Helping young English language learners acquire a sight word vocabulary. Reading Teacher, 62(1), pp.14-19.</p><p>Frys Word List: http://w4.nkcsd.k12.mo.us/~kcofer/fry_words_pg.htm</p><p>Elementary Literacy http://knowledgeloom.org/practice_basedoc.jsp?t=1&amp;bpid=1427&amp;aspect=3&amp;location=2&amp;parentid=1426&amp;bpinterid=1426&amp;spotlightid=1393&amp;testflag=yes#1</p></li><li><p>ResourcesAllington, R.L., &amp; Cunningham, P. (2002). Schools that work (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. </p><p>Mora, J.K. (1999) Using Multicultural Literature to Teach Reading Processes http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/MulticulturalLit/</p><p>Hispanic American Images http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/professional-development/childlit/ChildrenLit/hispanic.html</p></li><li><p>ResourcesAsian American Images http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/professional-development/childlit/ChildrenLit/asian.html</p><p>Word Sift: http://www.wordsift.com/</p><p>Kasper, L.F. (1996). Writing to read: Enhancing ESL students reading proficiency through written response to text. TETYC</p><p>Kinsella, K. (2006). Academic Vocabulary information. </p></li><li><p>ResourcesKarabenick, S.A. &amp; Clemens-Noda, P.A. (2004). Professional development implications of teachers beliefs and attitudes toward English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 28 (1), 55-75. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from http://brj.asu.edu/content/vol28_no1/art4.pdf</p><p>Batalova, J., Fix, M., &amp; Murray, J. (2007). Measures of change: The democracy and literacy of adolescent English learners -A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. </p><p>Reeves, J. (2001). Secondary teachers attitudes and perceptions of inclusion of ESL students in mainstream classes. Doctoral dissertation. Dissertation International Abstracts, (UMI No. 3062322)</p></li><li><p>ResourcesLaw and Eckes, (1995). Assessment and ESL: A Handbook for K-12 Teachers. </p><p>Using Paired Reading To Help ESL Students Become Fluent And Accurate Readers Reading Improvement, Summer, 2001 by Daqi Li, Sandra Nes </p><p>Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J. &amp; Herwantoro, S. (2005). The new demography of Americas Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute</p></li></ul>

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