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DESCRIPTIONReading Comprehension. “Understanding reading comprehension is a journey of understanding the human mind.” Siegal. You already know a lot!. What is a RAC…really? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Reading ComprehensionUnderstanding reading comprehension is a journey of understanding the human mind. Siegal
1What is a RACreally?
Read and keep track on the side of some of the reading skills or processes that you use to read and comprehend this fascinating article about something that is more than its name. You already know a lot!Comprehension-thinking about and responding to what you are reading is what it is all about. Comprehension is the reason and prime motivator for engaging in reading. Cunningham and Allington3Historical OverviewLiteracy Timeline
Take notes on discoveries you make on our journey.oStrongly influenced by prevailing learning theoryoBuilding to consensusoMost research happened long ago and implementation is an issue
4What good readers do
Activate prior knowledge Make connectionsCategorizeSelect for importance
A Readers Tool BoxSkills, strategies and cognitive processes
Comparing and contrastingKnowledge of text structuresDrawing conclusionsMaking generalizationsDetecting authors purposeIdentifying literary elementsRecalling informationFinding the main ideaSequencingRecognize point of viewVisualizing
6Comprehension Processes Micro ProcessesMonitor and correct for accuracySearch for informationRemember informationSustain fluency and phrasingAdjust paceIntegrative Processes: Building connections within the textBuilding connections between sentences and paragraphsUnderstanding word referentsMaking mini-inferences between sentences and paragraphsMacro Processes: Getting the gistOrganizing SummarizingElaborative Processes: Add their own voice and personally construct meaningUsing schema: making connections, activating prior knowledge, using knowledge of text structuresVisualization: mental images-mind picturesAsking questions-activelyDetermining importance-conscious and ongoing determination of what is importantInferring-creating new meaning based on own experience and textMonitoring and repairing confusionsSynthesizing-spiraling deeper into the text: summarize, make generalization, make judgements, personalize by integrating new informationMetacognitive ProcessesMonitoring ones understandingSelf-initiating fix-up strategies
7Effective Strategies that Boost Reading Comprehension
Evidence based recommendations on best practices from the Dept. of Education http://dww.ed.gov/
Seven Powerful StrategiesUse Multiple Strategies at onceOngoing assessmentIntegrate across curriculumRecommendationsModel of Instructiondemonstrate, explain, model, implement interactionChoose texts carefullyValidated by research Instruction is effective in providing students with a repertoire of strategies that promote comprehension: getting the big idea, graphics to see connections, elaborate conversations, questioning, summarizing and getting the gist.Explicitness and explicit modeling makes a difference especially for struggling readers. There are questions of transference and confirmed extended use.There are questions as to whether a direct approach offers students enough instruction and practice in the flexibility and adaptability that is necessary to be a good reader.Pre-reading and activating prior knowledge, scaffolding during reading and post activities increase comprehension but do not necessarily transfer to independence.Adequate practice with feedback is needed.Skillful adjustment to a learners level is needed to ensure mindful engagement. Effective teachers use a wide range of instructional practices in a thoughtful and dynamic fashion.Knowledge of text structure provides students with a plan of action that leads to better comprehension. Effective instructional reading principles are instruction embedded in content area instruction Diverse texts: Push for nonfiction. 70/30 in life but what do we give our kids oEngagement with nonfiction sometimes greateroMore inferential moves needed and can give greater independenceIntensive writing
8Model for instructionElaborate rich conversations
Gradual release of control
oTeaching strategiesElaborate conversations some evidence that expliciteness not always necessary if the conversation is richGradual release of responsibility Explain the strategy: Mini lesson Modeling think alouds: Showing kids howGuided practice:scaffolding, support thinking, feedback Independent practice: continued teacher feedbackoReciprocal teaching Reciprocal teaching oCSR: Collaborative Strategic ReadingoPALS: Peer Assisted Learning StrategiesoContinued modeling with genre changesApplication to a new situation
10Process based Ability to interrelate processesComplex, flexibleQuestioning the author
Build motivation and engagementAssessment to reveal thinkingResources
Ability to interrelate processesDeep questions require multilayered thinking and needs modeling and practice with responses grounded in ext, experience and logic (Caulkins, Block)oQuestioning the authorThe teaching of reading should be deeply connect to content for better comprehension and increased motivation. oCORI GuthrieHigh levels of engagement are required to be a good reader: use of cognitive strategies, intrinsically motivated, use of background knowledge and social interchangeMotivation and self-directed learning: critical componentsText-based collaborative learningChoice-moderate amount
ComprehensionStrategiesMonitoring ComprehensionMetacognitionGraphic & Semantic OrganizersAnswering QuestionsRecognizing Story StructureGenerating QuestionsSummarizing12
Tools for Direct and Explicit Instruction 13Assessment Best PracticeIntentionality is Everything
Consider the purpose of the assessment carefullyMaking thinking visible
RetellingFountas and Pinnel Benchmark Conferring
Hypertext literacyCurrent Trends
What trends have you noticed in your reading?
How do we promote independent thinking ?How do we promote a more generative use of strategies?What is the right mix of interventions for struggling readers?How do we encourage and support engagement and motivation?How do we support sustained, systemic improvement?Questions for Further ResearchAssessment McKenna, Stahl. (2003) Assessment for reading instruction Shea, M. (2006 ) Wheres the glitch?: How to use running records with older readers, Grades 5-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Instructional Strategies Beers, K. (2003) When kids cant read: What teachers can do: A guide for Teachers 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Dorfman, Capelli. (200 ) Nonfiction Mentor Texts: Teaching Writing Through Childrens Literature, K-6.Gallagher, K. (2004) Deeper reading: Comprehending challenging texts,4-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Gallagher, K. (2000) Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini Lessons for Middle and High School. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.Harvey, S., Gouvis, A. Strategies that work 2: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Mc Gregor, T. (2007) Comprehension connections: Bridges to strategic reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Keene, E, Zimmermann, S. (1997) Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a readers workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Thinking Mapshttp://www.thinkingmaps.com/products.phpRenes Comprehension Binder Comprehension sectionhttp://www.readinglady.com/
InterventionBeers, K. (2003) When kids cant read: What teachers can do: A guide for Teachers 6-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Pinnel, G, Fountas, I. (2009) When readers struggle: teaching that works. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Shea, M. (2006 ) Wheres the glitch?: How to use running records with older readers, Grades 5-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
International Reading AssociationReading Teacher http://readwritethink.org Clearinghouse of what workshttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/adlit_pg_082608.pdf
ResourcesTake five minutes to discuss, contemplate nd play with what has been covered today.
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