reading comprehension

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  • 1. Agenda for Monday, Oct. 5
    • Mini-Lesson
  • Pointing: The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently by Tom Lux
  • Struggling/Dependent/Inexperienced Readers
  • Teaching Reading Comprehension
  • Interrogate your own reading
  • What Good Readers Do / How Smart Readers Think
  • Practice thinking aloud

2. Struggling Readers

  • When are you a struggling reader?
  • . . . anyone can struggle given the right text. The struggle isnt the issue; the issue is what the reader does when the text gets tough.
  • ~Kylene Beers,When Kids Cant Read,
  • What Teachers Can Do , p. 15

3. Struggling Readers

  • Dependent vs. Independent Readers
  • ~Kylene Beers
  • Inexperienced vs. Experienced Readers
  • ~Carol Booth Olson
  • View Kylene Beers interview clips

4. Reading Skills Snapshot(NAEP 2002 Data)

  • How many students in grades 4-12 nationwide are identified as struggling readers?
  • 5 million
  • 6 million
  • 7 million
  • 8 million

5. Reading Skills Snapshot(NAEP 2002 Data)

  • How many high school students read below average (only able to answer basic comprehension questions)?
  • 4 out of 5
  • 3 out of 4
  • 2 out of 3
  • 1 out of 2

6. Reading Skills Snapshot(NAEP 2002 Data)

  • How many high school students read far below average (cant even answer basic comprehension questions)?
  • 25%
  • 20%
  • 15%
  • 10%

7. A Literacy Crisis

  • Students in the bottom quartile are 20 times more likely to drop out of high school.
  • 30% of high school students drop out; thats 7,000 per day.
  • 38% of high school students graduate unprepared for college and/or job demands.
  • The #1 community college class is remedial reading.

8. When the text gets tough . . .

  • Independent Readers
  • Figure out whats confusing them
  • Set goals for getting through the reading
  • Use many strategies for getting through the text
  • Know how to make the mostly invisible process of comprehension visible
  • Dependent Readers
  • Stop
  • Appeal to the teacher
  • Read on through
  • Keep the mostly invisible process of comprehension at the invisible level
  • ~Beers, p. 16

9. Moving Dependent Readers Toward Independent Reading

  • Cognitive aspects of reading:
  • comprehension, vocabulary, decoding, word recognition
  • Affective aspects of reading:
  • motivation, enjoyment, engagement
  • ~Beers, p. 13

10. What Struggling Readers Need

  • The ability to decode print
  • The ability to comprehend language
  • The ability to transact with text
  • The motivation to readauthentic texts and choice, classroom climate of respect for peers and for cultural and linguistic differences
  • ~ Building Reading Proficiency at the Secondary Level

11. What Struggling Readers Need

  • Dependent readers need to develop cognitive confidence, social and emotional confidence, text confidence.~Kylene Beers
  • Inexperienced readers need teachers who foster their competence and confidence and help to heighten their emotional and cognitive engagement.
  • ~Carol Booth Olson

12. Illiterate vs. Aliterate

  • Reluctant readers
  • Students who choose not to read
  • Dormant readers
  • Uncommitted readers
  • Unmotivated readers
  • Unskilled readers

13. Willing and Able Willing but Unable Unwilling but Able Unwilling and Unable 14. The goal of reading iscomprehension . Comprehension is a complex,abstract activity.~Beers, p. 38 15. Comprehension

  • Reading is a complex, purposeful, social and cognitive process in which readers simultaneously use their knowledge of spoken and written language, their knowledge of the topic of the text, and their knowledge of their culture to construct meaning.
  • ~A Call to Action: What We Know About Adolescent Literacy and Ways to Support Teachers in Meeting Students Needs, NCTE

16. Comprehension

  • Reading is a social process, an interactive activity, one in which readers create meaning through transactionsinteractionswith the text, their prior knowledge, the context, and other readers.
  • ~ Beers, p. 38

17. Comprehension

  • The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning
  • The complex process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning from and with text

18. Reading Lessons

  • Reading is more than decoding.
  • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman,Subjects Matter , ch. 2

19. 20.

  • Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny ipormetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe.

21. FromDeeper Readingby Kelly Gallagher

  • There are tork gooboos of puzballs, including laplies, mushos, and fushos.Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they do not grunto any lipples.In order to geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples, you should bartle the fusho who has rarckled the parshtootoos after her humply fluflu.


  • How many gooboos of puzballs are there?
  • There are tork gooboos of puzballs.
  • 2.What are laplies, mushos, and fushos?
  • Laplies, mushos, and fushos are tork gooboos of puzballs.
  • Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovoinny and onny of the pern, they will notwhat?
  • They will not grunto any lipples.
  • How can you geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples?
  • You should bartle the fusho who has rarckled her parshtootoos after her humply fluflu.

23. The Blonke

  • The blonke was maily, like all the others. Unlike the other blonkes, however, it had spiss crinet completely covering its fairney cloots and concealing, just below one of them, a small wan. This particular blonke was quite drumly lennow, in fact, almost samded. When yerden, it did not quetch like the other blonkes, or even blore. The others blored very readily. It was probably his bellytimber that had made the one bloke so drumly. The bellytimber was quite kexy, had a strong shawk, and was apparently venenated. There was only one thing to do with the venenated bellytimber: grive it in the flosh. This would be much better than to sparple it in the wong, since the blonkes that were not drumly could icchen in the wong, but not in the flosh.

24. The Blonke

  • What three words do you most need to know how to figure this out?
  • Which words do you need least?
  • What cuing systems did you most use to figure this out?
  • What is the passage about?
  • How did it feel to not know what this meant?

25. Reading Lessons

  • Reading is more than decoding.
  • Reading is an active, constructive process.
  • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman,Subjects Matter , ch. 2

26. Tis the good reader that makes the good book. ~Ralph Waldo Emerson 27. Every text is a lazy machine asking the reader to do some of its work. ~Umberto Eco 28. Reading a book is like rewriting it for yourself . . . You bring to a novel, anything you read,all your experience of the world.You bring your history and you read it in your own terms. ~Angela Carter 29. Reading is a creative activity. ~Madeleine LEngle 30. Reading Lessons

  • Reading is more than decoding.
  • Reading is an active, constructive process.
  • Good readers have a repertoire of thinking strategies they use to comprehend texts.
  • ~Harvey Daniels & Steven Zemelman,Subjects Matter , ch. 2

31. What Good Readers Do

  • Recognize that reading is a meaning-making process
  • Use a variety of comprehension strategies (predict, summarize, question, visualize, etc.)
  • Make a range of inferences
  • Use prior knowledge
  • Monitor their understanding of the text
  • Question the authors purpose and point of view

32. What Good Readers Do

  • Use text features (headings, bold, italics, charts, graphs, etc.)
  • Evaluate their engagement and enjoyment
  • Know meanings and use context clues, root words, affixes
  • Recognize most words automatically, read fluently, vary their reading rate, and hear the text as they read