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Adapted From Burnett Junior High, Wylie, TX

Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8STAAR Review

Exploration & Colonial Era 1492-1763


Reasons for Exploration

God spread Christianity

Gold gain wealth

Glory fame and international recognition, nationalism

Leads to discovery of North America and its colonization

Important Dates

1607Jamestown founded: 1st permanent English settlement

1620Plymouth founded: Pilgrims traveled to Plymouth and

signed the Mayflower Compact to establish self-government

Early Representative Government

Virginia House of Burgesses1st representative assembly in

North America

Mayflower Compactsigned by Pilgrim men, who agreed to

self-government through a social contract

Establishing Colonies

Religious and Political freedom

Economic Opportunity (Mercantilism and land ownership)

Settlement of the American Colonies

New England: settled by Pilgrims and Puritans to escape

religious persecution in England

Mid-Atlantic: Diversity & religious tolerance; NYkey trading

area; Quakers led by William Penn founded Pennsylvania

Lower South: Maryland founded by persecuted Catholics;

Georgia was created for outcasts and debtors

New England New England

Slavery Established

The need for cheap laborers to grow cash crops encouraged

white settlers to use African slaves

Farmers grew cash crops on plantations in the South and used

slaves so they could practice commercial agriculture cheaply.

Invention of the cotton gin made it even easier and cheaper

to grow cotton. This led to a higher demand for cotton and

thus, more slaves.

As America acquired more territory, the issue of slavery

became a controversial issue.

People of the Colonies

Thomas Hookerfounder of Connecticut, who adopted the

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Americas first written


William Pennfounded Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers.

He supported freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and

sought peace with Native Americans.

Anne Hutchinsonbanished from Massachusetts for preaching;

one of the founders of Rhode Island.

French and Indian War

British colonists wanted French land in North America

British fought against French and Native American allies

Native Americans fought against the British because they

were afraid the British would take their land

Treaty of Paris, 1763Ended the French and Indian War

Britain was left in debt and began taxing the colonists to pay

for the war and the Proclamation of 1763 was established to

keep colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mts.

Triangular Trade

New England




benefits Britain

Adapted From Burnett Junior High, Wylie, TX

Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8STAAR Review Revolutionary Era


Increasing Tension with Britain

British Policy Definition Colonial Reaction

Proclamation of 1763

Forbade settlement west of Appalachians

Angry; ignored it, moved anyway

Sugar Act Tax on sugar Taxation without representation

Stamp Act Tax on documents Protests; formed the Sons of Liberty

Townshend Acts Tax on imports Boycotts; riots

Tea Act Tax on tea Boston Tea Party

Intolerable Acts Closed Boston Harbor

First Continental Congress

Revolutionary War

Lexington & Concordfirst battles of the Revolution

British planned to arrest colonial leaders and seize weapons

Paul Revere made famous Midnight Ride to warn the militia

Known as the shot heard round the world

Second Continental Congress

Chose Washington as commander of the Continental Army

Approved the creation of a Declaration of Independence

Became the nations first acting government

Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776

written primarily by Thomas Jefferson

listed grievances against George III and claimed independence

from Britain based on the philosophies of John Locke

Saratogaturning point of the war

convinced the French king to recognize and aide Americans

Valley Forgeharsh winter endured by Continental Army

Many deserted, Washington had to motivate his troops to stay

Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Stueben arrive from

Europe to help train the army

Yorktownlast major battle of the war

French ships prevent British supplies from reaching Yorktown

British General Cornwallis is forced to surrender

Treaty of Paris, 1783ended the American Revolution

The 13 colonies become independent from England

The boundary of the U.S. extends to the Mississippi River

Key Individuals of the American Revolution

George WashingtonCommander-in-Chief of the Continental

Army; despite loses, kept his army together and motivated

Crispus AttucksAfrican American who was the first man to die

at the Boston Massacre

Samuel AdamsBoston patriot who established the

Committees of Correspondence to keep colonists informed of

British actions; Leader of the Sons of Liberty

Benjamin Franklinauthor, publisher, inventor and diplomat

Patrick HenryVirginia patriot who gave his famous speech

ending in, give me liberty, or give me death!

Thomas Painewrote Common Sense to justify the colonists

independence; wrote American Crisis to motivate soldiers to

keep fighting despite losses and a hard winter at Valley Forge

Abigail Adamswife of John Adams, known for her support of

womens rights from letters to her husband

Wentworth CheswellAfrican-American patriot; rode with Paul

Revere during the Midnight Ride; fought at Saratoga

Mercy Otis WarrenPatriot writer who supported

independence and convinced other to join the cause. First

woman historian of the American Revolution

James ArmisteadAfrican-American spy during the war; spied

on General Cornwallis camp

Bernardo de GalvezSpaniard sailor who held off the British

fleet in New Orleans during the war

Haym SalomonJewish banker who spied on the British and

also helped finance the war

Marquis de LafayetteFrench nobleman who helped train

American soldiers during the war

John Paul Jonesfather of the U.S. Navy; Led raids on British

ships and famously said, I have not yet begun to fight!

King George IIIKing of England during the Revolutionary War

Constitutional Convention, 1787

Also called the Philadelphia ConventionDelegates met to

revise the Articles of Confederation; instead they wrote an

entirely new constitution and formed a new government.

Articles of Confederation

Adopted by the states in 1781 as the nations 1st constitution

Loose Confederation of states, each with one vote in Congress

Northwest Land Ordinanceset procedure for orderly

expansion of the U.S.

Weaknesses: no power to tax or raise an army; states printed

own money; Shays Rebellion was stopped by a state militia

New Ways of Thinking

The Enlightenmentbelief that governments sole purpose is to

protect the rights of its people; questioned Kings authority

First Great Awakeningreligious revival; belief that God speaks

to all people, not just the wealthy or elite; questioned authority

Adapted From Burnett Junior High, Wylie, TX

Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8STAAR Review Forming a New Nation


People and Documents that influenced American Government

Magna Carta, 1215limited the power of the King; guaranteed

the right to a trial by jury

English Bill of Rightsfrequent elections; guaranteed right to

bear arms, forbade cruel and unusual punishment; trial by jury

John Lockewrote that govt is a social contract. Govt exists by

the consent of the people and must protect unalienable rights:

Life, Liberty, and Property

Charles de MontesquieuFrench philosopher who defined the

principle of separation of powers and checks & balances in govt.

William Blackstonedefined individual rights in English law

that could not be violated, even by a king

Debate and Compromise over Representation in Congress

The Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise)

The 3/5ths Compromiseslaves were counted as 3/5ths (60%) of a white citizen for purposes of representation and taxation

7 Principles of the Constitution

Limited Governmenteveryone, even govt officials, are subject to the law

Popular Sovereigntythe government was created by the people in order to govern themselves; majority rules

Republicanismthe desires of the people are represented in government by elected representatives

Federalismpower of the government is shared between the states and the national government

7 Principles of the Constitution (contd)

Separation of Powerssplits the powers of govt into 3 branches

Checks and Balanceseach branch makes

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