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  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD

    AHMS 349 Annandale Street Annandale NSW 2038 T: 02 9555 4000 F: 02 9555 7005 E: info@arksolutions.com.au ABN 45 088 058 388 ACN 088 058 388

    George William Evans 1809 View of part of Hawkesbury River at first fall and connection with Grose River, N.S. Wales 1809. The view looking west depicts

    Yarramundi Reserve during the early 19th Century.

    By Jim Wheeler.

    YARRAMUNDI RESERVE.

    ARCHAEOLOGICAL & CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT.

    FOR HAWKESBURY CITY COUNCIL.

  • YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL & CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT

    AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007

    1

    CONTENTS Contents................................................................................................... 1 Abbreviations ............................................................................................ 6 1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 8

    1.1 Preamble ...................................................................................... 8

    1.2 Site identification ........................................................................... 8

    1.3 Reason for the current study ............................................................10

    1.4 Statutory controls ..........................................................................10

    1.4.1 Statutory protection .................................................................10

    1.4.2 National Parks & Wildlife Act 1974 ...............................................10

    1.4.3 The Heritage Act 1977 (amended 1998) ........................................12

    1.4.4 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 ...........................13

    1.4.5 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Commonwealth) .................................................................................14

    1.4.6 Environmental Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth) .................................................................................14

    1.5 Project aims and objectives .............................................................15

    1.5.1 Research ...............................................................................16

    1.5.2 Community Consultation............................................................16

    1.5.3 Field survey ...........................................................................17

    1.5.4 Significance Assessment ............................................................17

    1.5.5 Management Opportunities with the local Aboriginal Community .........17

    1.5.6 Reporting...............................................................................17

    1.6 Report Outline ..............................................................................18

    1.7 Authorship ...................................................................................19

    1.8 Acknowledgements ........................................................................19

    2 Environmental context..........................................................................20

    2.1 Background ..................................................................................20

    2.2 Landscape Characteristics................................................................20

  • YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL & CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT

    AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007

    2

    2.3 Soils and Geology...........................................................................20

    2.4 Vegetation ...................................................................................21

    2.5 Landscape Modification ...................................................................22

    3 Aboriginal & European History ................................................................26

    3.1 Preamble .....................................................................................26

    3.2 The Traditional Owners ...................................................................26

    3.2.1 The Darug Language .................................................................26

    3.2.2 Clans ....................................................................................27

    3.2.3 Tribes ...................................................................................27

    3.3 Lifestyle of the Traditional Owners ....................................................28

    3.3.1 The Hawkesbury Nepean .........................................................29

    3.3.2 Resources of the Land...............................................................32

    3.3.3 Use of Trees ...........................................................................33

    3.3.4 Woodland & Grassland...............................................................33

    3.3.5 Swamps and Lagoons ................................................................36

    3.3.6 Plant Management ...................................................................37

    3.4 Exploration and First Contact ...........................................................38

    3.5 Early Settlement & Frontier Relations .................................................42

    3.6 Aboriginal Life on the Hawkesbury-Nepean ..........................................44

    3.6.1 Intensified Settlement ..............................................................44

    3.6.2 Further Conflict & Institutionalisation...........................................47

    3.6.3 Assimilation & Population Decline ................................................49

    3.7 Site Specific History .......................................................................50

    3.7.1 Methodology...........................................................................50

    3.7.2 Early Settlement......................................................................51

    3.7.3 Notification of the Reserve.........................................................54

    3.7.4 Sand & Gravel Extraction (1924 1990s).......................................55

    3.7.5 Yarramundi Reserve .................................................................61 4 Archaeological Context .........................................................................63

    4.1 Regional Aboriginal Archaeological Context ..........................................63

  • YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL & CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT

    AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007

    3

    4.1.1 General Background .................................................................63

    4.1.2 Early Occupation .....................................................................64

    4.1.3 Intensification during the Holocene Period.....................................65

    4.1.4 Regional Site Patterns ...............................................................66

    4.1.5 Stone Artefacts .......................................................................69

    4.2 AHIMS search results.......................................................................70

    4.3 Local Archaeological Context............................................................72

    4.3.1 Cranebrook Terrace 1974 - 2000 .................................................72

    4.3.2 Jamisons Creek 1977 - 1984.......................................................73

    4.3.3 Lapstone Creek Salvage - 1977....................................................74

    4.3.4 Shaws Creek KII 1979 - 1980.....................................................74

    4.3.5 Regentville RS1 1994-1999.......................................................75

    4.3.6 Rouse Hill Infrastructure Development..........................................75

    4.3.7 Blighton, Pitt Town 2005 .........................................................77

    4.3.8 Springwood Road, Yarramundi 2002 ...........................................78

    4.3.9 Agnes Banks Survey 1984.........................................................79

    4.3.10 Boral Extraction, Yarramundi 1983.............................................79

    4.4 Predictive Modeling........................................................................80

    4.4.1 Site Types ..............................................................................80

    4.4.2 Aboriginal Site Predictions .........................................................81

    4.5 Historical Archaeological Predictions ..................................................81

    5 Survey ..............................................................................................83

    5.1 Survey Details ...............................................................................83

    5.2 Survey Methodology .......................................................................83

    5.3 Survey Coverage............................................................................83

    5.4 Survey Results ..............................................................................84

    5.4.1 General Observations................................................................84

    5.4.2 Individual Items.......................................................................87

    5.4.2.1 Item

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