RCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE ?· yarramundi reserve – archaeological & cultural heritage assessment…

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<ul><li><p>ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD </p><p>AHMS 349 Annandale Street Annandale NSW 2038 T: 02 9555 4000 F: 02 9555 7005 E: info@arksolutions.com.au ABN 45 088 058 388 ACN 088 058 388 </p><p>George William Evans 1809 View of part of Hawkesbury River at first fall and connection with Grose River, N.S. Wales 1809. The view looking west depicts </p><p>Yarramundi Reserve during the early 19th Century. </p><p>By Jim Wheeler. </p><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE. </p><p>ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT. </p><p>FOR HAWKESBURY CITY COUNCIL. </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>1 </p><p>CONTENTS Contents................................................................................................... 1 Abbreviations ............................................................................................ 6 1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 8 </p><p>1.1 Preamble ...................................................................................... 8 </p><p>1.2 Site identification ........................................................................... 8 </p><p>1.3 Reason for the current study ............................................................10 </p><p>1.4 Statutory controls ..........................................................................10 </p><p>1.4.1 Statutory protection .................................................................10 </p><p>1.4.2 National Parks &amp; Wildlife Act 1974 ...............................................10 </p><p>1.4.3 The Heritage Act 1977 (amended 1998) ........................................12 </p><p>1.4.4 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 ...........................13 </p><p>1.4.5 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Commonwealth) .................................................................................14 </p><p>1.4.6 Environmental Protection &amp; Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Commonwealth) .................................................................................14 </p><p>1.5 Project aims and objectives .............................................................15 </p><p>1.5.1 Research ...............................................................................16 </p><p>1.5.2 Community Consultation............................................................16 </p><p>1.5.3 Field survey ...........................................................................17 </p><p>1.5.4 Significance Assessment ............................................................17 </p><p>1.5.5 Management Opportunities with the local Aboriginal Community .........17 </p><p>1.5.6 Reporting...............................................................................17 </p><p>1.6 Report Outline ..............................................................................18 </p><p>1.7 Authorship ...................................................................................19 </p><p>1.8 Acknowledgements ........................................................................19 </p><p>2 Environmental context..........................................................................20 </p><p>2.1 Background ..................................................................................20 </p><p>2.2 Landscape Characteristics................................................................20 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>2 </p><p>2.3 Soils and Geology...........................................................................20 </p><p>2.4 Vegetation ...................................................................................21 </p><p>2.5 Landscape Modification ...................................................................22 </p><p>3 Aboriginal &amp; European History ................................................................26 </p><p>3.1 Preamble .....................................................................................26 </p><p>3.2 The Traditional Owners ...................................................................26 </p><p>3.2.1 The Darug Language .................................................................26 </p><p>3.2.2 Clans ....................................................................................27 </p><p>3.2.3 Tribes ...................................................................................27 </p><p>3.3 Lifestyle of the Traditional Owners ....................................................28 </p><p>3.3.1 The Hawkesbury Nepean .........................................................29 </p><p>3.3.2 Resources of the Land...............................................................32 </p><p>3.3.3 Use of Trees ...........................................................................33 </p><p>3.3.4 Woodland &amp; Grassland...............................................................33 </p><p>3.3.5 Swamps and Lagoons ................................................................36 </p><p>3.3.6 Plant Management ...................................................................37 </p><p>3.4 Exploration and First Contact ...........................................................38 </p><p>3.5 Early Settlement &amp; Frontier Relations .................................................42 </p><p>3.6 Aboriginal Life on the Hawkesbury-Nepean ..........................................44 </p><p>3.6.1 Intensified Settlement ..............................................................44 </p><p>3.6.2 Further Conflict &amp; Institutionalisation...........................................47 </p><p>3.6.3 Assimilation &amp; Population Decline ................................................49 </p><p>3.7 Site Specific History .......................................................................50 </p><p>3.7.1 Methodology...........................................................................50 </p><p>3.7.2 Early Settlement......................................................................51 </p><p>3.7.3 Notification of the Reserve.........................................................54 </p><p>3.7.4 Sand &amp; Gravel Extraction (1924 1990s).......................................55 </p><p>3.7.5 Yarramundi Reserve .................................................................61 4 Archaeological Context .........................................................................63 </p><p>4.1 Regional Aboriginal Archaeological Context ..........................................63 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>3 </p><p>4.1.1 General Background .................................................................63 </p><p>4.1.2 Early Occupation .....................................................................64 </p><p>4.1.3 Intensification during the Holocene Period.....................................65 </p><p>4.1.4 Regional Site Patterns ...............................................................66 </p><p>4.1.5 Stone Artefacts .......................................................................69 </p><p>4.2 AHIMS search results.......................................................................70 </p><p>4.3 Local Archaeological Context............................................................72 </p><p>4.3.1 Cranebrook Terrace 1974 - 2000 .................................................72 </p><p>4.3.2 Jamisons Creek 1977 - 1984.......................................................73 </p><p>4.3.3 Lapstone Creek Salvage - 1977....................................................74 </p><p>4.3.4 Shaws Creek KII 1979 - 1980.....................................................74 </p><p>4.3.5 Regentville RS1 1994-1999.......................................................75 </p><p>4.3.6 Rouse Hill Infrastructure Development..........................................75 </p><p>4.3.7 Blighton, Pitt Town 2005 .........................................................77 </p><p>4.3.8 Springwood Road, Yarramundi 2002 ...........................................78 </p><p>4.3.9 Agnes Banks Survey 1984.........................................................79 </p><p>4.3.10 Boral Extraction, Yarramundi 1983.............................................79 </p><p>4.4 Predictive Modeling........................................................................80 </p><p>4.4.1 Site Types ..............................................................................80 </p><p>4.4.2 Aboriginal Site Predictions .........................................................81 </p><p>4.5 Historical Archaeological Predictions ..................................................81 </p><p>5 Survey ..............................................................................................83 </p><p>5.1 Survey Details ...............................................................................83 </p><p>5.2 Survey Methodology .......................................................................83 </p><p>5.3 Survey Coverage............................................................................83 </p><p>5.4 Survey Results ..............................................................................84 </p><p>5.4.1 General Observations................................................................84 </p><p>5.4.2 Individual Items.......................................................................87 </p><p>5.4.2.1 Item 1 &amp; 2 Aboriginal sites .................................................87 </p><p>5.4.2.2 Item 3 &amp; 4 1937 railway and bins .........................................88 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>4 </p><p>5.4.2.3 Item 5 1943 building.........................................................89 </p><p>5.4.2.4 Item 6 Ashtons Falls.........................................................89 </p><p>5.4.2.5 Item 7 Mill Race...............................................................89 </p><p>5.4.2.6 Item 8 Archaeological Potential ...........................................89 </p><p>5.5 Conclusions ..................................................................................90 </p><p>6 Aboriginal Community Consultation..........................................................92 </p><p>6.1 Development of Consultation............................................................92 </p><p>6.2 Outcomes of Consultation ................................................................94 </p><p>7 Significance Assessment ........................................................................95 </p><p>7.1 Aboriginal Heritage Significance Assessment.........................................95 </p><p>7.1.1 Basis for significance assessment .................................................95 </p><p>7.1.2 Aboriginal Cultural Significance ...................................................95 </p><p>7.1.3 Public Significance ...................................................................96 </p><p>7.1.4 Scientific Significance ...............................................................96 </p><p>7.2 Historical Heritage Significance .........................................................97 </p><p>7.2.1 Principles and evaluation criteria ................................................97 </p><p>7.2.2 Evaluation..............................................................................99 8 Impact Assessment ............................................................................. 100 </p><p>8.1 Proposed Development ................................................................. 100 </p><p>8.2 Impact Assessment ....................................................................... 100 </p><p>9 Interpretation................................................................................... 102 </p><p>9.1 Preamble ................................................................................... 102 </p><p>9.2 Themes ..................................................................................... 102 </p><p>9.3 Interpretation Options .................................................................. 103 </p><p>9.3.1 Aboriginal life on the River ...................................................... 103 </p><p>9.3.2 Early Exploration of the River ................................................... 105 </p><p>9.3.3 River as a Resource ................................................................ 107 10 Recommendations........................................................................... 109 </p><p>10.1 Basis for Recommendations ......................................................... 109 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>5 </p><p>10.2 Aboriginal Consultation .............................................................. 109 </p><p>10.3 Archaeological management ........................................................ 110 </p><p>References............................................................................................. 112 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................... 117 Aboriginal Community Correspondence ......................................................... 117 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>6 </p><p>ABBREVIATIONS </p><p>AHC Australian Heritage Council </p><p>AHIA Aboriginal Heritage Impact Assessment </p><p>AHIMS Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System </p><p>CHL Commonwealth Heritage List </p><p>DECC Dept of Environment &amp; Climate Change </p><p>DEH Department of Environment and Heritage </p><p>DoP Department of Planning </p><p>EA Environmental Assessment </p><p>EIA Environment Impact Assessment </p><p>EIS Environmental Impact Statement </p><p>EP&amp;A Environmental Planning and Assessment </p><p>EPBC Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation </p><p>GSV Ground surface visibility </p><p>ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites </p><p>LALC Local Aboriginal Land Council </p><p>LEP Local Environmental Plan </p><p>LGA Local Government Area </p><p>MGA Map Grid of Australia unless otherwise specified all coordinates are in MGA </p><p>NHL National Heritage List </p><p>NNTT National Native Title Tribunal </p><p>NPWS National Parks and Wildlife Service (now part of DECC) </p><p>REF Review of Environmental Factors </p><p>REP Regional Environment Plan </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>7 </p><p>RNE Register of the National Estate </p><p>SHI State Heritage Inventory </p><p>SHR State Heritage Register </p><p>SOHI Statement of Heritage Impact </p><p>S.90 Section 90 of the National Parks &amp; Wildlife Act 1974 </p><p>S.87 Section 87 of the National Parks &amp; Wildlife Act 1974 </p><p>S.140 Section 140 of the NSW Heritage Act 1977 </p><p>S.60 Section 60 of the NSW Heritage Act 1977 </p></li><li><p>YARRAMUNDI RESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT </p><p> AHMS ARCHAEOLOGICAL &amp; HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS PTY LTD November 2007 </p><p>8 </p><p>1 INTRODUCTION </p><p>1...</p></li></ul>

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