ra^unalna obrada morfologije hrvatskoga sveu^ili[te u zagrebu filozofski fakultet marko tadi]...

Download RA^UNALNA OBRADA MORFOLOGIJE HRVATSKOGA sveu^ili[te u zagrebu filozofski fakultet marko tadi] ra^unalna

Post on 19-Sep-2019

9 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • SVEU^ILI[TE U ZAGREBU

    FILOZOFSKI FAKULTET

    MARKO TADI]

    RA^UNALNA OBRADA MORFOLOGIJE HRVATSKOGA KNJI@EVNOG JEZIKA

    DOKTORSKA DISERTACIJA

    ZAGREB, 1994.

  • 2

    Posve}eno trima »krivcima« za odabir lingvistike kao moga `ivotnog poziva: mome djedu Du{anu Jakcu koji me prvi upu}ivao u stvari duha, Josipu Tabaku koji mi je prvi pribli`io blago jezika hrvatskoga i Tonku Maroevi}u koji mi je etimologiju predstavio u liku kriminalisti~koga romana.

    Zahvaljujem se svojim roditeljima, supruzi i svim bli`njima na strpljenju bez kojega ne bih nikada uspio privesti kraju ovaj rad.

    Kona~no, ali ne i manje va`no, zahvaljujem svome mentoru prof. dr. Milanu Mogu{u na mnogim plodnim diskusijama u kojima je sazrio velik dio ovdje izlo`enih problema.

  • 3

    KAZALO

    1. UVOD .......................................................................................................................................6

    2. CILJ RADA I GRANICE PROBLEMA.......................................................................................8

    2.1. Cilj...................................................................................................................................9

    2.2. Ograni~enje problema.................................................................................................12

    2.2.1. Morfologija nasuprot sintaksi ................................................................................. 12

    2.2.2. Fleksija nasuprot derivaciji ..................................................................................... 16

    2.2.2.1. Glagolski vid ................................................................................................... 18

    2.2.2.2. Drugi glagolski oblici ..................................................................................... 19

    2.2.2.3. Kategorija lica u zamjenica............................................................................ 20

    2.2.2.4. Komparativ i superlativ ................................................................................. 21

    2.2.2.5. Problem tvorbe priloga od pridjeva............................................................... 25

    2.2.2.6. Ostala ograni~enja u fleksiji .......................................................................... 26

    2.2.3. Promjenljivost nasuprot nepromjenljivosti ............................................................ 27

    2.2.3.1. Promjenljivost priloga.................................................................................... 27

    2.2.3.2. Promjenljivost brojeva ................................................................................... 28

    2.2.3.3. Prijedlozi......................................................................................................... 30

    2.2.4. Sinteza nasuprot analizi.......................................................................................... 31

    2.2.5. Realizacija postava pismom..................................................................................... 31

    2.2.5.1. Pisanje d`, lj, nj, {t, `d.................................................................................... 32

    2.2.5.2. Pisanje jata ..................................................................................................... 33

    2.2.5.3. Stanje pravopisa ............................................................................................. 34

    3. TEORIJSKE POSTAVKE........................................................................................................36

    3.1. Problemi klasifikacije vrsta rije~i u hrvatskome ........................................................41

    3.2. Dva postulirana konstrukta .........................................................................................46

    3.2.1. Vrste promjene......................................................................................................... 48

    3.2.1.1. Nulta promjena .............................................................................................. 48

  • 4

    3.2.1.2. Deklinacija ...................................................................................................... 49

    3.2.1.3. Konjugacija ..................................................................................................... 51

    3.2.1.4. Komparacija.................................................................................................... 52

    3.2.2. Uzorci promjene....................................................................................................... 53

    3.2.2.1. Deklinacija ...................................................................................................... 53

    3.2.2.2. Konjugacija ..................................................................................................... 54

    3.2.2.3. Komparacija.................................................................................................... 57

    3.3. Odnosi tipova promjene prema tradicionalnim vrstama rije~i ..................................57

    3.4. Razine obrade ..............................................................................................................59

    3.4.1. Dvije razine obrade .................................................................................................. 59

    3.4.2. Postave na dvije razine............................................................................................ 62

    4. KLASIFIKACIJA UZORAKA PROMJENE..............................................................................66

    4.1. Nulta promjena.............................................................................................................66

    4.2. Deklinacija....................................................................................................................67

    4.2.1. a-vrsta....................................................................................................................... 67

    4.2.2. e-vrsta....................................................................................................................... 79

    4.2.3. i-vrsta........................................................................................................................ 80

    4.2.4. Poimeni~eni pridjevi ................................................................................................ 81

    4.2.5. Pridjevska deklinacija.............................................................................................. 81

    4.2.5.1. Neodre|eni i odre|eni oblik .......................................................................... 81

    4.2.5.2. Zamjeni~ka deklinacija................................................................................... 82

    4.3. Konjugacija ..................................................................................................................83

    4.3.1. Neplodni glagoli ....................................................................................................... 83

    4.3.2. Plodni glagoli............................................................................................................ 86

    4.4. Komparacija .................................................................................................................88

    4.4.1. Komparativ .............................................................................................................. 88

    4.4.2. Superlativ ................................................................................................................. 88

    5. RA^UNALNI MODEL GENERIRANJA OBLIKA ....................................................................89

    5.1. Definicija i organizacija podataka...............................................................................89

    5.1.1. Nastavci.................................................................................................................... 90

    5.1.2. Preoblike .................................................................................................................. 98

    5.1.2.1. Temeljna struktura preoblika ....................................................................... 98

    5.1.2.2. Opis preoblika .............................................................................................. 101

  • 5

    5.1.3. Leksikon ................................................................................................................. 114

    5.1.3.1. Uloga leksikona u modelu............................................................................ 114

    5.1.3.2. Struktura leksikonskoga ulaza.................................................................... 116

    5.2. Programi.....................................................................................................................120

    5.2.1. Princip rada............................................................................................................ 120

    5.2.2. Izvorni kodovi programa ....................................................................................... 121

    5.2.2.1. GENOBLIK .................................................................................................. 121

    5.2.2.2. GENIMEN.................................................................................................... 122

    5.2.2.3. GENPRID..................................................................................................... 128

    5.2.2.4. GENKO

View more