RAPID RURAL APPRAISAL & PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL

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<ul><li> 1. RapidRuralAppraisal (RRA) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) A Manual for CRS Field Workers and Partnersandby Karen Schoonmaker Freudenberger228 W. Lexington Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-3443 www.crs.org </li> <li> 2. Table of Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii VOLUME I Part I: An Introduction to Information Gathering, Participatory Research, and RRA and PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Part II: How to Put Together an RRA or PRA to do Field Research . . . . . . .15 Part III: The Tools and Techniques Used to Gather Information in RRA and PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Postscript: Maintaining Flexibility, Creativity, and Your Sense of Adventure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 VOLUME II Part I: Using RRA and PRA for Sectoral Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Part II: Case Studies from the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 </li> <li> 3. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Jindra Cekan, of Catholic Relief Services, who is the inspiration behind this manual and who patiently but persistently shepherded it through the process. She was integrally involved at all stages, from the earliest conceptualization to the final details of publication, and contributed many perceptive editing comments along the way. Robb Davis of CRS was also particularly helpful in providing feedback and contributions from his extensive field experience with these methodologies. Creative Services at CRS and Lynne Bensarghin were also helpful in producing this manual. Some parts of Volume I of this manual were prepared under contract with Africare. Africare and Judy Brysons willingness to collaborate with CRS in the broader dissemination of these ideas is greatly appreciated. This publication was made possible through support provided by the office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Humanitarian Response, United States Agency for International Development, under the terms of Grant No. FAO-0801-G-3034-00. The opinions expressed herein are those of CRS and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agency for International Development. i </li> <li> 4. About this Manual Intended Audience: CRS field staff, partners, and those who support them at headquarters. Purpose: To familiarize users with RRA and PRA methods, to demonstrate the applicability of these methods to CRS funded projects, and to encourage the rigorous application of the methods in order to obtain the best results. Organization of the Manual: This manual is organized into two volumes. Each volume is then divided into several parts. Volume I Volume I addresses the generic use of RRA and PRA in development projects. The information here is relevant to people working in any sector. It is divided into three parts as follows: Part I offers a brief introduction to these participatory, qualitative methods and how they fit into the spectrum of research methodologies. Part II discusses how RRA and PRA are used in practice, looking first at the methodological principles and then outlining each step in carrying out an RRA or PRA. Part III introduces a sample of the tools and techniques that are used to gather information in these methods. Volume II Volume II focuses on the use of these methods to address specific sectoral concerns. It is divided into two parts. Part I focuses on five sectors (Agricultural/NRM, Microfinance, Health, Education and Food Security) in which CRS anticipates using RRA or PRA, discussing how these methods might be adapted to specific sectoral needs. Each section outlines the types of information that typically need to be addressed in projects working in that sector and gives examples of the ways that RRA or PRA tools would be used to get that information. Part II will eventually offer sample case studies of how RRA or PRA has been used in different sectors. This part of the manual will grow as relevant case studies are produced in your projects. The first case study is from a food security study in Kenya. Caveats:The reader should be aware that a manual such as this one cannot make you an expert in RRA or PRA. That can only happen by actually using the methods in the field, ideally after working with an experienced practitioner on one or more cases. One characteristic of these methods is that they are flexible and creative. A standard recipe for implementation simply does not work. Therefore, while the methodological principles outlined here should be accorded considerable respect, the examples of tools and their applications are just that: examples to stimulate your thinking and ideas. They should not be treated as specific recommendations for how you should use the tools. ii </li> <li> 5. CP4 </li> <li> 6. Volume I: Introduction, Field Research and Methodology </li> <li> 7. Table of Contents Volume I Part I: An Introduction to Information Gathering, Participatory Research, and RRA and PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Information in Development Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Need for Information in Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 There are Many Ways to Gather Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Participatory vs. Top-Down Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 RRA and PRA in the Spectrum of Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 An Introduction to RRA and PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Anticipated Use of These Methods in CRS Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Part II: How to Put Together an RRA or PRA to do Field Research . . . . . . . . . .15 Methodological Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Triangulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 How to Triangulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Monitoring Bias During the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Behavior and Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 The Mechanics of Preparing the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Putting Together the Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Setting Study Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Site Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Carrying out the Field Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 RRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Managing the Time in the Field (The Whole Field Study) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Managing the Time in the Field (One Day of the Study) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Maintaining a Participatory Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 The PRA Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Analysis and Report Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Documenting the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 The RRA Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Oral Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Village Log Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 </li> <li> 8. Part III: The Tools and Techniques Used to Gather Information in RRA and PRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 An Introduction to the Use of RRA/PRA Tools and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Adapting the Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Interviewing the Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Preparing the Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Using the Tools in an RRA or a PRA mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Sequencing of Tools and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Selecting Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Conducting the Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Note Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Semi-Structured Interviewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Participatory Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Transect Walk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Venn Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Calendars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Wealth Ranking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Historical Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Tools Specifically Useful in Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 The Community Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Postscript: Maintaining Flexibility, Creativity, and Your Sense of Adventure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Scope of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Where to Go for More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 </li> <li> 9. Part I: An Introduction to Project Information Needs, Participatory Research, and RRA and PRA Information in Development Projects The Need for Information in Projects There are Many Ways to Gather Information Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods Participatory vs. Top-Down Methods RRA and PRA in the Spectrum of Research Methods An Introduction to RRA and PRA RRA PRA Anticipated Use of These Methods in CRS Projects 1 </li> <li> 10. Information in Development Projects The Need for Information in Projects Information is a valuable commodity. The more experience that development agencies gain in project implementation, the more we become aware of the vast amount of information that is needed in order to carry out projects well. These information needs include: Information about the communities where the project will intervene, the social structures of those communities and the families who live there, their social safety nets, etc.; Information about livelihoods, economic structures, and how people assure their basic human needs; Information about beliefs and cultural identities that affect peoples decisions and choices; Information about physical environments, resources, and the places in which people conduct their activities; Good Information: an Ethical Imperative Nowhere is the need for good quality information greater than in development projects. By definition, development interventions are oriented to changing peoples lives. Furthermore, they often attempt to target those who are at the margin and therefore particularly vulnerable to disruptions of any sort. Projects do this based on information that they have about the people in question, their needs, conditions, and concerns. When projects base their...</li></ul>

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