Rambles and Studies in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia

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<p>KAMBLES AND STUDIES</p> <p>BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND DALMATIA</p> <p>1</p> <p>RAMBLES AND STUDIESIN</p> <p>BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND DALMATIA</p> <p>AN ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESSOF ARCHJ10LOGISTS AND ANTHROPOLOGISTS</p> <p>HELD AT SARAJEVO, AUGUST</p> <p>1894</p> <p>BY</p> <p>ROBERT MUNRO,Correspond.</p> <p>M.A., M.D., F.R.S.E.and Vienna,</p> <p>Eon, Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; Hon. Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland; Membre de la Societe Royale des Antiquaries du Nord;</p> <p>Member of</p> <p>the Anthropological Societies of Berlin</p> <p>the Archaeological Society of Brussels, Friesch</p> <p>Genootschap, Holland, y a side door to a small back gallery overlooking the body of the mosque, without, however, having to takeoff</p> <p>their</p> <p>shoes.</p> <p>Each Mohammedan</p> <p>as</p> <p>he</p> <p>entered</p> <p>deposited his slippers in a hollow or slit which extended along the floor parallel with the gallery, and</p> <p>stepping forward began muttering his prayers with the usual bodily prostrations. Among the worshippers</p> <p>was Mehmed Beg Kapetanovic, Mayor of Sarajevo. As soon as Baron Appel appeared in the gallery the address to the Kaiser was read, and the service cameto a close.</p> <p>This mosque is situated on the left side of the river, in front of the Koriak, the official residence of Baron Appel.</p> <p>OLD SLAVISH WEITING.</p> <p>67</p> <p>Nothing gives a better idea of the diversified elements which ramify through the community than their relig-</p> <p>and ceremonies. Christianity spread the Slavs from two great centres viz., Rome among and Constantinople. Coincident with the introductionious</p> <p>doctrines</p> <p>into the country of the religious rites and ceremonies peculiar to each of these centres, came also their re-</p> <p>From the West came spective methods of writing. the Latin alphabet, and from the East a set of charwhich are clearly seen to be mere variants of the Greek letters. About theactersas Glagolitic,</p> <p>known</p> <p>middle of the ninth century, Cyrill of Thessalonica translated the Bible into the Slavonic tongue, inventing for this purpose an alphabet which still bears his</p> <p>name</p> <p>;</p> <p>and there can be</p> <p>little</p> <p>doubt that</p> <p>it</p> <p>also</p> <p>eman-</p> <p>ated from the same source as the Glagolitic. It would appear, too, that the Bosnian alphabet, the chief mediumin which the national literature has been transmitted,is</p> <p>a combination of these two early forms of writing, with such alterations as might be expected from the</p> <p>modifying influences of time and current events. At an early period the Catholics admitted the nationallanguage, side by side with the Latin, in the service of the Church, just as we find in other Popish counBut the Orthodox Church would not brook any tries.interference with her traditionary customs, and she still adheres to the old Slavonic language and the Cyrillicwritings.</p> <p>The Turks, and religion</p> <p>naturally, introduced their;</p> <p>own languageany</p> <p>and, being more conservative than</p> <p>68</p> <p>CONGRESS AT SARAJEVO.</p> <p>other people, have stereotyped the civil and religious laws of the Koran throughout the country. " The " Spagnols are the descendants of Jewish re-</p> <p>fugees</p> <p>who</p> <p>fled</p> <p>from Spain in the sixteenth century,</p> <p>during the persecutions of the Inquisition of Philip and found here an asylum. II., They still speakSpanish, and write it in Hebrew characters. Thus, there is in Sarajevo a melange of races, creeds, and languages, which constitutes a formidable barrierto investigate the country its people from a historical point of view.to foreigners</p> <p>who wish</p> <p>and</p> <p>In the afternoon the members were conducted through some of the Government factories and technical schools,instituted for the instruction of the rising generation. First in importance among them may be mentioned</p> <p>Das</p> <p>where apprentices receive technical instruction, under qualified masters,Kunstgewerbliche- Atelier,in various</p> <p>kinds of decorative metal</p> <p>-</p> <p>work, such as</p> <p>damaskeening, engraving, and embossing designs, &amp;c. Some of the pupils live in the establishment, whichforthis</p> <p>purpose contains, besides the workshops, a</p> <p>for</p> <p>school-room, dining-room, and sleeping accommodation 50 boys. For the sale of the articles manufacis</p> <p>tured in the establishment there</p> <p>a fine magazine in the town, which is kept well stocked with a variety of objects decorated with designs, chiefly of an orientalcharacter.</p> <p>Similar</p> <p>schools</p> <p>are</p> <p>beingat</p> <p>established</p> <p>in</p> <p>some of the provincial towns, as</p> <p>Foca and Livno.</p> <p>next visited the Atelierfur Teppichweberei, where Persian and carpets after various oriental patterns</p> <p>We</p> <p>GOVERNMENT FACTORIES.</p> <p>69</p> <p>and some home designs, are manufactured under the guidance of experienced workmen. Associ-</p> <p>Smyrna</p> <p>ated with this factory are departments for spinning and dyeing the wool. A considerable amount of</p> <p>weaving</p> <p>in</p> <p>fine</p> <p>silks</p> <p>and</p> <p>cloths</p> <p>is</p> <p>doneat</p> <p>in</p> <p>the</p> <p>harems, and women thus occupied are supplied by.</p> <p>Government with the prepared yarn</p> <p>a less cost</p> <p>than they could spin it for themselves. One of the most attractive of these Governmentinstitutions</p> <p>among</p> <p>the Tabak-Fdbrik, a group of buildings the first seen on the right hand as we enteris</p> <p>the town from the railway station. Here are storage magazines and a number of workshops for the manu-</p> <p>This factory has of tobacco throughout greatly stimulated the growth the country, as the farmer is sure of a ready sale for the raw material. Indeed, it has done good in manyfacture</p> <p>of</p> <p>cigars</p> <p>and</p> <p>cigarettes.</p> <p>ways</p> <p>:</p> <p>not only</p> <p>is</p> <p>employment given</p> <p>to</p> <p>some hundreds</p> <p>of girls, but Government realises a considerable income from the monopoly, and so indirectly helps to relieve the pockets of the taxpayers.</p> <p>The most exciting of the</p> <p>field excursions</p> <p>was a</p> <p>visit</p> <p>to the high plateau of Glasinac, situated</p> <p>among</p> <p>the</p> <p>mountains some sixteen miles to the east of Sarajevo, and entailing two days' hard work with carriages and</p> <p>The party, numbering twenty-five persons, including two ladies, started at 6 A.M. in ten The local gentlemen distributed themselves carriages. judiciously among the foreign members, and thus kept the latter an courant with the features of the countryriding-ponies.</p> <p>70</p> <p>CONGRESS AT SARAJEVO.</p> <p>as they passed along.Fiala,</p> <p>had the company of one of the Museum experts in botany and arch-</p> <p>We</p> <p>aeology, under whose superintendence the prehistoric tumuli at Glasinac were then being investigated. Intimately acquainted with the language of the country</p> <p>people and with the objects of interest on the way, our delightful companion was a complete encyclopaedia of information on every subject that cropped up. Onthe previous day and</p> <p>accompanied with much but this morning the leaden sky was broken up into passing clouds and the air was fresh and invigorating.Forecasts of the weatheralso</p> <p>night a violent thunderstorm, rain, had passed over Sarajevo,</p> <p>by</p> <p>local meteorologists;</p> <p>were</p> <p>pronounced</p> <p>to be favourable</p> <p>and</p> <p>as to the gener-</p> <p>ally hilarious</p> <p>mood</p> <p>of this polyglot party, there could</p> <p>be no dubiety.</p> <p>Leaving the town by the Miljacka gorge, under the deep shadow of the castle rock, we soon began to climbthe mountains</p> <p>by an</p> <p>excellent road which winds over</p> <p>the heights of Han Bulog, on the north side of the river. A considerable portion of this ascent was made</p> <p>on</p> <p>foot,</p> <p>which was rather an advantage, as</p> <p>it</p> <p>gave the</p> <p>company a better opportunity of scanning the wild After a time we again came scenery around them. into the valley of the Miljacka, and on emerging fromit</p> <p>had a splendid view of the white-crested ridge of the Romanja Planina, which, rising like a giant wall farabove the dark pine-forests, stretched away into the undefmable distance. A halt of half an hour was made</p> <p>at the village of</p> <p>Mokro, where,</p> <p>in consequence of the</p> <p>ON THE ROAD TO GLASINAC.</p> <p>71</p> <p>keen morning air, a second breakfast of tea, coffee, and bread was well patronised. The village loungers, wondering what was in progress by such a cavalcade, crowded</p> <p>around us</p> <p>;</p> <p>and in the hands of one of them</p> <p>I</p> <p>had an</p> <p>opportunity of examining the double whistle, a favourite musical instrument among the country people. It hasthe advantage over the single-tubed instrument of increasing the number of notes by supplying seven holes,four on the right tube and three on the left. The road over the Romanja Planina begins to ascend at Mokro, and, after a series of wide serpentine bends, enters the</p> <p>As we were about half-way up there appeared to be great commotion among the atmospheric elements congregatforest-</p> <p>and soon reaches a pass 1376 m in height.</p> <p>ing on the higher summits, and it looked as if a storm were brewing but after a few drops of rain the clouds;</p> <p>mysteriously vanished, and for the rest of the journey there was no occasion to mention the word weatherexcept by</p> <p>way;</p> <p>of commendation.</p> <p>The wilds</p> <p>of the</p> <p>Romanja have always been the headquarters of the robber - world but robbery, though once the normal industry of the people of Mokro, no longer flourishes</p> <p>among them except</p> <p>in the legendary</p> <p>a complete set of robber-songs. point there is a substantially built house and a shop well stocked with the knick-knacks and articles used bythe country people. Here Dr von Fellenberg fell in with a tainbourica, which he at once purchased and</p> <p>Cycle of Novak/ Almost at the highest</p> <p>'</p> <p>This is an instrument not slung over his shoulders. unlike a guitar, with a short oval body, a long neck,</p> <p>72</p> <p>CONGRESS AT SARAJEVO.(Fig.forest,15).</p> <p>and four stringsopening in theexpanse of bareGlasinac."</p> <p>By -and -by, through anin</p> <p>we came uplands known</p> <p>sight of a wide"</p> <p>as the</p> <p>Hochebene</p> <p>presented no striking feature, beyond the open view and girdle of hazy mountains in The most conspicuous object was a large the distance.it</p> <p>But</p> <p>white many-windowed building, whose walls, sparkling</p> <p>Fig. 15.</p> <p>A NATIVE</p> <p>MUSICIAN, MOKRO.</p> <p>once caught the eye. It was the military Kaserne of Podromanja our destined which was reached shortly after quarters for the nightbrilliant sunshine, at</p> <p>under a</p> <p>mid-day.</p> <p>The hospitality extended to us here was on a princely scale, and with little delay we sat down to a sumptuousdinner, served</p> <p>by the</p> <p>soldiers in excellent style.</p> <p>After-</p> <p>IN MILITARY QUARTERS.</p> <p>73</p> <p>wards we made a tour of investigation in the neighbourhood, visiting in succession a Bogomile cemetery, a group of prehistoric tumuli, a hill-fort, and the caveof Megara.</p> <p>These</p> <p>hill-forts are called</p> <p>Wallburgen or Ringwalle,</p> <p>and</p> <p>the</p> <p>one visited</p> <p>Hreljinyrad am Pljes. from the carriage-road, the country people assembled at Han Sarenac with some thirty riding-ponies to con-</p> <p>by the party gets the name As it is situated some distance</p> <p>vey the party thither. In returning to the carriages some of the members, unaccustomed to rough riding, lingered far behind, and so a few of us, pour passer letemps, wished to enter one of the neighbouring cottages to see its interior. The occupier of the one selected</p> <p>was a young woman who, like all her neighbours, stood at the door wondering what so many strangers were doing in the district. She had a distaff stuck on theshoulder and a spindle in her hand but when asked to give an exhibition of her skill she lookedleft;</p> <p>shy,</p> <p>and appeared highly indignant when one of the</p> <p>party offered her money. Mr Hermann, however, then came forward and explained the object of our visit;</p> <p>whereupon she became more amiable, and graciously welcomed us into the cottage. Two wooden stools ofprimitive construction, a small chest in a corner, some bowls and crockery on a wooden shelf, a salt-box and a</p> <p>baking-tray the latter two hanging on the wall were all the furniture to be seen. In the smoky rafters wasa large dome-shaped basket for keeping grain. The hearth was a semi-disc of hardened clay, raised a few</p> <p>74inches</p> <p>CONGRESS AT SARAJEVO.abovetheclayflooring.</p> <p>On</p> <p>it</p> <p>were</p> <p>some</p> <p>glowing embers, and suspended over them by an iron crook was a heavy plate of iron, about eighteen inches</p> <p>and shaped like the segment of a sphere having the hollow side downwards. I had never seen an apparatus like this in rural life before, but its objectin diameter,</p> <p>was apparent.</p> <p>When</p> <p>lowered so as to nearly cover the</p> <p>Fig. 16.</p> <p>A COTTAGE</p> <p>AT MOKKO.</p> <p>fire, it</p> <p>embers</p> <p>concentrated the heat on anything placed on the for the purpose of being cooked. There was a</p> <p>it</p> <p>second apartment, entered by a door in the mid-wall, but contained no movable furniture a divan placed round</p> <p>the wall and heap of wool in the middle of the floor being all I could see. Nor did this bareness of furniture</p> <p>appear exceptional, as</p> <p>it</p> <p>was much the same</p> <p>in other</p> <p>THE HOME OF A PEASANT.</p> <p>75</p> <p>cottages whenever I bad an opportunity of getting a peep of their interior (Fig. 16).</p> <p>The Megarahohle</p> <p>is</p> <p>the entrance, in continuation of</p> <p>a former water-course, to one of the mysterious under-</p> <p>ground passages which are so frequently met with in these rocky regions, especially in Dalmatia and Herzegovina (Fig. 17). The Bogomile cemetery and Burgwiille will be subsequently noticed.</p> <p>Fig. 17.</p> <p>MEGARAHOHLE, GLASINAC.</p> <p>Beforecold,</p> <p>Here the party was regaled with another sumptuous meal, under the presidency of the district governor, Gesa vonshelter.</p> <p>we got back to the Kaserne and we were glad to get under</p> <p>it</p> <p>became</p> <p>bitterly</p> <p>Barcsay,</p> <p>who</p> <p>paid us every attention.</p> <p>76</p> <p>CONGRESS AT SARAJEVO.</p> <p>The Kaserne generally contains a garrison of 250 men,but the soldiers were then atdrill in</p> <p>a different part</p> <p>of the country, and only fifteen men, under Lieutenant Novacek, remained to take charge of the place hence there was abundant sleeping accommodation for the;</p> <p>party notwithstanding thatpersons.</p> <p>it</p> <p>numbered some</p> <p>thirty</p> <p>Next morning</p> <p>at</p> <p>dawn we were again</p> <p>in our carriages,</p> <p>and, in a thick cold mist, the muffled-up cavalcade wended its way to the prehistoric cemetery of Rusanovici, near</p> <p>Han</p> <p>Senica,</p> <p>where</p> <p>Mr</p> <p>Fiala and his trained</p> <p>workmen</p> <p>were making preparatory excavations in three selected tumuli, leaving the actual burials undisturbed until thecouple of officers on horseback accompanied the party by way of a friendly escort, which by-and-by became increased by some thirty orarrival of the</p> <p>members.</p> <p>A</p> <p>forty gaily-dressed peasants, mounted on the ponies intended to carry the visitors over the final stages of the</p> <p>few hundred yards from the site of the journey. excavations a deputation of the surrounding inhabitants, at the head of whom were the BUrgermeister ofRogatica and five or six other local authorities in their official costumes, was waiting to welcome the strangers.</p> <p>A</p> <p>In a short speech the BUrgermeister expressed satisfaction...</p>


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