radiografi traktus urinarius

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RADIOGRAFI TRAK TUS URINARIUS Meliputi : ginjal, ureter, vesica urinaria, uretra, kelj !r"stat R elati# singkat, ti$ak pe rlu anestesi, pe%eriksaan &isa $ilak ukan &e&erapa "rgan sekali 'aktu $gn &a(an k "ntras In$ikasi : (e%aturia, $)suria, p)uria Intravena : k "ntras p"siti# A&"ral : negati#, $"u&le $an p"siti# 

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RADIOGRAFI TRAKTUSURINARIUS

• Meliputi : ginjal, ureter, vesicaurinaria, uretra, kelj !r"stat

• Relati# singkat, ti$ak perlu anestesi,pe%eriksaan &isa $ilakukan &e&erapa"rgan sekali 'aktu $gn &a(an k"ntras

• In$ikasi : (e%aturia, $)suria, p)uria

• Intravena : k"ntras p"siti# 

• A&"ral : negati#, $"u&le $an p"siti# 

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Ra$i"gra* ginjal+p)el"gra*e-cret"r) ur"gra* .

Indication :

a.Visualization of the size, shape andlocation of the kidney

b.Evaluation of the size and shape of renal

pelvisc.Identifies the location and size of the

ureter and the position of the urinary bladder 

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Patient preparation

•Fast 122! hours

•"leansin# ene$a % ! hours before the procedure&

Procedure

1.'lace IV catheter in cephalic or saphenous vein2.'lace patient in dorsal recu$bency

(.Infuse contrast $ediu$a& "onc : ()) $# I*$l

b& +ose : ( $l*k# %) $l $a-&

c& Inection rate : 1( $inutes for entire inection

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!. E-pose ventrodorsal i$$ediately after

inection for nephro#ra$ phase

/. 0ubseuent lateral and ventrodorsal fil$sare taken at /, 1), 2) $inutes for

pyelo#ra$ and draina#e phases

. "ysto#raphy can be perfor$ed at this

ti$e

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+urin# the nephro#ra$ phase, renal arteries and veins

are visible and often there 3ill be #ood cortico$edullary

distinction.

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• 4he e-cretory phase reveal #radual loss of renal opacity andopacification of the renal pelvis and ureters.

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Kasus apa ini///

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Renal ne"plasia

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CYSTOGRAPHY

Indication :a.Visualization of the size, shape, position andinte#rity of the urinary bladder b.Evaluation of intra$ural, intralu$inal, and

e-tralu$inal fillin# defects in the bladder 

Patient preparation

•Fast 122! hours•"leansin# ene$a % ! hours before the procedure&

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Procedure

1.5ently insert the lubricated catheter the tip inthe tri#one of the bladder2.5ently aspirate all urine out of the bladder%a$ount of urine 3ithdra3n 6 a$ount of contrast

$ediu$&(.If blood clot are present flushed out 3ithsaline!.Infuse /1) $l of 27 lidocain into bladder to

decrease spasticity/."hoose the techniues contras

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8e#ative contrast cysto#ra$ %pneu$ocysto#ra$&

a& 0lo3ly infuse ne#ative contrast a#ent into bladdervia urinary catheter 

b& +ose : 9 1) $l air * k#

c& 4he dose varies 3ith the size of the ani$al.

d&  l3ays palpate the bladder durin# infusion and stop3hen it is $oderately tur#id

e& E-pose lateral, ventrodorsal or obliue

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8or$al pneu$ocysto#ra$, enablin# the bladder 3all, $ucosal $ar#in and

lu$en to be visualised

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+ouble contrast cysto#ra$

a& evaluation of bladder $ucosal irre#ularities, bladder3all thickenin#, $asses, and radiolucent calculi.

b& 4his study can follo3 a ne#ative contrast cysto#ra$,or the bladder should be distended 3ith ne#ative

contrast a#ent

c& Infuse a s$all a$ount of positive contrast $ediu$%undiluted& via catheter into bladder • )./;1.)$l for a cat,

• 1;($l for a do# 3ei#hin# less than 12k#• (;$l for ani$als 3ei#hin# $ore than 12k#.

d& E-pose lateral, ventrodorsal or obliue

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8e#ative and double contrast i$a#es of the bladder, de$onstratin# a $ass

infiltratin# the ventral bladder 3all

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0urvey lateral abdo$inal radio#raph of a

!./ yearold spayed fe$ale do$estic

shorthair cat illustratin# to3 radiodenseurocystoliths

<ateral vie3 of a double

contrast cysto#ra$illustratin# the

urocystoliths

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+ouble contrast cysto#ra$ of +al$atian urinarybladder 3ith uric acid stones. 4he black dots sho3

stones that are not visible on a nor$alradio#raph.4his is a close up of a urinary bladder3ith contrast $aterial inside. 4he contrast $aterial%urinary dye& is 3hite. 4he surroundin# air is black,and the black dots inside the contrast $aterial are

the uric acid stones.

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'ositive contrast cysto#ra$

a&0lo3ly infuse 1)) $# * $l a dose ran#e of(./ to 1(.1$l*k# body 3ei#ht

• 4he dose varies 3ith the size of the ani$al.

• l3ays palpate the bladder durin# infusion and stop3hen it is $oderately tur#id

b&=r, a dilution of uro#raphic contrast $ediu$ of 1

part contrast to 2./ part steril 3ater 

c&E-pose lateral, ventrodorsal or obliue

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• >etro#rade positivecontrasturethrocysto#ra$ ofa !yearold $ale+al$atian

illustratin#nu$erousa$$oniu$ urateuroliths in thebladder and urethra.

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>etro#rade positivecontrast study. 8ote

the fillin# defects inthe urethra 3herethe four uroliths%arro3& located

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URETHROGRAPHY

Indication :Visualization of the location, contour and inte#rityof the urethra and bladder neck

Canine Retrograde Urethrography

• catheter is introduced into the distal penileurethra

• contrast $ediu$ is inected about 1);1/ $l intothe urethra 3ith the patient in lateral recu$bency.

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• 8or$al retro#rade urethrocysto#ra$ in a do#. 4hepenile urethra ?'@A, $e$branous urethra ?B@A, prostaticurethra ?'r @A, prostate ?'rA and urinary bladder ?@CA arelabeled. 4he catheter tip ?arro3A is 3ithin the penileurethra.

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Feline Retrograde Urethrography

•4he urinary bladder is catheterized 3ith a to$catcatheter.

•1);1/ $l of contrast $ediu$ is inected 3hile3ithdra3in# the catheter throu#h the urethra

• radio#raph is $ade ust as the catheter is bein#

3ithdra3n fro$ the urethra.

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@rinary "atheterization of the Bale "at

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@rinary "atheterization of the +o#

1. stainless steel catheter fe$ale do#s

2. Foley catheters have an

inflatable bulb at the end that

can be filled 3ith air or fluid

%D(/ $l& to retain the tip ofthe catheter 3ithin the

bladder too short to reach

the bladder of $ale do#s

(. se$iri#id plastic

%polypropylene& urinarycatheter ; $ale fe$ale

!. red rubber feedin# tube ;

$ale fe$ale

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Ra$i"gra* Sist Genetalia

•  Jantan 0 !enis0 Kelj !r"stat

0  Testis• Indikasi :0 Fraktur "s !enis0

!e%&esaran testis0 !e%&esaran kelj!r"stat: (ipertr"pi,c)ste, pr"statitis

• Betina0 Ovariu%

0 Uterus

• Indikasi

0 Dist"kia

0 Mu%i*kasi0 !)"%etra

0 Masa "varia

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  pr"stat

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p)"%etra