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  • Quantification of Feedstocks for

    Anaerobic Digestion Group Report A Northern Ireland Case Study

    Appendix 3.1, Biogas Action Plan for Northern Ireland

  • Appendix 3.1. Feedstocks for AD Page 2 of 26

    Quantification of Feedstocks for Anaerobic Digestion Group Report

    This report was prepared as a support for the Biogas Research Action Plan for Northern Ireland.

    Report prepared by:

    Member Company/Institution

    Robert Brennan B9 Organic Energy

    Stephen Gilkinson Agri Food and Bio-Sciences Institute ( AFBI)

    Thomas Cromie AgriAD

    Percy Foster Cr- Composting and Anaerobic Digestion Association of Ireland

    Beatrice Smyth Queens University Belfast

    Angela Orozco Questor Centre

    Elaine Groom Questor Centre

    Simon Murray Questor Centre

    Julie-Anne Hanna Questor Centre

    Mark Kelly MK Environmental

    Morgan Burke Stream Bioenergy

    Aaron Black South West College

    Christine Irvine South West College

    February 2014

    Biogas Action Plan for Northern Ireland Feedstock Group coordinated by The Questor Centre

    Project partly funded by Invest NI

  • Appendix 3.1. Feedstocks for AD Page 3 of 26

    Appendix 3.1: Quantification of Feedstocks for Anaerobic Digestion

    Group Report

    Contents

    Appendix 3.1: Quantification of Feedstocks for Anaerobic Digestion Group Report ............................. 3

    List of Tables ....................................................................................................................................... 3

    List of Figures ...................................................................................................................................... 3

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 6

    1. Organic Resources for Anaerobic Digestion ............................................................................... 7

    1.1. Biodegradable Municipal Wastes ........................................................................................... 8

    1.1.1 Municipal and Commercial & Industrial Organic Waste Arisings ................................. 10

    1.2. Manures ................................................................................................................................ 13

    1.3. Agricultural crops .................................................................................................................. 15

    2. Biogas and Energy Potential ..................................................................................................... 16

    3. Reduction of Greenhouse gases ............................................................................................... 21

    4. Nutrient Recovery ..................................................................................................................... 21

    5. Conclusions ................................................................................................................................... 22

    6. References .................................................................................................................................... 23

    List of Tables

    Table 1. NI Organic/ Biowaste Arisings ................................................................................................. 12

    Table 2. Manure produced in N Ireland from housed livestock ........................................................... 14

    Table 3. Biogas Potential of different materials (theoretical estimates) .............................................. 17

    Table 4. Potential Biogas, Biomethane and Energy Production from waste and grass silage in N

    Ireland ................................................................................................................................................... 19

    Table 5. N Ireland AD plants in operation during 2013 ........................................................................ 20

    Table 6. Potential Reduction of Greenhouse gases emissions by biogas production .......................... 21

    List of Figures

    Figure 1. Hierarchy of feedstocks and energy potential ......................................................................... 7

    Figure 2. Classification of feedstocks potentially available for AD in N Ireland ..................................... 8

    Figure 3. Manure volume from household livestock in N Ireland (as % of total manure) ................... 14

    Figure 4. Biogas Energy Potential by Source ......................................................................................... 18

    Figure 5. Sensitivity analysis of the average potential gross energy that could be produced from AD in

    N Ireland ................................................................................................................................................ 19

  • Appendix 3.1. Feedstocks for AD Page 4 of 26

    Abbreviations

    AD Anaerobic Digestion

    AFBI Agri-Food and Bio-Sciences Institute

    BLACMW Biodegradable Local Authority Collected Municipal Waste

    C&I Commercial & industrial

    CH4 Methane

    CHP Combined heat and power

    CO2 Carbon dioxide

    DARD Department of Agriculture and Rural Development

    DEFRA Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs

    DETI Enterprise Trade and Investment

    DoE Department of Environment

    EU European Union

    G Giga (109)

    GHG Greenhouse gas

    ha Hectare

    Invest NI Invest Northern Ireland

    IVC In-vessel aerobic composting

    k Kilo (103)

    K Potassium

    kg Kilograms

    kgCO2eq Kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent

    kt kilotonne

    kWh Kilowatt-hour

    kWhe Kilowatt-hour (energy in form of electricity produced by CHP)

    LACMW Local Authority Collected Municipal Waste

    m Millions

    m Cubic meters

    MBT Mechanical Biological Treatment

    Mha Mega hectares

    mt Million tonnes

    MW Megawatts

    MWhe Megawatt hour (energy in form of electricity produced by CHP)

    MWhh Megawatt hour (energy in form of heat produced by CHP)

    N Nitrogen

    N Ireland Northern Ireland

    N/A Not available

    N2O Nitrous oxide

    NAP Nitrates Action Programme

    NI Northern Ireland

    NILAS Northern Ireland Landfill Allowance Scheme

    Nm3 Cubic meters at normal conditions (0 C and 1 atm)

    OFMSW Organic fraction of municipal solid waste

  • Appendix 3.1. Feedstocks for AD Page 5 of 26

    P Phosphorous

    RIA Regulatory Impact Assessment

    ROI Republic of Ireland

    rWFD Revised Waste Framework Directive

    SEPA Environment Protection Agencys

    t Tonne

    TJ Terajoules (1012)

    tpa Tonnes per annum

    TS Total solids

    TWh Terawatts-hour

    UK United Kingdom

    VS Volatile solids

    WFD Waste Framework Directive

    yr Year

  • Appendix 3.1. Feedstocks for AD Page 6 of 26

    Introduction

    Biological treatment options exist for the recovery of organic biodegradable wastes, namely

    anaerobic digestion and composting.

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves the breakdown of organic materials by micro-organisms under

    controlled conditions in the absence of oxygen. The products of AD are biogas and digestate. Biogas

    typically consists of 55-70% CH4 (but this can be higher), 45-30% CO2 and some minor constituents,

    such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and water. Methane energy in the biogas can be combusted as fuel

    and is commonly used for heat and/or electricity generation. Digestate, which consists of a

    suspended solids and a liquid fraction containing soluble nutrients, is the material that remains at

    the end of the AD process. Digestate can be used as an organic fertiliser and is reported to be more

    suitable than raw agricultural wastes (e.g. slurry, manure) for fertiliser use 1.

    Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic material by micro- and macro-organisms (such

    as bacteria, fungi, beetles and worms) in a controlled environment. In N Ireland, green waste only

    composting is principally via the open air windrow composting (OAW) treatment method and mixed

    wastes (green and food) treated via the in-vessel composting (IVC) methods, required to safely treat

    meat and other animal products present in kitchen and oter similar waste. The product of

    composting is compost, a nutrient rich fertiliser and/or a soil conditioner.

    While both AD and composting provide waste treatment and recovery options, AD is often seen as

    the more sustainable of the two practices, largely due to energy, greenhouse gas and aconomic

    benefits:

    AD is energy positive due to the production of biogas, while IVC requires energy addition.

    The electricity difference has been quantified as 125 - 235 kWh/tonne of waste treated, in

    favour of AD over IVC 2.

    An analysis of the relative benefits of organic waste treatment via AD and IVC by Murphy &

    Power 3 (2006) found that AD is more beneficial in terms of green house gas (GHG)

    reduction. Anaerobic digestion with biomethane production has the potential to save circa

    1,451 kgCO2eq t-1 of bio-waste treated as opposed to IVC, which has the potential to save

    circa 1,190 kgCO2eq t-1, 4. As well as reducing GHG emissions, AD is a proven waste treatment

    option that reduces pollution from poor waste man

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