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 DOMS-NITT QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT TQM ASSIGNMENT KARTHIK 215110052 8/26/2011 Quality function deployment and its origin and how to form the house of quality explained with the help of a case study

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DOMS-NITT

QUALITY FUNCTION

DEPLOYMENTTQM ASSIGNMENT

KARTHIK 215110052

8/26/2011

Quality function deployment and its origin and how to form the house of quality explained with the

help of a case study

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Contents

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 3

Past ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4

What can it do for you? ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 5

How do you do it? ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 5

1. Define the project. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 5

2. Create the team. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 6

3. Get buy-in. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 6

4. Define customer expectations. ................................ ................................ ............................... 6

5. Define the requirements that will satisfy your customers expectations. ........................... ..... 7

6. Develop the first relationship matrix. ................................ ................................ ..................... 7

7. Check your work. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 8

8. Prioritize your requirements................................. ................................ ................................ .. 8

9. Establish targets. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9

10. Construct the next QFD matrix. ................................ ................................ ............................ 9

11. Construct the QFD series of matrices. ................................ ................................ ................. 10

CASE STUDY: TenStep Supplemental Paper ................................ ................................ ...................... 11

Quality Function Deployment Case Study ................................ ................................ .................. 11

Reference ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 15

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Quality Funct ion Deployment (QFD)

QFD was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and

 business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers

and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design,

development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions.

QFD is:

1.  Understanding Customer Requirements

2.  Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology

3.  Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value

4.  Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction

5.  Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game

As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of 

Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of 

comprehensive development process for:

y Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective

y What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective

y Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are

satisfied

y Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer 

y Deciding what features to include

y Determining what level of performance to deliver 

y Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development,

engineering, manufacturing, and service functions

y Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of 

Customer analysis and the entire design system

QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the

customer with various business functions and organizational processes, such as

marketing, design, quality, production, manufacturing, sales, etc., aligning the entire

company toward achieving a common goal.

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It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs, identifying positive quality

and business opportunities, and translating these into actions and designs by using

transparent analytic and prioritization methods, empowering organizations to exceed

normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates

value.

The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and non-tangible

services, including manufactured goods, service industry, software products, IT

  projects, business process development, government, healthcare, environmental

initiatives, and many other applications.

Past 

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was conceived in Japan in the late 1960s, during an era

when Japanese industries broke from their post-World War II mode of product development

through imitation and copying and moved to product development based on originality. QFD

was born in this environment as a method or concept for new product development under the

umbrella of Total Quality Control.

After World War II, statistical quality control (SQC) was introduced to Japan and became the

central quality activity, primarily in the area of manufacturing. Later, it was integrated withthe teachings of Dr. Juran, who during his 1954 visit to Japan emphasized the importance of 

making quality control a part of business management, and the teaching of Dr. Kaoru

Ishikawa, who spearheaded the Company Wide Quality Control movement by convincing the

top management of companies of the importance of having every employee take part. This

evolution was fortified also by the 1961 publication of  TotalQuality Control    by Dr.

Feigenbaum. As a result, SQC was transformed into TQC in Japan during this transitional

 period between 1960 and 1965.

the following two issues became the seeds out of which QFD was conceived.

(1) People started to recognize the importance of design quality, but how it could be done

was not found in any books available in those days.

(2) Companies were already using QC process charts, but the charts were produced at the

manufacturing site after the new products were being churned out of the line.

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What can it do for you?  

The payoff of a Quality Function Deployment is the creation of more robust designs and

 processes that work together to assure customer satisfaction. An added benefit is that QFD is

able to document key decisions in a form that can become a template for future improvement

efforts.

A full-blown application of the Quality Function Deployment discipline produces a complex-

looking series of matrices. In almost all instances, this level of detail is not necessary.

 Normally, an abbreviated version of QFD with only one or two matrices is enough to do the

 job of resolving a problem, defining Critical-To-Quality (CTQs) characteristics or 

implementing actions to reduce costs.

The effort and discipline of Quality Function Deployment produces the greatest results in

situations in which customer requirements have not or cannot be sharply defined, those

requirements cannot be met through conventional processes or practices, or the elements of 

the business that must work together to deliver the requirements have divergent or conflicting

goals. Although Quality Function Deployment is a disciplined tool, it is also a flexible and

adaptable one. Through QFD, customer expectations can be logically and practically linked

to almost any business process. Virtually any cause-and effect relationship can be adapted to

the Quality Function Deployment discipline.

The application of QFD can range from one person constructing a simple matrix to classic

Quality Function Deployment in which a formal team generates a systematic flow down of 

customer expectations to technical requirements, critical part requirements, critical process

requirements, and process controls. The most practical application of Quality Function

Deployment is usually somewhere between these two strategies.

Quality Function Deployment is especially useful in  Define, Measure and Improve phases of 

Lean Six Sigma methodology.

How do you do it ?  

1. Def ine t he project.

The first step is to define the project and describe the intended results. This will enable you to

decide if Quality Function Deployment is the right tool.

y  If the approach is clear, but the requirements are not, or you want to clarify the link 

  between customer requirements and process requirements, a simplified Quality

Function Deployment might be appropriate.

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y  If the objective is a significant challenge or there are many conflicting requirements, a

more complex Quality Function Deployment is probably a good idea.

2. Create t he team.

The next step is to bring together a team.

y  List the organizations that have an interest in or an influence on the result.

y  Consolidate representation as necessary to get the list down to two or three for a

simple Quality Function Deployment or five to eight for a complex one.

y  Identify team members who represent the defined areas and who would also have

ownership for implementing the results.

3. Get buy-in.

Make sure you have commitment from the proposed team members.

y  If anyone is not interested, find a suitable replacement.

y  Ensure you have the commitment of management in each of the interested areas, as

well.

y  Once the team is defined, agree on a team leader, team ground rules and a regular 

meeting schedule. 

4. Def ine customer expect at ions.

Think of this as answering the question, ³What does the customer want or need?´

y  Generate your own ideas through brainstorming if direct customer involvement or 

surveys are impractical.

y  Clearly state each expectation as a customer would perceive it.

y  Group the expectations into meaningful clusters that share a common theme. Consider 

creating an affinity diagram with everyone¶s input.

y  Although each customer expectation is important, it is necessary to prioritize them to

help resolve any conflicts over what to do first. Rate each customer expectation from

1 to 5, with 1 being the least important and 5 being the most.

y  Validate your collection of customer expectations and their relative importance by

talking with your customer or sources close to your customer. (Always remember, a

fundamental part of the QFD discipline is to listen to the voice of the customer .)

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y  When you are satisf ied with your list  transfer your rated customer requirements to the

lef t side of your f irst matr i  

5. D  

¡  

ine the requirements th¢  

t will s¢  

tisfy your customers expect ¢  

tions.

Think of this as answer ing the question, ³ How can we meet each customer expectation?´

� Work on each expectation, one at a time. R emember that you are look ing for requirements

that will cause the customer¶s expectations to be satisf ied. (Alternately, you might use the

disci pline to show a customer why an expectation cannot be met or to consider what may be

 possi ble beyond the customer¶s expectation.)

� You could try brainstorming or create a cause-and-effect diagram to generate requirements.

� Af ter you have a list of requirements, screen them until you have identif ied the cr itical few.

Good requirements for QFD are not only relevant; they are also controllable and measurable.

 

6. Develop the first rel£  

tionship m£  

t rix.

This matr ix will compare each customer expectation (thewhat  s) against your list of identif ied

 product or service requirements (the hows).

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� To help decide if the customer would feel that the product or service expectation would be

met if the requirement were met, ask, ³If we meet this product or service requirement, would

the customer perceive this as an improvement in satisfying this need or expectation?´

� If there would be a perceived improvement in satisfaction, decide if the relationship

 between meeting the requirement and improving the customer¶s satisfaction is a strong one, a

moderate one or a weak one.

� In your matrix, use a double circle to symbolize a strong relationship, a single circle for a

moderate one, and a triangle for a weak one.

� Complete the matrix for all the possible relationships. You should normally have at least

one strong relationship under each requirement. Determining the strength of a relationship is

a team judgment.

Here are some tips to help calibrate that judgment to make the most useful matrix.

� Try to avoid making a matrix that contains mostly weak or moderate relationships.

� On the other hand, avoid making a matrix that shows every requirement related in some

way to each customer expectation.

� A good general rule is that only one-third to one-half of the intersections in the matrix

 should have symbols in them.

7. Check your work.

A reality check is usually a good idea at this point. Ask if the customer would really be

satisfied if you delivered a product or service that met your list of requirements. Be sure that

there are no obvious holes or underrated relationships.

8.Priorit ize your requirements.

When you are satisfied that your matrix is complete and accurate, prioritize the requirements

� Multiply the strength of each relationship (1 for weak, 3 for moderate and 9 for strong)

times the priority number (1 to 5) for each corresponding customer expectation.

� Add the results and enter the sum for each requirement at the bottom of the matrix.

The numeric quantities have no real meaning, but they do help you to prioritize the relative

importance that meeting each of the identified requirements would have in satisfying the

 package of identified customer expectations.

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9. Est ablish t argets.

Through team discussion, develop target values for the requirements. Take into account

whether the goal is to maximize or minimize a value or condition or to hit a specific target

value.

Pay attention in this step to the effect that optimizing one requirement has on the ability of 

the process to meet the other requirements.

� Completing the roof matrix that gives the first matrix the name house of quality is the way

that this is done in a formal QFD study. The roof  records correlations between the

requirements.

� Symbols in the correlation matrix respond to the question, ³Would meeting this requirement

help or hurt meeting each of the other requirements?´

� The roof matrix is constructed and read diagonally. In our house-of-quality example,

reducing  weight  has a strong positive correlation with reducing fuel burn and a strong

negative correlation with increasing thrust.

� For simpler QFD projects, formal correlation analysis may not be necessary. If the team

wants to look at correlations, it may be enough to compare the requirements against one

another informally and note whether optimizing one would compromise another.

10. Construct t he next QFD matrix.

� The requirements output of the first matrix is usually used as the input to the second matrix.

The relative importance of each requirement from the previous matrix would be rescaled to

fit in a 1 to 5 range to keep calculations easy.

� Using the highest priority and most challenging requirements as a starting place, the team

would generate a list of design features to satisfy them.

The other requirements are not forgotten. They are often able to be handled by practices

other than QF  D , however. The team must decide which are the most important for entry into

the second matrix to keep the focus sharp.

� By completing and evaluating this second matrix in the same way as the team did the first

one, they arrive at a prioritized list of design features and Critical To Quality characteristics

(CTQs). The matrix scoring helps keep the focus tied to what is most important in ultimately

satisfying the customer.

� In selecting those most important CTQs, it is helpful to ask, ³Is this measurable,

controllable and relevant?´

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� A character istic should be all three to be considered as a CTQ.

11. Const ruct the¤   

FD series of m¥  

t rices.

� Using the CTQs as the star ting point for  the next matr ix, the team should apply their 

understanding of  the process to create a list of  the process character istics that must becontrolled to reduce var iation in the CTQs.

� Fill in the matr ix using the same k ind of weighting process as you used before. Ask, ³If we

reduce the var iation in this key control character istic (K CC), will the customer perceive this

as an improvement?´ As with CTQs, the selected K CCs must be measurable, controllable and

relevant.

� Completion of  this matr ix generates a list of the impor tant process character istics (K CCs)

that must receive special attention to ensure thatdesign features (CTQs) are met.

� The classic form of Quality Function Deployment then conver ts the K CCs into a pr ior iti ed

quality plan (process controls) using a var iation of the relationshi p matr ix.

 

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CASE STUDY: TenStep Supplement al Paper

Quality Funct ion Deployment Case St udy

For today¶s manufacturers, meeting customer expectations is no longer sufficient. Companies

need to exceed these expectations. Because of this, listening to customers has taken on a newimportance. Everyone in the organization, from the CEO to the person who directly interacts

with the customer, must be aware of the customer¶s needs.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a technique used to optimize the process of 

developing and producing new products on the basis of customer need. It is a team-based

methodology used to identify and translate customer requirements into technical

specifications for product planning, design, process, and production. In simple terms, it is

used to transform customer requirements into company requirements.

The following is a comprehensive case study featuring a company that developed a Quick 

Release Top Nozzle (QRTN) to replace the Removable Top Nozzle (RTN) that was currently

in use. The RTN is an expensive piece of equipment used in the manufacture process to

repair products. Failing to quickly make repairs when they are needed can lead to a steep

escalation in costs. When the RTN worked correctly, it was capable of getting the repair 

done within an acceptable time frame. However, problems with the RTN often caused delays.

Sometimes the product would fail to detach from the nozzle, and a special tool would have to be used to lift it. Another problem with the RTN involved the locking tube, an independent

 part of the machine. This tube had to be detached from the RTN during the removal process.

It would often fall during this process, and time would be wasted in retrieving it. The RTN

experienced many other problems as well. The general feeling was that it could not be

counted on to behave predictably during critical times. The company decided to develop a

new Quick Release Top Nozzle (QRTN) to minimize the repair time. This project had been

undertaken once before, but abandoned due to high development and production costs.

However, with pressure from its customers, the company decided to use the principles of 

Quality Function Deployment, among others, to renew its efforts. Employees were selected

and trained in QFD techniques. These employees, along with a QFD expert, formed the

development team. The development team started off by first getting insights from the

 previously conducted QRTN development process. Then the team attempted to identify the

needs of the customers.

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Voice of the Customers

A crucial part of QFD involves listening to customers¶ requirements. The team identified

three important customers who would be affected by the QRTN and made efforts to find out

what they expected in the product. The first group identified was the end user. Team

members attempted to get to know this group by handing out questionnaires, scheduling

meetings with various groups within the end user organization, and visiting their work sites.

These activities enabled the team to gain valuable customer input. In the end, it was clear that

the end user required a QRTN that would consistently deliver the shortest repair time

 possible. The team then studied QRTN alternatives being provided by the competitors and the

alternatives developed by the customers themselves. Engineers within the customer 

organization were constantly updated about the development process. Personnel from the

servicing division comprised the second group of customers. The servicing division was often

involved in the process of installation, adjustment, repair, and replacement of the RTN.

Because they were so familiar with the RTN, they were able to make some valuable

suggestions regarding the QRTN. Apart from gathering verbal information from the service

division personnel, the development team watched the personnel complete service and repair 

work and videotaped the process so that they could study it further. The team noted the time

spent by the service personnel to do the various servicing tasks and compared it with the

values that had been set for the new QRTN.

The third customer voice was that of the design engineer. The design engineer was able to

  provide guidelines for developing the QRTN in compliance with regulatory and other 

standard requirements.

After they had gotten their customer input, the development team analyzed the requirements

and placed them in the appropriate categories. This helped to prevent repetition of the same

requirement from different customers. It also helped members better understand the

interrelationships between the various requirements. Then, the requirements were

summarized with short phrases, and a glossary was created to aid in the understanding of 

these phrases. This glossary became invaluable as the development process progressed. The

analysis and categorization enabled the development team to reduce the 33 identified

customer needs into twelve broad requirements. Some of them are shown below.

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Af ter condensing the 33 customer  identif ied needs into 12 broad requirements, the

requirements were placed on the lef t side of the House of Quality diagram. The development 

team then created a product-planning matr ix. Here, they allotted points to each customer 

requirement, based on the pr ior ities of  the customer, on scale from 1 to 5. The team also

compared their allotted points with those of  their competitors¶ designs and performed a

cr itical evaluation. Compar isons were made to four other designs, including a customer-built 

design and the current  R TN design. The team then collected customer feedback on the

 product matr ix and incorporated the suggested modif ications.

This information was place on the r ight side of  the House of Quality diagram. Once the

 product-planning matr ix was created, the next step was to translate customer requirements

into key product def initions. The key product def initions can be challenging to develop, since

they should neither be constr icting nor unrealistic. These product def initions were added to

the top of  the House of Quality. Once the key product def initions were made, the

development  team created a point system to measure how closely the product def initions

matched the stated customer requirements. The points were assigned on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5

meaning a close match and 1 a poor one. These points were placed in the center of the matr ix

 between customer requirements (rows) and product def initions (columns).

The development team had set numer ic goals for each of the key product def initions that,

if met, would mean that the requirement had been met. The goals were placed on the bottom

of  the House of Quality, along with the actual value from adding up the rows for each

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column. However, as the process progressed, these values were modified to be more realistic.

Then, the development team studied the effects that the definitions had on each other.

Slightly positive influence between the various product definitions was ignored, while any

significant negative influences were noted. These relationships were noted on the roof of the

House of Quality. Based on all of these factors, the development team determined the

optimum numerical specifications for each of the product definitions. After the optimum

numerical specifications were set for the key product definitions, the next step was product

design. This required detailed discussions among the various development team members

about how to turn the product definitions into a design reality.

The design team had an extensive brainstorming session, both as one big group and in smaller 

sub-groups. Many ideas for incorporating the product specifications into design were

generated and recorded, and then the best ideas were developed further. Finally, the many

ideas were narrowed down to one. Having developed this µbest possible design solution¶, the

  preliminary design phase of the QRTN was launched. The results have so far been quite

satisfactory. The previous effort to develop a QRTN was scrapped because it exceeded

existing RTN costs by 85%. However, the QRTN developed by the team using QFD concepts

managed to keep it at just 15% more than the RTN costs. Customers will certainly be willing

to pay for this as it provides a better solution. QFD is a very powerful concept as far as new

 product development and meeting customer requirements are concerned. However, it requires

the complete backing of management. It also requires the involvement of several key peopleacross various functional areas and expertise. The QFD process is time consuming, especially

with regard to recording and analyzing customer input and using these inputs in actual

engineering design.

Summary

Industry experiences reveal that short-term benefits of QFD include reduction in

crossfunctional barriers associated with product development teams and increased

interdepartmental interactions. Long-term tangible benefits include reduction in cycle times

and development costs along with increased productivity. The most important benefit of QFD

has been its effectiveness in capturing, prioritizing and stabilizing customer requirements into

the appropriate technical requirements for every stage of product/service development and

  production. These include marketing strategies, planning, product design and engineering,

 prototype evaluation, production process development, production and sales.

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Reference

www.google.co.in

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_function_deployment

http://thequalityportal.com/q_know01.htm

Quality management-Mr. B Senthil Arasu / Mr. J Praveen Paul

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3e/A1_House_of_Q 

 

uality.png

www.yahoo.search.com

http://www.qfdi.org/what_is_qfd/what_is_qfd.html

http://www.12manage.com/methods_akao_quality_function_deployment.ht

ml

http://www.npd-solutions.com/whyqfd.html

http://www.casde.iitb.ac.in/springschool/school.html