Quality assurance in nigeria

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<ul><li> 1. Olugbemiro Jegede Secretary to the Govt of Kogi State Quality Assurance in Nigeria Higher Education </li></ul><p> 2. Olugbemiro Jegede Ahmadu Bello University University of Southern Queensland University of Abuja Curtin University of Technology, Australia Open University of Hong Kong Collateral Learning and the Eco- Cultural Paradigm in Science and Mathematics Education in Africa 3. 3 FocusIntroduction Main Issues of Concern in Education 21st Century Africa and her Needs Status of Education Need for Quality Assurance What, Why and How of Quality Assurance The Future Challenges and Prospects Conclusion 4. 4 Pleased to be Here Thanks for the invitation to give This University Lecture on Quality Significant as it demonstrates the Universitys commitment to quality Although have been associated with Salem University, this is my first time on Campus. I can confirm all the good things and exceptional strides already made as a university 5. 5 Apology Conversation is to create an awareness, sensitise and help navigate the issue of Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Apologies that I may neither capture all that QA represents in our education nor have all the answers to the emerging issues in QA in Higher Education in Nigeria 6. a 21st Century Imperative 7. Major Issues Global movement to educate every citizen Focus on removing disparities in educational access Vigorous search for alternative delivery modes Education directed to the full development of the human personality 8. 8 Education &amp; Development All countries have demonstrated an irrevocable and unwavering commitment to education as tool for national and personal development. They also regard the pursuit of education as an inalienable right of every citizen. 9. 9 Development Needs sustainable development highly educated, mobile and adaptable workforce multi-skilled and multi-tasked a knowledge and a learning society use of ecological and geographical conditions to a nations advantage 10. 10 Requirements Individual and institutional levels: skills and ability to be creative with knowledge technical know-how and transfer of technology policy analysis development management assessment of alternative courses of action 11. technology will increasingly dominate domestic, economic and social life financial and economic world will change into a plastic world increase in demand for constant communication and use of telecommunication society will become less personal, concentrate more on nuclear family unrivalled demand for education C21st NigeriaC21st Africa 12. Regional Status Report One adult in three cannot read or write. worlds deepest inequalities based on factors such as gender, language Primary Sector 32 million out of school 1.2 million teachers needed Secondary Sector 34 per cent in school 750,000 teachers needed by 2015 About 5% on the average in H.E. No African country has achieved the UNESCO-defined level of 25% participation in Higher Education. On average, African universities have a shortfall of 60% of researchers and teachers Tertiary Sector 8.5million in H.E 456,000 teachers needed by 2015 Three out of 10 in secondary school. VTE neglected 13. Challenges to HE in Africa Expanding access Improving quality Ensuring equity Enormous and urgent need to continuously train and refresh knowledge and skills Dwindling funding support Obsolete curricula Dilapidated infrastructure 14. Impact of Challenges impact is particularly pronounced in Africa with ONE Billion people: with the worlds highest illiteracy rates, lowest participation rates huge capacity development needs 10million seeking employment annually 60% of the unemployed are youth, and a massive demand for tertiary education. 15. Role of Higher Education Key to diversify growing economies Knowledge and skills are critical to growth and development in the 21st C Building human resource base Producing employable graduates and professionals Seeking greater participation from private sector Usage as driver of the EFA and MDG goals Combat diseases, reduce energy costs and address climate change 16. Higher Education in Africa The establishment of more institutions of HE is an answer to the yearning needs of Africans to take education to their doorsteps. Number of conventional universities in the continent has tripled within the past few years Still cant cope with the demand for access while unable to deliver flexible, affordable space and time-independent education. Growing foment in higher education in Africa to meet the challenges of access and the attendant issues of quality, equity, social justice and cost. 17. National Policy on Education education is the most important instrument of change in any society. And that any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution 18. Government adopted, policies which were to be directed towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels. make life-long education the basis for the nations education policy after primary education, an individual will be able to choose the preferred mode of learning the education system structured to develop the practice of self-learning. National Policy on Education 19. The Bottom Line effective national development depends on education the bedrock of education is the acquisition of quality knowledge leads to a Knowledge Society and a Learning Society common realisation and a shared vision 20. understanding principles Wise Society Data Understanding Context independence information knowledge understanding relations understanding patterns wisdom [Adapted from Bellinger 1999] 21. 0 Spatial Temporal Flexibility in time, space, content Non formal Formal Informal Adult Self-directed learning Sharing with others Varied learning styles Learning Society Diversity of Learning Spaces 22. Before 1960 Population of about 60 million Colonial government Protectorates Regions Provinces Districts 23. 7-5-2-3 system One University College Ibadan Less than 700 students in higher education Few went abroad Correspondence &lt; 1,000 secondary schools &lt; 5,000 primary schools EducationAge in years No. of years Universities 3 18-22 Craft Schools Teachers Training Colleges Grammar Middle School Comprehensive 15-18 5 Technical colleges Secondary schools 12-15 Primary Schools 6-11/12 7 Nigeria's 7-5-2-3 System of Education HIGHER EDUCATION HSC/A-Levels 22-30 24. After 1960 British colony till 1960 Member of the E-9 Group Member of The Commonwealth Landmass of 923,768 sq. km. Most populous African nation 25. Demography Population is about 160 million Republic with 36 states, 774 Local Govts 6 geopolitical zones 26. Socio-economic Petroleum takes 95% of foreign exchange earning GDP = $188.5b Per capita = $1,188 Literacy = 65.8% 60% in rural areas Life Expectancy =52 27. 6-3-3-4 system National Policy on Education 128 universities: 50P, 40 FGN, 38 State 88 Colleges of Education 120 Polytechnics 19,216 secondary schools 60,188 primary schools EducationAge in years No. of years Colleges of Education Universities Polytechnics 4 18-22 15-18 3 Technical colleges Senior secondary schools Junior secondary schools 12-15 Primary schools Day care centres and pre-primary schools 6-11/12 0-6 3 6 Nigeria's 6-3-3-4 System of Education HIGHER EDUCATION BASIC EDUCAT -ION 28. For the Love of Oil Ogochukwu Ikeje asked (after a visit to Mr President by Rivers State Kalabari chiefs quarrel with their Bayelsa counterparts) Who will teach us to love something else? As the chiefs and state chief executives bicker over Soku oil fields which pump out 300,000bpd, the rest of us should ask ourselves what oil has done for us and the country. It has not helped our jobs profile and our economy remains weak, susceptible to the fluctuations of oil prices. Oil has not taken our people off poverty. Our infrastructure remains unflattering. Beyond our potentials and pockets of integrity, we have pretty little to offer the world, in spite of our oil we need to cultivate healthier and more fruitful tastes The Nation on Sunday, November 4, 2012, page 14.429 29. Call for Quality 30. Restoring the role of HE in Africa Higher Education declined between 1980s and 2005 Illegal regimes, (military) Bad governance, civil wars, World Bank report of 1988 and the Structural Adjustment Programme Africa and the world became concerned about the quality of education on the continent Second Decade of Education for Africa - Plan of Action (2006-2015). 31. Importance placed on higher education quality higher education seen as the most important tool in developing the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude towards socio-economic development. hence the launch of the Second Decade of Education for Africa EX/CL/224 (VIII) by the Summit of Heads of State and Government of the African Union. tertiary level education as one of the seven priorities to be focused on for the ten-year period spanning 2006- 2015. The Addis-Ababa Declaration 2007, Assembly/AU/Decl.5(VIII) by the Conference of Heads of State and Government called for the revitalization of African Universities in the Consolidated Plan of Action for Science and Technology in Africa. 32. Access for Unmet Demand Demand for higher education expanded significantly on the continent. Many institutions responded by admitting greater numbers of students each year. 800 Universities and 1500 HEIs in Africa The students population tripled from 2.7 million in 1991 to 9.3 million in 2006. A projection of the recent trends suggests that the entire continent will have between about 20 million students by 2015 (World 33. UNESCO 2008 World Conference on Higher Education held in 2008 four key areas of intervention to improve access and quality of Higher Education in Africa. relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of higher education research and innovation creation of African higher education area quality assurance 34. Concerns About Quality African government functionaries and policy makers have expressed concern about: the need to improve quality of tertiary institutions. the need to reassure the public about the quality of private providers, and the importance of ensuring that tertiary education offered in both public and private tertiary institutions meets acceptable local and international standards. 35. Continental Endorsement Faced with - Education For All, - the Millennium Development Goals and - actualising AU vision Education Ministers began to pay serious attention to Quality Assurance MINEDAF VIII in Dar es Salam, 2002 All Africa Ministers conference in Cape Town, 2004 fingered two major challenges of: - Managing access, quality and cost -Ensuring quality in education. 36. AAU and QA The Conference of Rectors, Vice-Chancellors and Presidents of African Universities (COREVIP) held its 51st session/ 9th General Conference of the AAU held at the University of Zambia, January 13-17, 1997 with the theme Promoting Quality Enhancement and Quality Assessment: The Role of Regional Cooperation. relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of higher education research and innovation creation of African higher education area quality assurance 37. Arusha Convention1 The Arusha Convention, developed under the auspices of UNESCO in 1980 Sets the framework for the recognition of degrees and certificates among African universities The Convention thus seeks to foster cooperation in information exchange, harmonisation of procedures and policies, and attainment of comparability of qualifications to facilitate mobility across African countries for employment and further study. 38. Arusha Convention2 Africas Regional Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certification, Diplomas, Degrees and other Academic Qualification in Higher Education in Africa Introduced on 5th December 1981 in Arusha Tanzania. One of the AIMS of the Arusha Convention as stated in Article 2: Section 1.2 Defining and putting in place effective quality assurance and accreditation mechanisms at the national, regional and continental levels. Was initially ratified by less than 20 African countries and abandoned. Now revised and signed by almost all the countries 39. 2nd Decade of Education African Union, 2006: The Second Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015) the African Union (AU) Plan to revitalise higher education has seven priority areas. A major one is the the harmonisation of higher education and the establishment of quality rating mechanisms across the continent as priority activities. places prime priority on the promotion, development and assurance of quality in African Higher Education in all its dimensions. AAU the implementing agency for the AU 40. Goals of Higher Education Learning outcomes: knowledge, skills, abilities Measured through: assignments and exams demonstration of ability portfolios/samples of work ability to apply knowledge employment etc 41. COST The NIGAVEKAR pentagon Stakeholders The Iron Pentagon of QA 42. Assuring Quality A continuous, proactive and integrative process for maintaining and improving quality. 3 approaches of QA External approaches Internal approaches Outcome Assessment 43. What is a culture of quality? institutional culture, systematic not ad-hoc learner-centric, development-oriented internal rather than external voluntary rather than imposed quality integrated into all activities shared by all members of an institution encouraged by progressive legislation, adequate funding and monitoring 44. What is Quality? 5 approaches to viewing quality in terms of the exceptional (high standards) in terms of consistency (zero defects and getting it right the first time) as fitness for purpose (meeting stated purposes) as value for money as transformative (transformation of the participant) Green and Harvey (1993) 45. QA is the process of verifying or determining whether products or services meet or exceed customer expectations in a systematic, reliable fashion. QA is a process-driven approach with specific steps to help define and attain goals. This process considers design, development, implementation, and service Two key principles characterise QA: "fit for purpose" (the product should be suitable for the intended purpose) and "right first time" What is Quality Assurance?What is Quality Assurance 46. Advantages of QA greater awareness of quality all round more attention to planning and management better learner support services excellent instructional delivery efficient course material development Improvement in degree completion rates retention rates increase 47. Modern Reasons for QA quality assurance goes beyond controlling for quality. It aims for improvement. Makes current practices more efficient and effective lead to further knowledge and bring us closer to a perfect operation and output. that users...</p>