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DESCRIPTIONQTP, Testing, Automation
1) Which environments are supported by QTP?QTP supports the following environments
To learn more about Add-ins and how to use them, watch this video tutorial.
2) What are the types object Repositories in QTP.QTP Supports 2 types of Object Repository 1) Shared Object Repository (also called Global)
2) Per-Action Object Repository, (also called Local) Per-Action Object Repository is used by default. The extension for Per-Action repository is ".mtr" .Shared Object Repository is preferable while dealing with dynamic objects which are called in multiple tests. The extension is ".tsr"
3) Can we call QTP test from another test using scripting. Suppose there are 4 tests and I want to call these tests in a main script. Is this possible in QTP? Yes. You can call 4 or even more scripts in your tests.For this, first you will need to make the Actions in the corresponding scripts re-usable.Then from the destination script you can make calls to these re-usable actions. 4) What is action split and the purpose of using this in QTP?Action split is to divide an existing action into two parts.The purpose is to divide actions based on their functionality toimprove code re-use. 5) How will you handle Java tree in QTP ?Foremost you will select Java Add - In and launch QTP. Next step record operations on the Java Tree. If you face an issue while recording, you can select Tools > Object Identification > Java, tree object and make changes in mandatory and assistive properties to enable identification.Tip: You can base you answer on similar lines for any other object of any environment. For example : If the question is how will check SAP checkbox , You say , first I will select SAP Add in ... and so on. 6) Explain how QTP identifies object ?QTP identifies any GUI Object based on its corresponding properties. While recording, QTP will identify and store peculiar properties (as defined in the Object Identification settings) in the object repository of the GUI object . At run-time, QTP will compare the stored property values with the on-screen properties, to uniquely identify the GUI object.Learn more about Object Identification 7) How many types of recording modes in QTP? Which will be used when ?QTP supports 3 types of recording modes 1. Normal mode also called Contextual2. Low-level recording mode3.Analog mode Normal Mode: It is the default recording mode and takes full advantage of QTP's Test Object Model. It recognizes objects regardless of their position on -screen. This is the preferred mode of recoding and is used for most of the automation activities.Low-level recording mode: This mode records the exact x,y co-ordinates of your mouse operations. It is helpful in testing hashmaps. It is useful for recording objects not identified by normal mode of QTP.
Analog mode: This mode records exact mouse and keyboard "movements" you perform in relation to the screen / application window. This mode is useful for the operation such as drawing a picture, recording signature., drag and drop operations.
8) How will you call from one action to another action ?We can call an action in 2 ways1) Call to copy of Action. - In this ,the Action Object Repository , Script and Datable will be copied to the destination Test Script.2) Call to Existing Action. - In this, Object Repository , Script and Datable will NOT be copied but a call (reference)would be made to the Action in the source script. 9) What are Virtual Objects?Your application may contain objects that behave like standard objects but are not recognized by QTP. You candefine these objects as virtual objects and map them to standard classes, such as a button or a check box. QTP emulates the user's action on the virtual object during the run session. In the test results, the virtual object is displayed as though it is a standard class object.For example, suppose you want to record a test on a Web page containing a bitmap that the user clicks. The bitmap contains several different hyperlink areas, and each area opens a different destination page. When you record a test, the Web site matches the coordinates of the click on the bitmap and opens the destination page.To enable QTP to click at the required coordinates during a run session, you can define a virtual object for an area of the bitmap, which includes those coordinates, and map it to the button class. When you run a test, QTP clicks the bitmap in the area defined as a virtual object so that the Web site opens the correct destination page. 10) How to perform Cross platform testing and Cross browser testing using QTP? Can u explain giving some example?You will need to create separate Actions which take care of different OS and Browsers Cross Platform Testing:
Using the Built in Environment Variable you can dig up the OS information.Eg. Platform = Environment("OS"). Then based on the Platform you need to call the actions which you recorded on that particular platform.
Cross Browser Testing:
Using this code Eg. Browser("Core Values").GetROProperty("version") you can extract the Browser and its correspondin version. Ex: Internet Explorer 6 or Netscape 5. Based on this value you call the actions which are relevant to that browser. 11) What is logical name of the object?Logical name is a name given by QTP while creating an object in the repository to uniquely identify it from other objects in the application. This name would be used by the QTP to map the object name in script with its corresponding description in the object repository. Ex: Browser("Browser").Page("Guru99") Here Guru99 is the logical name of the object. 12) What is descriptive programming?Typically ,an object and its properties must be recorded in the Object Repository to enable QTP to perform action s on it. Using descriptive programming , you do not store the object and its property values in the Object repository but mention the property value pair directly in the script.The idea behind descriptive programming is not bypass the object repository but help recogonize dynamic objects.
13)What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page when using descriptive programming ?You can use the name property
ex: Browser("name:="xxx"").page("name:="xxxx"")..... ORWe can also use the property "micClass".ex: Browser("micClass:=browser").page("micClass:=page").... 14)Can we record an application running on a remote machine using QTP ? Yes .you can record remote application provided you are accessing application through the local browser not via remoter like citrix.If you are still unable to record it is advisable install QTP and application, on the same machine 15) Explain the keyword CreateObject with an example. Creates and returns a reference to an Automation objectSYNTAX: CreateObject(servername.typename [, location])Argumentsservername: Required. The name of the application providing the object.typename : Required. The type or class of the object to create.location : Optional. The name of the network server where the object is to be created. Example : Set IE = CreateObject("InternetExplorer.Application") 16) Can you switch between Per-Action and Shared Object Repository ? If yes how ?Yes .We can switch. Go to Test--->Settings--->Resources. Here you have an option to choose repositories.
17) What is Object Spy ? How to Use it ?Object Spy helps in determining the run & test time object properties & methods of the application under test.You can access object spy directly from the toolbar or from the Object Repository Dialog Box.It is very useful during Descriptive Programming 18) When ordinal identifiers alone can make an object unique then why they are not given top priority? Why it is first mandatory and next assistive. Why we cannot go for ordinal identifiers directly?Consider the following -a) If two objects are overlapped on each other than location based object recognition will fail.b) If only index based recognition is used your script will work but script execution time will increase.Hence mandatory and assistive properties are used. 19) What is the file extension of the code file in QTP?Code file extension is script.mts 20) Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.QTP Automation Object model deals with Automation of QTP itself. Almost all configuration and functionality provided by QTP is represented by QTP's Automation Object Model . Almost all dialog boxes in QTP have a corresponding automation object which can set or retrieved using the corresponding properties or methods in the Automation Object Model.QTP Automation Objects can be used along with standard VB programming elements like iterative loops or conditional statements to help you design a script of choice. 21) What is the use of Text output value in QTP?Text Output values enable you to capture text appearing on the application under test during run-time.If parameterized, text output values will capture values appearing in each iteration which would be stored in the run-time data table for further analysis.
22) What is Step Generator?Step Generator enables use to Add Test Steps in your script. Using step generator you can add steps to your script without actually recording it. 23) How to make QTP understand the difference amongst the same type of objects .Suppose there are 5 check boxes in a page and I have to choose the 2nd one, how to do that through script?You can use ordinal identifiers like index along with a little descriptive programming for object recognition.
24) What is Test Fusion Report ?.Test Fusion Report , displays all aspects of a test run and is organized in a Tree format.It gives details of each step executed for all iterations.It also gives Run-time data table, Screen shots and movie of the test run if opted. 25) How can you handle exceptions in QTP?In QTP Exceptional handling is done by usinga. Recovery Scenarios.b. Using “On Error” statementIn Recovery scenario you have to define.1. Triggered Events.2. Recovery steps.3. Post Recovery Test-Run.At Script Level you can use the On Error Resume Next and On Error Go to 0 statement. 26) What are the types of environment variables in QTP ?Environment variables in QTP are of three types:1) Built-in (Read only)2) User-defined Internal (Read only)3) User-defined External (Read/Write) You Set the Environment Variable using the following syntax Environment.Value( "name") = "Guru99"You can Retrieve the Environment Variable using following syntaxEnvironment.Value("name") -- This will retrun name as Guru99Environment.Value("OS") -- This will return your system OS 27) What is the Difference between Bitmap Check point & Image Check point?Bitmap checkpoint does a pixel to pixel comparison of an image or part of an image.Image checkpoint does do a pixel to pixel comparison but instead compare image properties like alt text , destination url etc. 28) What is the difference between functions and actions in QTP?Actions have their own Object Repository & Data Table. Actions help make your Test modular and increase reuse. Example: You can divide your script into Actions based on functionality like Login, Logout etc.Functions is a VB Script programming concept and do not have their own Object Repository or Data Table. Functions help in re-use of your code. Ex: You can create a Function in your script to concatenate two strings. 29) What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP? -Keyword View is an icon based view which shows test steps in tabular format. It also automatically generates documentation for the test steps.Expert View gives the corresponding VB Script statement for every test step in the Keyword view. 30) Explain QTP Testing process? -Quick Test testing process consists of 6 main phases:
1) Create your test plan - This is preparatory phase where you identify the exact test steps, test data and expected results for you automated test. You also identify the environment and system configurations required to create and run your QTP Tests.2) Recording a session on your application - During this phase , you will execute test steps one by one on your AUT ,and QTP will automatically record corresponding VB script statements for each step performed.3) Enhancing your test - In this stage you will insert checkpoints , output values , parameterization , programming logic like if…else loops to enhance the logic of your test script.4) Replay & Debug - After enhancements you will replay the script to check whether its working properly and debug if necessary.5) Run your Tests - In this phase you will perform the actual execution of your Test Script.6) Analyzing the test results - Once test run is complete, you will analyze the results in the Test Fusion report generated.7) Reporting defects - Any incidents identified needs to be reported. If you are using Quality Center , defects can be automatically raised for failed tests in QTP. 31) What are the different types of Test Automation Frameworks ?The types of Automation Frameworks are -1) Linear Scripting - Record & Playback2) The Test Library Architecture Framework.3)The Data-Driven Testing Framework.4)The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven Testing Framework.
32) How will you check a web application for broken links using QTP?You can use the Page Checkpoint which gives a count of valid/invalid links on a page. 33) What is a Run-Time Data Table? Where can I find and view this table?Data like parameterized output , checkpoint values , output values are stored in the Run-time Table. It is an xls file which is stored in the Test Results Folder. It can also be accessed in the Test Fusion Report. 34) What is the difference between check point and output value. Check point is a verification point that compares a current value for a specified property with the expected value for that property. Based on this comparison, it will generate a PASS or FAIL status. An output value is a value captured during the test run and can be stored in a specified location like the Datable or even a variable. Unlike Checkpoints, no PASS/FAIL status is generated. 34) How would you connect to database using vbscript ?To connect to the database you must knowa) connection string of your serverb) usernamec) passwordd) DNS nameYou can code the database connectivity command directly or you can use the SQL Query tool provided by QTP. 35) What is QTP batch testing tool? You can use the Batch testing tool to run multiple scripts. Once the scripts are added in the tool , it will automatically open the scripts and start executing them one after the other. 36) What are the drawbacks of QTP?As of QTP version 101) Huge Tests in QTP consume lots of memory and increase CPU utilization.2) Since QTP stores results in HTML file (and not txt) the result folder sometimes becomes big. 37) What is an Optional Step ?A step when declared optional is not mandatory to be executed. If the corresponding GUI object is present, QTP performs the operation on it. If the GUI object is not present, QTP bypasses the optional step and proceeds to execute the next step.
38) What is Reporter.ReportEvent ?Reporter.Reportvent is standard method provided by QTP to send custom messages to the test results window.SyntaxReporter.ReportEvent EventStatus, ReportStepName, Details [, ImageFilePath]where EventStatus = 0 or micPass 1 or micFail 2 or micDone 3 or micWarning Results can assume any status like Pass , Fail , Warning etc. You can also send screenshot to the test results window. 39) How will you declare a variable in QTP ?You declare using a DIM keyword. You assign value to the variable using the SET keyword.Ex.Dim temp 'Will declare the temp variableSet temp = 20 ' Will assign a value 20 to temp. 39) What is GetRoProperty ? GetRoProperty is a standard method provided by QTP to fetch property values of a run -time object. 40) What is smart Identification?Typically, if even one of the on-screen object property does not match the recorded object property. The test fails.In smart identification, QTP does not give an error if the property values do not match, but uses Base filter and Optional Filter properties to uniquely identify an object. In Smart identification, if a property value does not match the script does not fail but it proceeds ahead to compare the next property. Smart identification can be enabled in Object Identification Dialog box.Learn more about SMART Identification 41) How would you export a Script from one PC to another in QTP ?We can make use of the "Generate Script" function available in Object Identification, Test Settings and Tools/Options tab to create a zip of the script at the source computer. These zip files then can be imported into QTP at the destination computer. 42) Can launch two instances of QTP on the same machine ?No. You can work with only single instance of QTP on the same machine. But QTP itself can work on multiple instances of the Application Under Test (AUT). Ex: QTP can handle multiple IE browser windows. 43) Give the syntax to import/export xls into QTP.
DataTable.ImportSheet "..\..\TestData\Input.xls",1,dtGlobalSheetDataTable.ExportSheet "..\..\Results\Output.xls","Global"
44) What is SetToProperty ?SetToProperty changes property of an object stored in the Object Repository. However these changes are not permanent. 45) What is the standard timing delay for web based application in QTP ?The standard delay is 60 seconds. This is can be changed in Test Settigns. 46) What is the Action Conversion Tool ?It is an in-built tool provided by QTP to convert Actions into Business Process Components. 47) What is the extension for a function library ?The extension is '.QFL'
48) If the Global Data sheet contains no data and the Local Datasheet contains two rows of data, how many times will the test iterate?The test will iterate only once - global iteration. 49) What factors affect bitmap checkpoints ?Bitmap checkpoints are affected by screen resolution and image size. 50) What is Accessibility Checkpoint?World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) came up with some instructions and guidelines for Web-based technology and information systems to make it easy for the disabled to access the web. For example the standards make it mandatory to have an 'alt text' for an image. So a blind person who is accessing the website, will use text - to -speech converters and atleast understand what the image is about if not see it. All these standards are checked by Accessibility Checkpoints.
1. How Does Run time data (Parameterization) is handled in QTP? A). You can then enter test data into the Data Table, an integrated Spreadsheet with the full functionality of Excel, to manipulate data Sets and create multiple test iterations, without programming, to Expand test case coverage. Data can be typed in or imported from Databases, spreadsheets, or text files.
2) What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP? A) Quick Test’s Keyword Driven approach, test automation experts Have full access to the underlying test and object properties, via an integrated scripting and debugging environment that is round-trip synchronized with the Keyword View.Advanced testers can view and edit their tests in the Expert View, which reveals the underlying industry-standard VBScript that Quick Test Professional automatically generates. Any changes made in the Expert View are automatically synchronized with the Keyword View.
3) Explain about the Test Fusion Report of QTP? A) Once a tester has run a test, a TestFusion report displays all aspects of the test run: a high-level results overview, an expandable Tree View of the test specifying exactly where application failures occurred, the test data used, application screen shots for every step that highlight any discrepancies, and detailed explanations of each checkpoint pass and failure. By combining TestFusion reports with QuickTest Professional, you can share reports across an entire QA and development team.
4) To which environments does a QTP support? A) QuickTest Professional supports functional testing of all enterprise environments, including Windows, Web, NET, Java/J2EE, SAP, Siebel, Oracle, PeopleSoft, Visual Basic, ActiveX, mainframe terminal emulators, and Web services.
5) What is QTP? A) QuickTest is a graphical interface record-playback automation tool. It is able to work with any web, java or windows client application. Quick Test enables you to test standard web objects and ActiveX controls. In addition to these environments, QuickTest Professional also enables you to test Java applets and applications and multimedia objects on Applications as well as standard Windows applications, Visual Basic 6 applications and .NET framework applications.
6) Explain QTP testing process? A) The QuickTest testing process consists of 6 main phases:
1. Create your test plan: Prior to automating there should be a detailed description of the test including the exact steps to follow, data to be input, and all items to be verified by the test. The verification information should include both data validations and existence or state verifications of objects in the application.
2. Recording a session on your application: As you navigate through your application, QuickTest graphically displays each step you perform in the form of a collapsible icon-based test tree . A step is any user action that causes or makes a change in your site, such as clicking a link or image, or entering data in a form.
3. Enhancing your test: Inserting checkpoints into your test lets you search for a specific value of a page, object or text string, which helps you identify whether or not your application is functioning correctly.
NOTE: Checkpoints can be added to a test as you record it or after the fact via the Active Screen. It is much easier and faster to add the checkpoints during the recording process.
Broadening the scope of your test by replacing fixed values with parameters lets you check how your application performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. Adding logic and conditional statements to your test enables you to add sophisticated checks to your test.
4. Debugging your test: If changes were made to the script, you need to debug it to check that it operates smoothly and without interruption.
5. Running your test on a new version of your application: You run a test to check the behavior of your application. While running, QuickTest connects to your application and performs each step in your test.
6. Analyzing the test results: You examine the test results to pinpoint defects in your application.
7. Reporting defects: As you encounter failures in the application when analyzing test results, you will create defect reports in Defect Reporting Tool.
7) Explain the QTP Tool interface.
A) It contains the following key elements:
- Title bar, displaying the name of the currently open test
- Menu bar, displaying menus of QuickTest commands
- File toolbar, containing buttons to assist you in managing tests
- Test toolbar, containing buttons used while creating and maintaining tests
- Debug toolbar, containing buttons used while debugging tests.
Note: The Debug toolbar is not displayed when you open QuickTest for the first time. You can display the Debug toolbar by choosing View > Toolbars > Debug.
- Action toolbar, containing buttons and a list of actions, enabling you to view the details of an individual action or the entire test flow.
Note: The Action toolbar is not displayed when you open QuickTest for the first time. You can display the Action toolbar by choosing View > Toolbars > Action. If you insert a reusable or external action in a test, the Action toolbar is displayed automatically.
- Test pane, containing two tabs to view your test-the Tree View and the Expert View Test Details pane, containing the Active Screen.
- Data Table, containing two tabs, Global and Action, to assist you in parameterizing your test Debug Viewer pane, containing three tabs to assist you in debugging your test-Watch Expressions, Variables, and Command. (The Debug Viewer pane can be opened only when a test run pauses at a breakpoint.)
- Status bar, displaying the status of the test.
8) How QTP recognizes Objects in AUT? A) QuickTest stores the definitions for application objects in a file called the Object Repository. As you record your test, QuickTest will add an entry for each item you interact with. Each Object Repository entry will be identified by a logical name (determined automatically by QuickTest), and will contain a set of properties (type, name, etc) that uniquely identify each object.
Each line in the QuickTest script will contain a reference to the object that you interacted with, a call to the appropriate method (set, click, check) and any parameters for that method (such as the value for a call to the set method). The references to objects in the script will all be identified by the logical name, rather than any physical, descriptive properties.
9) What are the types of Object Repository’s in QTP?
A) QuickTest has two types of object repositories for storing object information: shared object repositories and action object repositories. You can choose which type of object repository you want to use as the default type for new tests, and you can change the default as necessary for each new test.
The object repository per-action mode is the default setting. In this mode, QuickTest automatically creates an object repository file for each action in your test so that you can create and run tests without creating, choosing, or modifying object repository files. However, if you do modify values in an action object repository, your changes do not have any effect on other actions. Therefore, if the same test object exists in more than one action and you modify an object's property values in one action, you may need to make the same change in every action (and any test) containing the object.
10) Explain the check points in QTP?
A). A checkpoint verifies that expected information is displayed in a Application while the test is running. You can add eight types of checkpoints to your test for standard web objects using QTP.
- A page checkpoint checks the characteristics of a Application.- A text checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate place on a Application.- An object checkpoint (Standard) checks the values of an object on a Application.- An image checkpoint checks the values of an image on a Application.- A table checkpoint checks information within a table on a Application.- An Accessibility checkpoint checks the web page for Section 508 compliance.- An XML checkpoint checks the contents of individual XML data files or XML documents that are part of your Web application.- Adatabase checkpoint checks the contents of databases accessed by your web site.
11) In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP. A) We can add checkpoints while recording the application or we can add after recording is completed using Active screen
(Note : To perform the second one The Active screen must be enabled while recording).
12) How does QTP identifies the object in the application? A) QTP identifies the object in the application by Logical Name and Class.
13) If an application name is changes frequently i.e while recording it has name "Window1" and then while running its "Windows2" in this case how does QTP handles?
A) QTP handles those situations using "Regular Expressions".
14) What is Parameterizing Tests? A) When you test your application, you may want to check how it performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. For example, suppose you want to check how your application responds to ten separate sets of data. You could record ten separate tests, each with its own set of data. Alternatively, you can create a parameterized test that runs ten times: each time the test runs, it uses a different set of data.
15) What is test object model in QTP? A) The test object model is a large set of object types or classes that QuickTest uses to represent the objects in your application. Each test object class has a list of properties that can uniquely identify objects of that class and a set of relevant methods that QuickTest can record for it.
A test object is an object that QuickTest creates in the test or component to represent the actual object in your application. QuickTest stores information about the object that will help it identify and check the object during the run session.A run-time object is the actual object in your Web site or application on which methods are performed during the run session.
When you perform an operation on your application while recording, QuickTest identifies the test object class that represents the object on which you performed the operation and creates the appropriate test object reads the current value of the object's properties in your application and stores the list of properties and values with the test object chooses a unique name for the object, generally using the value of one of its prominent properties records the operation that you performed on the object using the appropriate QuickTest test object method. For example, suppose you click on a Find button with the following HTML source code:
<INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="Find" VALUE="Find">
QuickTest identifies the object that you clicked as a WebButton test object. It creates a WebButton object with the name Find, and records the properties and values for the Find WebButton. It also records that you performed a Click method on the WebButton. QuickTest displays your step like this:
Browser("Mercury Interactive").Page("Mercury Interactive").WebButton("Find").Click
16) What is Object Spy in QTP? A) Using the Object Spy, you can view the properties of any object in an open application. You use the Object Spy pointer to point to an object. The Object Spy displays the selected object's hierarchy tree and its properties and values in the Properties tab of the Object Spy dialog box.
17) What is the Diff between Image check-point and Bit map Check point? A) Image checkpoints enable you to check the properties of a Web image. You can check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While creating a test or component, you specify the area you want to check by selecting an object. You can check an entire object or any area within an object. QuickTest captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a checkpoint in the test or component. You can also choose to save only the selected area of the object with your test or component in order to save disk Space. For example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the map.
Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms in correctly. You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing environments (as long as the appropriate add-ins is loaded). Note: The results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as operating system, screen resolution, and color settings.
18) How many ways we can parameterize data in QTP?
A) There are four types of parameters:
- Test, action or component parameters enable you to use values passed from your test or component, or values from other actions in your test.
- Data Table parameters enable you to create a data-driven test (or action) that runs several times using the data you supply. In each repetition, or iteration, QuickTest uses a different value from the Data Table.
- Environment variable parameters enable you to use variable values from other sources during the run session. These may be values you supply, or values that QuickTest generates for you based on conditions and options you choose.
- Random number parameters enable you to insert random numbers as values in your test or component. For example, to check how your application handles small and large ticket orders, you can have QuickTest generate a random number and insert it in a number of tickets edit field.
19. How do u do batch testing in WR & is it possible to do in QTP, if so explain? Ans: Batch Testing in WR is nothing but running the whole test set by selecting "Run Testset" from the "Execution Grid". The same is possible with QTP also. If our test cases are automated then by selecting "Run Testset" all the test scripts can be executed. In this process the Scripts get executed one by one by keeping all the remaining scripts in "Waiting" mode.
20. What does it mean when a check point is in red color? what do u do? Ans : A red color indicates failure. Here we analyze the cause for failure whether it is a Script Issue or Environment Issue or a Application issue.
21. What do you call the window test director - testlab? Ans : "Execution Grid". It is place from where we Run all Manual / Automated Scripts.
22. How does u create new test sets in TD?
- Login to TD.- Click on "Test Lab" tab.- Select the Desired folder under which we need to Create the Test Set. (Test Sets can be grouped as per module.)- Click on "New Test Set or Ctrl+N" Icon to create a Test Set.
23. How do u do batch testing in WR & is it possible to do in QTP, if so explain? Ans : You can use Test Batch Runner to run several tests in succession. The results for each test are stored in their default location.
Using Test Batch Runner, you can set up a list of tests and save the list as an .mtb file, so that you can easily run the same batch of tests again, at another time. You can also choose to include or exclude a test in your batch list from running during a batch run.
24. How to Import data from a ".xls" file to Data table during Runtime.
- Datatable.Import "...XLS file name..."- DataTable.ImportSheet(FileName, SheetSource, SheetDest)- DataTable.ImportSheet "C:\name.xls" ,1 ,"name"
25. How to export data present in Datatable to an ".xls" file? Ans : DataTable.Export "....xls file name..."
26. Syntax for how to call one script from another and Syntax to call one "Action" in another? Ans: RunAction ActionName, [IterationMode , IterationRange , Parameters]
Here the actions become reusable on making this call to any Action.IterationRange String Not always required. Indicates the rows for which action iterations will be performed. Valid only when the IterationMode is rngIterations. Enter the row range (i.e. "1-7"), or enter rngAll to run iterations on all rows.If the action called by the RunAction statement includes an ExitAction statement, the RunAction statement can return the value of the ExitAction's RetVal argument.
27. How to export QTP results to an ".xls" file? Ans : By default it creates an "XML" file and displays the results.
28. Differences between QTP & Winrunner? Ans :
- QTP is object bases Scripting ( VBS) where Winrunner is TSL (C based) Scripting.- QTP supports ".NET" application Automation not available in Winrunner.- QTP has "Active Screen" support which captures the application, not available in WR.- QTP has "Data Table" to store script values , variables which WR does not have.Using a "point and click" capability you can easily interface with objects, their definitions and create checkpoints after having recorded a script without having to navigate back to that location in your application like you have to with WinRunner. This greatly speeds up script development.
29. How to add a runtime parameter to a datasheet? Ans: By using LocalSheet property. The following example uses the LocalSheet property to return the local sheet of the run-time Data Table in order to add a parameter (column) to it:
30. What scripting language is QTP of? Ans : VB Script.
31. Analyzing the Checkpoint results Standard Checkpoint: By adding standard checkpoints to your tests or components, you can compare the expected values of object properties to the object's current values during a run session. If the results do not match, the checkpoint
32. Table and DB Checkpoints: By adding table checkpoints to your tests or components, you can check that a specified value is displayed in a cell in a table on your application. By adding database checkpoints to your tests or components, you can check the contents of databases accessed by your application.
The results displayed for table and database checkpoints are similar. When you run your test or component, QuickTest compares the expected results of the checkpoint to the actual results of the run session. If the results do not match, the checkpoint fails.
You can check that a specified value is displayed in a cell in a table by adding a table checkpoint to your test or component. For ActiveX tables, you can also check the properties of the table object. To add a table checkpoint, you use the Checkpoint Properties dialog box.
Table checkpoints are supported for Web and ActiveX applications, as well as for a variety of external add-in environments.
You can use database checkpoints in your test or component to check databases accessed by your Web site or application and to detect defects. You define a query on your database, and then you create a database checkpoint that checks the results of the query.
Database checkpoints are supported for all environments supported by QuickTest, by default, as well as for a variety of external add-in environments.
There are two ways to define a database query:
- Use Microsoft Query. You can install Microsoft Query from the custom installation of Microsoft Office.- Manually define an SQL statement.
The Checkpoint timeout option is available only when creating a table checkpoint. It is not available when creating a database checkpoint.
33. Checking Bitmaps: A.) You can check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While creating a test or component, you specify the area you want to check by selecting an object. You can check an entire object or any area within an object. QuickTest captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a checkpoint in the test or component. You can also choose to save only the selected area of the object with your test or component in order to save disk space.
When you run the test or component, QuickTest compares the object or selected area of the object currently displayed on the Web page or application with the bitmap stored when the test or component was recorded. If there are differences, QuickTest captures a bitmap of the actual object and displays it with the expected bitmap in the details portion of the Test Results window. By comparing the two bitmaps (expected and actual), you can identify the nature of the discrepancy.
For example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms in correctly.
You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing environments (as long as the appropriate add-ins is loaded).
Note: The results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as operating system, screen resolution, and color settings.
34. Text/Text Area Checkpoint: In the Text/Text Area Checkpoint Properties dialog box, you can specify the text to be checked as well as which text is displayed before and after the checked text. These configuration options are particularly helpful when the text string you want to check appears several times or when it could change in a predictable way during run sessions.
Note: In Windows-based environments, if there is more than one line of text selected, the Checkpoint Summary pane displays [complex value] instead of the selected text string. You can then click Configure to view and manipulate the actual selected text for the checkpoint.
QTP automatically displays the Checked Text in red and the text before and after the Checked Text in blue. For text area checkpoints, only the text string captured from the defined area is displayed (Text Before and Text After are not displayed).
To designate parts of the captured string as Checked Text and other parts as Text Before and Text After, click the Configure button. The Configure Text Selection dialog box opens.
35. Checking XML: XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a meta-markup language for text documents that is endorsed as a standard by the W3C. XML makes the complex data structures portable between different computer environments/operating systems and programming languages, facilitating the sharing of data.
XML files contain text with simple tags that describe the data within an XML document. These tags describe the data content, but not the presentation of the data. Applications that display an XML document or file use either Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) or XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO) to present the data.
You can verify the data content of XML files by inserting XML checkpoints. A few common uses of XML checkpoints are described below:
- An XML file can be a static data file that is accessed in order to retrieve commonly used data for which a quick response time is neededâ€”for example, country names, zip codes, or area codes. Although this data can change over time, it is normally quite static. You can use an XML file checkpoint to validate that the data has not changed from one application release to another.
- An XML file can consist of elements with attributes and values (character data). There is a parent and child relationship between the elements, and elements can have attributes associated with them. If any part of this structure (including data) changes, your application's ability to process the XML file may be affected. Using an XML checkpoint, you can check the content of an element to make sure that its tags, attributes, and values have not changed.
- XML files are often an intermediary that retrieves dynamically changing data from one system. The data is then accessed by another system using Document Type Definitions (DTD), enabling the accessing system to read and display the information in the file. You can use an XML checkpoint and parameterize the captured data values in order to check an XML document or file whose data changes in a predictable way.
- XML documents and files often need a well-defined structure in order to be portable across platforms and development systems. One way to accomplish this is by developing an XML schema, which describes the structure of the XML elements and data types. You can use schema validation to check that each item of content in an XML file adheres to the schema description of the element in which the content is to be placed.
36. Object Repositories types, which & when to use? A.) To choose the default object repository mode and the appropriate object repository mode for each test, you need to understand the differences between the two modes. In general, the object repository per-action mode is easiest to use when you are creating simple record and run tests, especially under the following conditions:
- You have only one, or very few, tests that correspond to a given application, interface, or set of objects.
- You do not expect to frequently modify test object properties.
- You generally create single-action tests.
Conversely, the shared object repository mode is generally the preferred mode when:
- You have several tests that test elements of the same application, interface, or set of objects.
- You expect the object properties in your application to change from time to time and/or you regularly need to update or modify test object properties.
- You often work with multi-action tests and regularly use the Insert Copy of Action and Insert Call to Action options.
37. Can we Script any test case with out having Object repository? or Using Object Repository is a must? Ans: No. U can script with out Object repository by knowing the Window Handlers, spying and recognizing the objects logical names and properties available.
38. How to execute a WinRunner Script in QTP? Ans :
(a) TSLTest.RunTest TestPath, TestSet [, Parameters ] --> Used in QTP 6.0 used for backward compatibility
Parameters: The test set within Quality Center , in which test runs are stored. Note that this argument is relevant only when working with a test in a Quality Center project. When the test is not saved in Quality Center , this parameter is ignored.e.g : TSLTest.RunTest "D:\test1", ""
(b) TSLTest.RunTestEx TestPath, RunMinimized, CloseApp [, Parameters ]TSLTest.RunTestEx "C:\WinRunner\Tests\basic_flight", TRUE, FALSE, "MyValue"CloseApp : Indicates whether to close the WinRunner application when the WinRunner test run ends.Parameters : Up to 15 WinRunner function argument
39. How to handle Run-time errors? Ans: On Error Resume Next : causes execution to continue with the statement immediately following the statement that caused the run-time error, or with the statement immediately following the most recent call out of the procedure containing the On Error Resume Next statement. This allows execution to continue despite a run-time error. You can then build the error-handling routine inline within the procedure. Using "Err" object msgbox "Error no: " & " " & Err.Number & " " & Err.description & " " & Err.Source & Err.HelpContext
40. How to change the run-time value of a property for an object? Ans : SetTOProperty changes the property values used to identify an object during the test run. Only properties that are included in the test object description can be set.
41. How to retrieve the property of an object? Ans : using "GetRoProperty".
42. How to open any application during Scripting? Ans : SystemUtil, object used to open and close applications and processes during a run session. A SystemUtil.Run statement is automatically added to your test when you run an application from the Start menu or the Run dialog box while recording a testE.g : SystemUtil.Run "Notepad.exe"SystemUtil.CloseDescendentProcesses (Closes all the processes opened by QTP)
43. Types of properties that Quick Test learns while recording?
Ans : (a) Mandatory (b) Assistive .
In addition to recording the mandatory and assistive properties specified in the Object Identification dialog box, QuickTest can also record a backup ordinal identifier for each test object. The ordinal identifier assigns the object a numerical value that indicates its order relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description (objects that have the same values for all properties specified in the mandatory and assistive property lists). This ordered value enables QuickTest to create a unique description when the mandatory and assistive properties are not sufficient to do so.
44. What is the extension of script and object repository files? Ans : Object Repository : .tsr , Script : .mts, Excel : Default.xls
45. How to supress warnings from the "Test results page"? Ans : From the Test results Viewer "Tools > Filters > Warnings"...must be "Unchecked".
46. When we try to use test run option "Run from Step", the browser is not launching automatically why?
Ans : This is default behaviour.
47. How to "Turn Off" QTP results after running a Script?Ans : Goto "Tools > Options > Run Tab" and Deselect "View results when run session ends". But this supresses only the result window, but a og will be created and can viewed manulaly which cannot be restricted from getting created.
48. How to verify the Cursor focus of a certain field? Ans : Use "focus" property of "GetRoProperty" method"
49. How to make arguments optional in a function? Ans : this is not possible as default VBS doesn't support this. Instead you can pass a blank scring and have a default value if arguments r not required.
50. How to covert a String to an integer? Ans : CInt()---> a conversion function available.
51. Inserting a Call to Action is not importing all columns in Datatable of globalsheet. Why? Ans : Inserting a call to action will only Import the columns of the Action called
Learning basics of QTP automation tool and preparation of QTP interview questions
1. What are the features and benefits of Quick Test Pro(QTP)?
1. Key word driven testing
2. Suitable for both client server and web based application
3. VB script as the script language
4. Better error handling mechanism
5. Excellent data driven testing features
2. How to handle the exceptions using recovery scenario manager in QTP?
You can instruct QTP to recover unexpected events or errors that occurred in your testing environment during test run.
Recovery scenario manager provides a wizard that guides you through the defining recovery scenario. Recovery scenario has
1. Triggered Events
2. Recovery steps
3. Post Recovery Test-Run
3. What is the use of Text output value in QTP?
Output values enable to view the values that the application talks during run time. When parameterized, the values change for
each iteration. Thus by creating output values, we can capture the values that the application takes for each run and output
them to the data table.
4. How to use the Object spy in QTP 8.0 version?
There are two ways to Spy the objects in QTP
1) Thru file toolbar: In the File ToolBar click on the last toolbar button (an icon showing a person with hat).
2) Thru Object repository Dialog: In Objectrepository dialog click on the button “object spy…” In the Object spy Dialog click on
the button showing hand symbol. The pointer now changes in to a hand symbol and we have to point out the object to spy the
state of the object. If at all the object is not visible or window is minimized then hold the Ctrl button and activate the required
window to and release the Ctrl button.
5. What is the file extension of the code file and object repository file in QTP?
File extension of
Per test object rep: filename.mtr
Shared Object rep: filename.tsr
Code file extension id: script.mts
6. Explain the concept of object repository and how QTP recognizes objects?
Object Repository: displays a tree of all objects in the current component or in the current action or entire test( depending on
the object repository mode you selected).
we can view or modify the test object description of any test object in the repository or to add new objects to the repository.
Quicktest learns the default property values and determines in which test object class it fits. If it is not enough it adds assistive
properties, one by one to the description until it has compiled the unique description. If no assistive properties are available,
then it adds a special Ordianl identifier such as objects location on the page or in the source code.
7. What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser and page when using descriptive
“name” would be another property apart from “title” that we can use. OR
We can also use the property “micClass”.
8. What are the different scripting languages you could use when working with QTP?
You can write scripts using following languages:
9. Tell some commonly used Excel VBA functions.
Common functions are:
Coloring the cell, Auto fit cell, setting navigation from link in one cell to other saving
10. Explain the keyword createobject with an example.
Creates and returns a reference to an Automation object
syntax: CreateObject(servername.typename [, location])
servername:Required. The name of the application providing the object.
typename : Required. The type or class of the object to create.
location : Optional. The name of the network server where the object is to be created.
11. Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.
Essentially all configuration and run functionality provided via the QuickTest interface is in some way represented in the
QuickTest automation object model via objects, methods, and properties. Although a one-on-one comparison cannot always be
made, most dialog boxes in QuickTest have a corresponding automation object, most options in dialog boxes can be set and/or
retrieved using the corresponding object property, and most menu commands and other operations have corresponding
automation methods. You can use the objects, methods, and properties exposed by the QuickTest automation object model,
along with standard programming elements such as loops and conditional statements to design your program.
12. How to handle dynamic objects in QTP?
QTP has a unique feature called Smart Object Identification/recognition. QTP generally identifies an object by matching its test
object and run time object properties. QTP may fail to recognize the dynamic objects whose properties change during run time.
Hence it has an option of enabling Smart Identification, wherein it can identify the objects even if their properties changes
during run time.
Check out this:
If QuickTest is unable to find any object that matches the recorded object description, or if it finds more than one object that fits
the description, then QuickTest ignores the recorded description, and uses the Smart Identification mechanism to try to identify
While the Smart Identification mechanism is more complex, it is more flexible, and thus, if configured logically, a Smart
Identification definition can probably help QuickTest identify an object, if it is present, even when the recorded description fails.
The Smart Identification mechanism uses two types of properties:
Base filter properties – The most fundamental properties of a particular test object class; those whose values cannot be
changed without changing the essence of the original object. For example, if a Web link’s tag was changed from to any other
value, you could no longer call it the same object. Optional filter properties – Other properties that can help identify objects of a
particular class as they are unlikely to change on a regular basis, but which can be ignored if they are no longer applicable.
13. What is a Run-Time Data Table? Where can I find and view this table?
In QTP, there is data table used, which is used at runtime.
-In QTP, select the option View->Data table.
-This is basically an excel file, which is stored in the folder of the test created, its name is Default.xls by default.
14. How does Parameterization and Data-Driving relate to each other in QTP?
To data driven we have to parameterize. i.e. we have to make the constant value as parameter, so that in each
interaction(cycle) it takes a value that is supplied in run-time data table. Through parameterization only we can drive a
transaction (action) with different sets of data. You know running the script with the same set of data several times is not
suggested, and it’s also of no use.
15. What is the difference between Call to Action and Copy Action.?
Call to Action: The changes made in Call to Action, will be reflected in the original action (from where the script is called). But
where as in Copy Action , the changes made in the script ,will not effect the original script(Action)
16. Explain the concept of how QTP identifies object.
During recording qtp looks at the object and stores it as test object. For each test object QT learns a set of default properties
called mandatory properties, and look at the rest of the objects to check whether this properties are enough to uniquely identify
the object. During test run, QTP searches for the run time objects that matches with the test object it learned while recording.
17. Differentiate the two Object Repository Types of QTP.
Object repository is used to store all the objects in the application being tested.
Types of object repository: Per action and shared repository.
In shared repository only one centralized repository for all the tests. where as in per action for each test a separate per action
repository is created.
18. What the differences are and best practical application of Object Repository?
Per Action: For Each Action, one Object Repository is created.
Shared: One Object Repository is used by entire application
19. Explain what the difference between Shared Repository and Per Action Repository
Shared Repository: Entire application uses one Object Repository , that similar to Global GUI Map file in WinRunner
Per Action: For each Action, one Object Repository is created, like GUI map file per test in WinRunner
20. Have you ever written a compiled module? If yes tell me about some of the functions that you wrote.
Sample answer (You can tell about modules you worked on. If your answer is Yes then You should expect more questions and
should be able to explain those modules in later questions): I Used the functions for Capturing the dynamic data during runtime.
Function used for Capturing Desktop, browser and pages.
21. Can you do more than just capture and playback?
Sample answer (Say Yes only if you worked on): I have done Dynamically capturing the objects during runtime in which no
recording, no playback and no use of repository is done AT ALL.
-It was done by the windows scripting using the DOM(Document Object Model) of the windows.
22. How to do the scripting. Are there any inbuilt functions in QTP? What is the difference between them? How to
handle script issues?
Yes, there’s an in-built functionality called “Step Generator” in Insert->Step->Step Generator -F7, which will generate the
scripts as you enter the appropriate steps.
23. What is the difference between check point and output value?
An output value is a value captured during the test run and entered in the run-time but to a specified location.
EX:-Location in Data Table[Global sheet / local sheet]
24. How many types of Actions are there in QTP?
There are three kinds of actions:
Non-reusable action – An action that can be called only in the test with which it is stored, and can be called only once.
Reusable action – An action that can be called multiple times by the test with which it is stored (the local test) as well as by
External action – A reusable action stored with another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test, but you can
choose to use a local, editable copy of the Data Table information for the external action.
25. I want to open a Notepad window without recording a test and I do not want to use System utility Run
command as well. How do I do this?
You can still make the notepad open without using the record or System utility script, just by mentioning the path of the
notepad “( i.e. where the notepad.exe is stored in the system) in the “Windows Applications Tab” of the “Record and Run