Pyramid poweralvarez

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<ul><li> 1. The Alvarez experiment, cosmicray search for hidden chamber onthe Chephren PyramidAuthors: Justen CheersKathleen HooverGustavo Rivera</li></ul> <p> 2. New tools for archeology: Cosmic Rays The use of cosmic raysfor scientific researchstarted in the 1960s. Cosmic rays aregenerated in stars,galaxies, nebulas, andsupernovas. Cosmic rays are one ofthe most powerfulsources of naturalradiation that exist in theuniverse. 3. Facts about cosmic rays Cosmic rays are created whensubatomic particles from outerspace collide with theatmosphere. Cosmic rays are highlyenergetic sub-atomic particles,mostly protons and heliumnuclei, which travel acrossspace at close to the speed oflight. Cosmic rays can be up to 1021electron volts, which is morethan a billion times moreenergetic than the mostenergetic particles that exist onearth. 4. Hypothesis on the existence ofsecret chambers The goal of this techniqueis to use cosmic rays thatare passing through thepyramid to deposit energyon a detector located atthe foot of the pyramid. As the muons passacross the limestone ofthe pyramid, they will loseenergy because offrequent collision andfriction with the structure. 5. How to identify the existence of a secret chamber We would expect to see a higherrate of incidence on the bottomdetector for those particlespassing through the existingchamber. The detector on the bottom canread data of incidence, position,and momentum of the particles. Depending on how the trajectoryof the particles are and relaying onthe readings of the detector, if aparticle were to pass through thechamber it would noticeably loseless energy through moreinfrequent collisions with thelimestone. 6. The use of secret chambers in ancient civilizations Used to hide the buried bodies of pharos or people who had lots of power. The secret chambers were usually blacked off by a huge slab of limestone or other hard rock. With the use of secret chambers the pharos body could be at rest with all his lavishes without the threat of the body or the jewelry being stolen. 7. Importance of secret chambers Secret chambers are a very important piece that the archeologists can use to solve the complex puzzles of ancient civilizations. They can provide historical information, as well as spiritual narratives and believes. Anthropologists have always believed that the places of burial are very important to understand the way in which different cultures lived. 8. Dr. Luis W. Alvarez Luis Alvarez was born in SanFrancisco, California, on June13, 1911. Studied in the University ofChicago and worked for a longtime in a research team at theRadiation Laboratory of theUniversity of California. Dr. Alvarez devoted to work inthe areas of optics and cosmicrays. Dr. Alvarez was also in chargeof three important radarsystems during the WWII, andwas a scientific observer at theHiroshima explosion of theAtomic Bomb. 9. Accomplishments and work ofDr. Luis W. Alvarez In 1968, Alvarez received thePhysics Nobel Price. During the 1960s that Dr.Alvarez leaded a series ofexperiments using cosmic raysin the Chephren Pyramid. After working with his sonWalter, a geologist at Berkley,developed the hypothesis thatan asteroid hit the earth andproduced a cloud that coveredthe planet for a long period oftime, blocking sunlight, andeventually leading to theextinction of dinosaurs. 10. The Alvarez Experiment: Method The cosmic rays detectorswere installed in the BelzoniChamber of the pyramid,which is located in the lower-middle section in the interior ofthe pyramid. Millions of cosmic rayspenetrated the limestone ontheir way to the detectorsinside the pyramid, in searchof evidence on the existence ofthe secret upper chamber. The experiment was repeatedmany times, and millions ofreadings of the cosmic raysthat went across the pyramidwere done. 11. The Alvarez Experiment:Motivations Hypothesis about theexistence of a secret upperchamber in the ChephrenPyramid, similar to the oneinside the Great Pyramid. The recent development ofcosmic rays technology forarcheological research. The generous fundingprovided by the governmentsUnited Arab Emirates and theUnited States. 12. The Alvarez Experiment: Readingthe trajectories of the cosmic rays The way in which the scientistswould be able to determine theexistence of a secret upperchamber, was by using the datafile containing a certain number ofmuon events at a specific energy. The detector would be set at aspecific energy, so that particlesnot passing through the chamberwill likely not reach the signal, andthose particles passing throughthe chamber would likely reach thesignal. With complex calculations and theuse of Monte Carlo simulations,the scientists can anticipate theevents that take place during theexperiment and graph the anglesrecorded by the detectors. 13. The Alvarez Experiment: Finalresults of the project Alvarez wrote thatthe results of all thisis that we found thepyramid to be quitesolid, with nochamberscomparable in size tothose found abovethe plateau level, inthe Great Pyramid. 14. The future of cosmic rays applied in Mesoamerican pyramids In the case of Teotihuacan,Mexico, scientists recentlyinstalled muon detectors deepinside the Sun Pyramid, inorder to track the subatomicparticles that are left overwhen the cosmic rays hit theearths surface. The magnificence of theirconstructions and avenuesattract thousands of visitorsevery year, but the scientistsare sure that there is muchmore buried under thearcheological area. 15. Reason for experimenting with cosmic rays in Teotihuacan No one is still sure about who founded the city, which was the ruler, and what caused the downfall of Teotihuacan. The scientists expect that in the case they find a secret chamber inside the Sun Pyramid they will have understanding of this Mesoamerican culture. 16. The project at the archeological siteof Teotihuacan, Mexico Mexican scientists constructed at the universitys laboratory a muon detector at a cost of $500,000 dollars. This machine was installed inside the 63 meters high pyramid, in order to start reading the trajectories and behaviors of the cosmic rays. The group of Mexican scientists expects to read more than 100 million of the cosmic rays particles that are constantly bombarding the pyramid. 17. Conclusions It is evident that this techniquestill needs mechanicalimprovements, but itseffectiveness seems to betrustable and well founded incorrect calculations. If this method brings positiveresults in the experiments atTeotihuacan, then the way ofdoing archeological researchwill be completelyrevolutionized for the comingyears. 18. Thanks for your attention! </p>