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Technology and Application of PET Training

Blowing Nomenclature Pre Blow - First Blowing Pressure PET requires a slow inflation rate to achieve designed orientation and stretch levels High Blow - Second Blowing Pressure High pressure is required to form the corners and quench material in base Flow controls change the rate of blowing All stations have flow controls for low air, some machines have flow controls on the high air system

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Preform HeatingPackage Design

Material Properties

Process Requirements

Performance Requirements

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Preform Heating Objectives: Understand the Nature of the source of IR Energy and the absorption of IR by PET preforms Learn why preforms tend to be hotter on the outside than on the inside after heating with IR Understand some of the limitations of the IR heating process

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Electromagnetic Radiation

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-22

Technology and Application of PET Training

IR Absorption Characteristic of PET1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00 0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

Wavelength (m)

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

IR Transmission Characteristic of PET

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-23

Technology and Application of PET Training

Output of Quartz Heater ElementsSpectral Radiation DistributionMonochromatic Radiating Power (J/(m2*s)1.2E+12 1.0E+12 8.0E+112200 K

2400 K

6.0E+11 4.0E+11 2.0E+11 0.0E+00 0 1 2 3 4 Wavelength (m) 5 6 7 82000 K 1800 K 1600 K 1400 K

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Sidel IR Heaters

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-24

Technology and Application of PET Training

Absorption of IR by PET Preform

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

PET Resins Vary In Absorption PropertiesIR Absorption of PET0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 Slow Heating Resin Medium Heating Resin Fast Heating Resin

Absorption Properties Of PET0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0.000 0.500 1.000 Wavelength, Microns 1.500 2.000 Slow Heating Resin Medium Heating Resin Fast Heating Resin

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 1.000 1.050 1.100 1.150 1.200 1.250 1.300

Wavelength (M)

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-25

Technology and Application of PET Training

This Affects How Quickly Preforms Heat UpComparison of Heatup Rates115 Temperature at Blow, Deg. C 110 105 100 Fast heating 95 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inside to Outside Wall Position Medium Heating Slow Heating

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

OvenThe oven is used to heat preforms: The function of the infrared oven is to bring the preforms to a temperature of between 90 and 120 degrees C before they are stretched and blown in the blow wheel. The oven boxes around the edge of the oven wheel are needed to reheat the preforms. Each oven box is personalized for the preform. The oven can have different number of lamps to fit the need of the preform. The oven box can be removed easily It is connected to the power supply by a multi-pin plug.

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-26

Technology and Application of PET Training

Schematic of Heating System

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Oven

Courtesy of SIDEL

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-27

Technology and Application of PET Training

Oven The number of the lamps depends on the type of preform to be reheated and the bottle to be blown On each module there are two fans One which blows air towards the ends of the lamps A second fan forces air flow across for the preform to keep the outside of the preform from overheating.

Neck shields with circulating water protect the necks by preventing the infrared radiation from heating the finish 2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI 6-55

Technology and Application of PET Training

More SIDEL Heating Hardware

15 mm Spacer Lamp Out

Spacer Lamp In

Clean Reflective Plate

15 mm Lamp Holder

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-28

Technology and Application of PET Training

SIDEL Heating Hardware

Dirty Heater Side Reflector

Clean Cooling Side Reflector

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Oven Adjustments

Courtesy of SIDEL

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-29

Technology and Application of PET Training

Air Circulation Through the Oven Air is blown on the finish after the preform leaves the first row of ovens and before entering the second row of ovens Air is blown across the preform to cool the surface of the preform

Courtesy of SIDEL

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Example for A Wavelength Where 1 mm of PET absorbs 10%

100%

1mm 1mm 1mm 1mm

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-30

Technology and Application of PET Training

Example for A Wavelength Where 1 mm of PET absorbs 10%

100% 90%

Layer Absorbs

10% 1mm 1mm 1mm 1mm

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Example for A Wavelength Where 1 mm of PET absorbs 10%

100% 81% 90%

Layer Absorbs

10%

9%

1mm 1mm 1mm 1mm

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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4.4-31

Technology and Application of PET Training

Example for A Wavelength Where 1 mm of PET absorbs 10%

100% 81% 73% 90%

Layer Absorbs

10%

9%

8%

1mm 1mm 1mm 1mm Preform is Hotter Towards Outside

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

25% 450 Watts 90 Volts 1490 Degrees C

IR Heating in PET with 2000 Watt Lamps

65% 1160 Watts 165 Volts 1885 Degrees C 100% 1800 Watts 220 Volts 2150 Degrees C

The length of the wave emitted by the infrared lamps is only optimal when the lamps have nearly reached their rated power 2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI 6-64

4.4-32

Technology and Application of PET Training

Explanation of Interaction of Heaters

Intensity is greater in the center of the array. Each heater affects a large area.

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Special Hardware to Control Heat Zones Precisely

Zone Shield

Quartz Focusing Lens and Bracket

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written permission of PTI

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Technology and Application of PET Training

Material Distribution Example, Zone 3 Power to 55%

0..332mm / 0.0130

0.348mm / 0.0137

0.287mm / 0.0113

2012 PTI This document is proprietary and cannot be reproduced without the express written p