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(1st semester) report in Psychology

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CHAPTER VII

EMOTION

What is Emotion?

Emotion A distinct feeling or quality of consciousness. Reflects the personal significance of an emotion - arousing event.

I.

Elements of Emotions

1.The BODY

2.The MIND 3.The CULTUREELEMENTS OF

The BODY1. Primary Emotions consist offear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt.

Secondary Emotions developedwith cognitive memory and vary across individuals and cultures.

ELEMENTS OF

Areas of Emotion 1. Facial Expression - universal expression of humanemotions. 2. Bran Regions & Circuits amygdala is responsible for assessing any eminent threat. Damage to amygdala may result in abnormality to process fear. Damage to left prefrontal cortex, loss of joy; Damage to right prefrontal cortex, result in excessive mania & euphoria. 3. The Autonomic Nervous System Lie detectors or Polygraph testing relies on ANS. During agitation, it includes galvanic skin response, increase/decrease in pulse, BP, breathing, and fidgeting.ELEMENTS OF

The MIND may create emotions. - thoughts2. TWO FACTOR THEORY emotionsare brought by: Physiological Arousal (sweaty palms, increased heart rate, rapid breathing) Cognitive Labeling (attribute source of arousal to a cause)ELEMENTS OF

The CULTURE3. - determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, and ashamed or disgusted about. - differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages.ELEMENTS OF

II.

1. Physiological Changes involuntary reactions of the body. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other bodily reactions. 2. Emotional Expressions it is varied. Pleasant or unpleasant feeling can be communicated through gestures. The ability of individuals to express emotions is important because it is a means to send their feelings to others. 3. Emotional Feelings experiences that a person may gather will reflect on his responses when he or she is placed on different situations.ASPECTS OF

Aspects of Emotions

II.

Theories of Emotions

1. James-Lange Theory (1884-1885) emotional feelings follow bodily arousal. 2. Cannon-Bard Theory (1927) emotional feelings and bodily arousal are both organized by the brain.

THEORIES OF

3. Schachters Cognitive Theory of Emotion (1971) cognitive (mental) factors also enter into emotion. Assumes that when an individual is aroused; he has a need to interpret his feelings. Emotion occurs when label (anger, fear, or happiness) is applied to bodily arousal is influenced by past experience, situations, & reactions to others. 4. The Evolutionary Perspective (19th Century) emotions evolved via natural selection for reasons of warning other creatures about their intentions. Emotions were no longer functional but are functional associated habits.

THEORIES OF

h W t ais

ANGER

FEAR

SADNESS

JOY

DISGUST

CURIOUS

SURPRISE

ACCEPTANCE

III.

Classification of Emotions

(According to Robert Plutchik)

1. ANGER a strong feeling of displeasure which usually goes with antagonism. 2. FEAR an unpleasant and often strong emotion caused by anticipation or awareness of danger. 3. SADNESS affected with or expressive of grief and unhapiness. 4. JOY an unpleasant often strong emotion caused by anticipation or awareness of danger.CLASSIFICATION OF

5. DISGUST marked aversion aroused by something highly distasteful. 6. CURIOSITY / INTEREST inquisitive interest in others concerns which usually leads to inquiry. 7. SURPRISE taking of unawareness.

8. ACCEPTANCE an agreeing either expressly or by conduct to the act or offer of another so that a contract is concluded and the parties become legally bound.CLASSIFICATION OF

- Considered as basic emotions because the emotions may blend in together to form other forms of emotion or reactions on different situations.

Primary EmotionsA.

CLASSIFICATION OF

Mixed Emotions Mixtures of Emotions:B.

- Adjacent emotions can be mixed to yield a thrid, more complex emotion and other mixture is still possible. 1. Awe fear and surprise. 2. Disappointment surprise and sadness. 3. Remorse sadness and disgust. 4. Aggression anger and anticipation. 5. Jealousy love, anger and fear. 6. Optimism anticipation and joy. 7. Contempt disgust and anger. 8. Submission acceptance and fear. 9. Love joy and acceptance.

CLASSIFICATION OF

Functions of Emotionsin order to communicate and 1. Emotions are usedIV.influence others individuals communicate their emotions to other individuals using verbal and non-verbal language. 2. Emotions can be utilized to organize and motivate action emotions tend to prepare and motivate individuals into facilitating action. There is an action urge connected to specific emotions that is hardwired. Hard-wired is an automatic built-in part of behavior. 3. Emotions can be self-validating emotion usually gives us different information about a situation or event. Give signals to sense and know that there is something going on.

Factors Affecting EmotionsV.

FACTORS AFFECTING

FACTORS AFFECTING

FACTORS AFFECTING

Why do we have Emotion? physical and psychological purposes. - To serve different- It gives color to peoples lives and give them their needed depth and differentiation. - It may serve as motivation to the reaction and behavior in more specific ways. - Helps people monitor their social behavior & regulate their interactions with others.

FACTORS AFFECTING

Effects of Emotion1. Positive attitudes and emotions can help increase your health positive and optimistic attitudes tend to promote positive impact on the body, result in the increase of the flow of communication and boosts immune system, and there is a higher level of endorphins-hormones related to health and well-being. Negative and pessimistic attitude can have a negative impact on the body. 2. Positive attitudes and emotions can help improve ones self concept this is the perception of an individual in his/her world, influenced the way he/she feels about him/herself.FACTORS AFFECTING

Development of EmotionsVI.

1. General excitement is the only emotional response newborn infants clearly express. 2. Emotional life blossom rapidly. 3. Adults control and develop gestures that can become unique to various cultures.DEVELOPMENTS OF

EMOTICON SIcon :-) :-( :) :( :-@ >:3 :-| >O :-P x-( :-* O.O ._. 8I (-_-)

Meaning

Icon :'-) | -O :-D %-( or :-S B-) :@ :-0 ;-) `:-) :-X =0 XD _:D< :-/ :x :"> :P :-* =(( :-O X( :> Meaning happy sad winking big grin batting eyelashes big hug confused love struck blushing tongue kiss broken heart surprise angry smug Icons B-) :-S #:-S >:) :(( :)) :| /:) =)) O:-) :-B =; :-c :)] ~X( Meaning cool worried whew! devil crying laughing straight face raised eyebrows rolling on the floor angel nerd talk to the hand call me on the phone at wits' end

DEVELOPMENTS OF

OTHER EMOTICONSCourtesy of Yahoo!Icons :-h :-t 8-> I-) 8-| L-) :-& :-$ [-( :O) 8-}

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