Psychology CHAPTER The Science of Psychology 1. Module 1 Psychology's Domains

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  • Module 1Psychology's Domains

  • Learning ObjectivesLO 1.1What is psychology? What are its goals?LO 1.2What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?LO 1.3What are the major modern psychological perspectives?LO 1.4How is the field of psychology continuing to grow and change?LO 1.5Why do psychologists perform research?LO 1.6What are the major subfields of psychology?LO 1.7How does psychology benefit society?

  • What is Psychology?Psychology - scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Behavior - outward or overt actions and reactions.Mental processes - internal, covert activity of our minds.LO 1.1 What is psychology? What are its goals?

  • What is Psychology?Psychology is a science.Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations. Precise and careful measurement.LO 1.1 What is psychology? What are its goals?

  • Psychology's Four GoalsDescriptionWhat is happening?ExplanationWhy is it happening?Theory - general explanation of a set of observations or facts.LO 1.1 What is psychology? What are its goals?

  • Psychology's Four GoalsPredictionWill it happen again?ControlHow can it be changed?LO 1.1 What is psychology? What are its goals?

  • StructuralismStructuralismFocused on structure or basic elements of the mind.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • StructuralismWilhelm Wundt's psychology laboratoryGermany in 1879Developed the technique of objective introspection process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • StructuralismEdward TitchenerWundt's student; brought structuralism to America.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • StructuralismG. Stanley HallTitchener's student; American; founded first psychology lab in the U.S.; first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in U.S.Founded the American Psychological Association (APA) and became its first president.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • FunctionalismFunctionalismHow the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.Proposed by William James. Influenced the modern fields of:Educational psychologyEvolutionary psychologyIndustrial/organizational psychologyLO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • FunctionalismMary Whiton CalkinsJames' student; denied Ph.D. because she was female.First female president of the APA.Francis Cecil SumnerFirst African-American to earn Ph.D.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • PsychoanalysisPsychoanalysis - the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud.Freud's patients suffered from nervous disorders with no found physical cause.Freud proposed that there is an unconscious (unaware) mind into which we push, or repress, all of our threatening urges and desires.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • PsychoanalysisFreud's patients suffered from nervous disorders with no found physical cause.He believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created nervous disorders.Freud stressed the importance of early childhood experiences.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • BehaviorismBehaviorismThe science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only.Must be directly seen and measured.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • BehaviorismProposed by John B. Watson.Based much from work of Ivan Pavlov who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned).Watson believed that phobias were learned.Case of Little Albert taught to fear a white rat.LO 1.2 What is the history of psychology as a scientific discipline?

  • Modern PerspectivesPsychodynamic perspective - modern version of psychoanalysis.More focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than repressed desires.LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Modern PerspectivesBehavioral perspectiveB. F. Skinner studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior.Behaviorism became a major force in the twentieth century.Skinner introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism.LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Modern PerspectivesHumanistic perspectiveOwes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy than it does to the more scientific fields of medicine and physiology.Early founders:Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Modern PerspectivesHumanistic perspective (continued)Emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be.Self-actualization - achieving one's full potential or actual self.LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Modern PerspectivesCognitive perspectiveFocuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning.Cognitive neuroscience the study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system.Sociocultural perspectiveFocuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Modern PerspectivesBiopsychological perspectiveAttributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.LO 1.3 What are the major modern psychological perspectives?

  • Psychology GrowthTwo relatively new areas of research:Evolutionary psychologyFocuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.Looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value.LO 1.4 How is the field of psychology continuing to grow and change?

  • Psychology GrowthTwo relatively new areas of research (continued):Positive psychology - recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from negative aspects to more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness.LO 1.4 How is the field of psychology continuing to grow and change?

  • Reasons for ResearchResearch allows psychologists to collect facts and data to support theories.May lead to new theories.Results can be applied to everyday problems.LO 1.5 Why do psychologists perform research?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologyClinical psychology - area of psychology in which psychologists diagnose and treat people with mild to severe psychological disorders.Counseling psychology - area of psychology in which psychologists treat people with less severe problems, such as adjustment to stress, marriage, family life, work, etc.LO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologyDevelopmental psychology - area of psychology in which psychologists study the changes in people.the way people thinkhow people relate to othersthe way people feel as they ageLO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologyExperimental psychology - area of psychology in which the psychologists primarily do research and experiments in the areas of learning, memory, thinking, perception, motivation, and language.LO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologySocial psychology - area of psychology in which the psychologists focus on how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people.Personality psychology - area of psychology in which the psychologists study the differences in personality among people.LO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologyPhysiological psychology - area of psychology in which the psychologists study the biological bases of behavior.Comparative psychology - area of psychology in which the psychologists study animals and their behavior for the purpose of comparing and contrasting it to human behavior.LO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Major Subfields of PsychologyIndustrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology - area of psychology concerned with the relationships between people and their work environment.LO 1.6 What are the major subfields of psychology?

  • Figure 1.2 Work Settings and Subfields of Psychology(a) There are many different work settings for psychologists. Although not obvious from the chart,many psychologists work in more than one setting. For example, a clinical psychologist may work in a hospital setting and teach at a university or college (Tsapogas et al., 2006). (b) This pie chart shows the specialty areas of psychologists who recently received their doctorates (Hoffer et al., 2007). Note: Due to rounding, percentages may not total to 100 percent.

  • Benefits for SocietyResearch, counseling, treatment, and teaching are used to understand the mind and improve lives.Researchers conduct experiments.Can improve human lives.Can improve animals' lives.LO 1.7 How does psychology benefit society?

  • Module 2Research Methods and Ethics

  • Learning ObjectivesLO 2.1What is the scientific method?LO 2.2What methods do researchers use to study behavior?LO 2.3How do researchers ensure their findings are valid?LO 2.4Why do some researchers study animals instead of people?LO 2.5What ethical guidelines do psychologists follow when they research humans?LO 2.6Are there different ethical guidelines for res

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