Psychological Factors Affecting Performance Personality theories.
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Psychological Factors Affecting Performance Personality theories
Personality as a layered structureNarrow band approachEysencks Type TheoryPersonality by continuumsTrait theoriesInteractionist approachSummary
Theory 1 Hollander (1971) Personality as a Layered StructureInner psychological core (not affected by the environment). Fairly permanent qualities, e.g. basic beliefs and values reside here (controlling or dictating behaviour trait approach)Way we typically or usually respond to certain situations Role-related behaviours Typical response may be affected by circumstances. Behaviour will be completely different at different times and in different situations and may well be quite unlike our psychological core (interactionist approach) Social environment Affects our role-related behaviours
Narrow Band approach Personality TYPE A Impatient Intolerance High levels of stress TYPE B Relaxed Tolerant approach Lower personal stress
Eysencks Type TheoryStable (reliable and predictable) Extroversion (likes social affiliation) Introversion (avoids social contact) Neurotic (extreme emotions and unreliable) People dont have one type of personality or another, they lie on a scale of traits This research led to the construction of the EPQ and EPI (Eysencks Personality Inventory)
Eysenck regarded personality as largely resulting from inherited (innate) tendencies. He measured these inherited characteristics through a Personality Inventory (EPI, 1964), and personality questionnaire (1975) He used factor analysis to identify general trends. Therefore identifying 2 major personality dimensions on a continuum
Extroversion Introversion Stable - Neurotic
Personality continuums(Extroversion Introversion). This dimension linked to a persons Reticular Activating System (RAS). Related to how social or unsocial a person appeared to be. (Stable Neurotic). This linked to a persons autonomic nervous system. Referred to the levels of nervousness and anxiety that a person was susceptible to.
It was claimed that extroverts were more likely to take part in sport and be more successful, that they prefer team games and that: Extroverts cope better in competitive and highly charged, stressful situations Extroverts cope better in the presence of distracting stimuli (e.g. audience, noise) Extroverts can cope with pain more easily then introverts
Cattells theory (1965)Adopted a trait approach but argued you needed more than 2 dimensions to create a full picture of a persons personality. Cattells 16 point personality questionnaire would identify certain common traits (possessed by all), and unique traits (possessed by some). Therefore personality was more dynamic and could fluctuate according to the situation and the environment.
Evaluation of trait theoriesDid not recognise the specific effects of different environmental situations Traits are seen as poor predictors of behaviour. Although people have certain core tendencies, or are disposed to act in certain ways, these behaviours are not general but specific to certain situations Therefore interactionist approaches would be more efficient in predicting behaviour
Interactionist approach B=f(PE) B=Behaviour F=Function P=Personality Trait E=Environment
SummaryHollander (1971) believes personality is subject to both trait and interactionist approaches.The narrow band approach believes there are only 2 categories of personalityEysencks type theory - People dont have one type of personality or another, they lie on a scale of traits Cattells 16 point personality questionnaire would identify certain common traits (possessed by all), and unique traits (possessed by some).