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Psychoactive Substances. Student Interests. General Organization. About Forms Availability Effects Overdose Withdrawal Tolerance Dependence. Resources. Alcohol/Drug Help Line: 206-722-3700 Alcohol Drug Teen Help Line: 206-722-4222 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Psychoactive SubstancesStudent Interests

  • General OrganizationAboutFormsAvailabilityEffectsOverdoseWithdrawalToleranceDependence

  • ResourcesAlcohol/Drug Help Line: 206-722-3700 Alcohol Drug Teen Help Line: 206-722-4222Crisis Clinic (24-hour mental health crisis hotline): 206-461-3222

  • Cocaine

  • CocaineExtracted from coca plantMeeting Cocaine Farmers (BBC)StimulantSchedule II drug

  • About Cocaine: Some HistoryIn late 1800s was prescribed by US physiciansCoca-Cola had cocaine removed in early 1900sCocaine wine was available

    Image is in the public domain

  • Cocaine FormsPowdered formSnortedDissolved in water, injectedProcessed in rock formGenerally, the faster a drug can enter the brain, the more it will be abused

  • Cocaine AvailabilityAccording to DEA, second most commonly used illegal substanceIn WA, 604 kg of cocaine were seized in 2005Marijuana: 9873kg, heroin 8.2kg, meth 74.4kgSouth America is primary production sourceOther countries involved with transportationUNODC: Global Cocaine Production (Figure 21; p. 66)UNODC: Map 6; page 70Most cocaine enters US via Mexico

  • Cocaine Availability - PricePrice depends on purity (50-70%), form of cocaine, amount purchased, region, $10-200 (crack vs cocaine, wholesale vs retail)UNODC: Table 9, page 71

  • Cocaine EffectsIncreased heart rate, blood pressure, temperatureImproved mood, well-beingShort-lived (few minutes to few hours)Increased sensation of energyChronic users may experience bloody noses (damage to septum), brain adaptations to cocaine-induced dopamine effects, compromised immunityBrain changes, even after halting use (Univ. of Utah; scroll to mouse)Lesions and clots in brain blood vesselsRelationship between cognition & therapy dropout

  • Cocaine OverdoseSeizuresHeart attackStrokeKidney failureDeathIn 2008, cocaine-mentioned ER cases: 548, 608 (2002: 199,198) Source: DAWN

  • Cocaine WithdrawalApathyFatigueDepression/mood swingsCravings for drugNot as intense as withdrawal from heroin, alcoholPost acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS)

  • Cocaine Tolerance, DependenceTolerance may occur quicklyEmphasis appears to be on psychological rather than physical dependenceRats and self-administration (reinforcement)

  • Methamphetamine

  • About MethamphetamineStimulantLimited medical use: ADD, weight control, narcolepsyDEA: Schedule II drug

  • Methamphetamine AvailabilityHistorically existed as independent laboratoriesDEA: In 2001: 12,715 incidents reported; in 2009: 9,187National Clandestine Laboratory RegisterReduction due to 2005 U.S. restrictions on OTC cold medications, Mexico restrictionsProduction thought to be increasing as cooks find ways around the regulations (smurfing), some Mexico operations moving to U.S.~$30-60/gram, depending on purity (pure gram price significantly higher)Purity has been reduced, perhaps due to regulation

  • Methamphetamine FormsSnorted, smoked, orally ingested, injected

  • Methamphetamine EffectsIntense high/euphoriaMay last up to 12 hours (longer than cocaine)Meth known for its dopamine-related effects (Meth Inside and Out clip)Comparison: meth vs cocaine (Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2008)Increased blood pressureIncreased sensation of energy, alertnessHigher dopamine levels than cocaineEffects of those near a meth lab (KING TV, November 2009)

  • Methamphetamine EffectsChronic users may experience hallucinations, rage, paranoia, heart inflammation, sores from crank bugs; body wasting, meth mouth; brain cell death; damage to dopamine-, serotonin-containing nerve cellsVideo: Worlds Most Dangerous Drug (National Geographic, via YouTube)Dopamine damage may result in similar symptoms seen in Parkinsons diseaseDamage may at least partially return to normal, when meth use haltedMAPPSD, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NIDA via EHDNIDA: Dopamine transporter number and time required for tasks

  • Methamphetamine EffectsBefore & After Photos

  • Before and After Photos3 Years and 5 months after starting methMeth Awareness Prevention Project:

  • Before and After17 months after starting methMeth Awareness Prevention Project:

  • Before and After3 months laterMeth Awareness Prevention Project:

  • More Before and After Photos

  • Methamphetamine OverdoseDangerous increase in blood pressureSweatingSeeing spots (increased pressure in eye)ConvulsionsHeart attackStrokeIn 2008, hospitals reporting stimulant-mentioned (meth, amphetamine) ER cases: 107,575 Source: DAWN

  • Methamphetamine Hospitalizations, 2002Rates per 100,000 population:Boston: 15Atlanta: 23St. Louis: 24Denver: 29Los Angeles: 39Seattle: 46Phoenix: 65San Francisco: 91Source: Drug Abuse Warning Network

  • Methamphetamine Tolerance, DependenceToleranceWith chronic use, tolerance developsHigher doseUp to several 100 times greater than original dose (Source: Merck)Increased frequencyDifferent administrationDependence typically develops

  • Methamphetamine WithdrawalDepressionFatigueAnxietyParanoiaCravingProcess takes ~48 hours, extremely uncomfortable

  • PBS: Frontline - The Meth Epidemic (2006)Uncovering Meths History and SpreadPortland, OREffects seen in law enforcementFamilial effectsUse trends

  • Which Substance is the Most Addictive?Depends on who you askIn 1990s three researchers identified substance addictiveness ratingsDr. Jack E. HenningfieldDr. Neal L. BenowitzDr. Daniel M. PerrineChart of Findings Source: druglibrary.orgHenningfield-Benowitz Substance Comparison Charts (Editor Bs blog)

  • Ecstasy

  • About EcstasyHallucinogenEcstasy also has stimulant propertiesDesigner drugMDMA synthesized in early 1900sPopular at ravesSchedule IMultidisciplinary Association of Psychedelic Studies currently studying MDMA for PTSDABC report on PTSD treatment

  • Ecstasy AvailabilityEcstasy is manufactured across the worldAccording to United Nations World Drug Report 2009, 72-137 metric tons were made for 12-24 million usersTrafficked into US via organized crimeMajor gateways include Miami, NY, LAWorld Drug Report: Netherlands, Australia, USA, Canada accounted for over 75% of world MDMA seizuresUse of Ecstasy in 2008 (UNODC via flickr)

  • Ecstasy EffectsChanges in moodChanges in perception (music)Fosters feelings of empathy, intimacyIncreased heart rate, blood pressure, temperatureAnxiety

  • Ecstasy EffectsConfusionDepression SleeplessnessLong-term effects:Mood disturbancesMemory impairmentIncreased stroke risk

  • Ecstasy EffectsSource:

  • Ecstasy FormsMost often available in pill formCapsule formPowderedDissolved in liquid, ingested directly, snorted, injected

  • Ecstasy OverdoseMay occur, especially when paired with rave environmentPhysical activityHeated roomDehydrationOther psychoactive substances usedDeaths have been reportedOver 12,748 ED hospitalizations in 2007 (DAWN)

  • Ecstasy Tolerance, Dependence, WithdrawalTolerance:Research suggests tolerance quickly developsDependence:With increasing dose, positive effects declineFor some, MDMA may be physically addictiveBaboons and rhesus monkeys have been shown to self-administer (Drugs and Human Behavior)Psychological dependence possibleWithdrawal:May include depression, anxiety, craving

  • Ecstasy in the MediaHBOs America Undercover: Small Town EcstasyAvailable via YouTube in ten parts

  • Dextroamphetamine (Adderall)

  • About AdderallStimulantWorks on dopamine and norepinephrineUsed as prescription for ADHD, narcolepsySome abuse Adderall for its performance-related effects60 Minutes program, April 2010Schedule II

  • Adderall AvailabilityReadily available across U.S.$5-10 per pill

  • Adderall Prescriptions, by Year (U.S. Department of Justice)

  • Adderall EffectsIncreased alertnessEuphoriaSelf-assurednessIncreased heart rate, blood pressureEmotional changesWeight lossStomach discomfort (nausea, cramps)Long-term effects are not yet known

  • Adderall FormsTablet (5-30mg)Time release capsule (10-25mg)

  • Adderall OverdoseAccording to Dailymed (National Library of Medicine), traditional symptoms can develop: anxiety, confusion, restlessness

  • Adderall: Tolerance, Dependence, WithdrawalTolerance may developPhysical withdrawal symptoms typical (anxiety, fatigue, mood changes)Detoxifying from the drug should occur graduallyPsychological dependence (craving) can develop

  • LSD

  • About LSDHallucinogenSynthesized in 1930s; derived from a fungusVery small amounts are very potentDose measured in microgramsSchedule I

  • About LSDAlbert Hoffman: Last Friday, April 16,1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away.

  • LSD AvailabilityAvailable in all statesTypically, metropolitan/urban areasProduced in the USChemists vs independent producersRecipes availableInfrequent production cycles (USDOJ)Few labs are discovered and seizedKansas, 20


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