providing great care… building warrior medics! replication (cont.) 15 n 14 n meselson, stahl -...

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Molecular Diagnostics for DummiesReplication (cont.)
Replication (cont.)
Replication Fork
*
Replication (cont.)
Semi-discontinuous Synthesis
Replication (cont.)
Replication (cont.)
Mutations
Transitions (G:C to A:T)
Transversions (A:T to T:A)
Sickle-cell disease - due to missense point mutation in beta Hgb gene (valine inserted over glutamic acid)
Base mispairing (e.g., A:C?)
Transcription
Transcription
Messenger RNA (mRNA) to rescue!
Differences in DNA and RNA
Pentose used Ribose (2’ carbon)
Pyrimidine used Uracil vs. Thymine
Single-stranded; can bond with itself
Classes: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, RNAi
*
Transcription (cont.)
4 phases
Transcription (cont.)
Transcription Bubble
SENSE doesn’t make sense
*
*
Transcription (cont.)
Post-transcriptional modifications
Transcription (cont.)
Transcription (cont.)
Transcription (cont.)
Mutations!
Sickle-cell disease
Cystic fibrosis
*
Translation
Translation
Translation (cont.)
Translation
Translation
Protein synthesis ribosome
ORF (open reading frame)
Other way around? NO!
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
*
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
4 phases
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Structural levels
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Translation (cont.)
Protein electrophoresis
Colorimetric assays
Errors in translation/post-translation mods