protozoos y algas

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organismos protoctistas

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  • 1. REINO PROTOCTISTA PROTOZOOS ALGAS HONGOS MUCILAGINOSOS

2. REINO PROTOCTISTA Figure 28-01 3. REINO PROTOCTISTA 4. AMEBOZOOS SEUDPODOS AMEBOZOOS SEUDPODOS LOBULADOS LOBULADOS GMNAMEBAS GMNAMEBAS ENTAMOEBAS ENTAMOEBAS HONGOS MUCILAGINOSOS HONGOS MUCILAGINOSOS 5. LE 28-24Pseudopodia 40 m 6. SARCODINOS 7. Entamoeba histolytica 8. LE 28-25Physarum polycephalum4 cm 9. LE 28-26Feeding plasmodium Zygote (2n)Mature plasmodium (preparing to fruit) Young sporangiumSYNGAMY1 mmAmoeboid cells (n)Mature sporangium KeyFlagellated cells (n)Germinating sporeSpores (n)MEIOSIS StalkHaploid (n) Diploid (2n) 10. LE 28-27SYNGAMYEmerging amoebaSpores (n)600 mSEXUAL REPRODUCTIONAmebas solitarias Estadio de alimentacinCuerpos fructferosASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Amebas conglomeradasZygote (2n)MEIOSISAmoebas Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)Conglomerado En vas de migracin200 m CICLO DE VIDA DE Dictyostelium, un hongo mucilaginoso celular 11. CERCOZOOS FORAMINIFEROS Y RADIOLARIOS FORAMINIFEROS RADIOLARIOS 12. LE 28-2220 m FORAMINFEROSGlobigerina 13. ACANTILADOS DE DOVER 14. LE 28-23RADIOLARIOSAxopodia 200 m 15. EUGLENOZOOS CINETOPLSTIDOS EUGLNIDOS 16. Trypanosoma gambiense 17. LE 28-79 m 18. CICLO DE TRANSMISIN DEL TRYPANOSOMA GAMBIENSE 19. LE 28-8FLAGELO LARGOEMANCHA OCULAR O ESTIGMADETECTOR DE LUZFLAGELO CORTOEuglena (LM)NucleusVACUOLA CONTRCTIL5 mPlasma membrane ChloroplastEUGLENA PellicleEUGLENA 20. ALVEOLADOS SACOS DEBAJO DE LA MEMBRANA PLASMTICA DINOFLAGELADOS APICOMPLEXOS CILIADOS 21. LE 28-2b100 mCeratium tripos, a unicellular marine dinoflagellate (LM) 22. LE 28-103 mFlagellaPfiesteria shumwayae, dinoflagelado 23. CILIADOS 24. Paramecium 25. REPRODUCCIN SEXUAL: CONJUGACIN 26. LE 28-12aFEEDING, WASTE REMOVAL, AND WATER BALANCE Contractile vacuoleParamecium, like other freshwater protists, constantly takes in water by osmosis from the hypotonic environment. Bladderlike contractile vacuoles accumulate excess water from radial canals and periodically expel it through the plasma membrane.Paramecium feeds mainly on bacteria. Rows of cilia along a funnel-shaped oral groove move food into the cell mouth, where the food is engulfed into food vacuoles by phagocytosis. Oral groove Cell mouthThousands of cilia cover the surface of Paramecium. 50 mFood vacuoles combine with lysosomes. As the food is digested, the vacuoles follow a looping path through the cell.Micronucleus MacronucleusThe undigested contents of food vacuoles are released when the vacuoles fuse with a specialized region of the plasma membrane that functions as an anal pore. 27. LE 28-12FEEDING, WASTE REMOVAL, AND WATER BALANCE Paramecium, like other freshwater protists, constantly takes in water by osmosis from the hypotonic environment. Bladderlike contractile vacuoles accumulate excess water from radial canals and periodically expel it through the plasma membrane.Contractile vacuoleParamecium feeds mainly on bacteria. Rows of cilia along a funnel-shaped oral groove move food into the cell mouth, where the food is engulfed into food vacuoles by phagocytosis. Oral groove Cell mouthThousands of cilia cover the surface of Paramecium.Food vacuoles combine with lysosomes. As the food is digested, the vacuoles follow a looping path through the cell.50 mMicronucleus The undigested contents of food vacuoles are released when the vacuoles fuse with a specialized region of the plasma membrane that functions as an anal pore.MacronucleusCONJUGATION AND REPRODUCTION Meiosis of micronuclei produces four haploid micronuclei in each cell.Two cells of compatible mating strains align side by side and partially fuse. Compatible matesThree micronuclei in each cell disintegrate. The remaining micronucleus in each cell divides by mitosis.MacronucleusThe cells swap one micronucleus.MEIOSISHaploid micronucleusDiploid micronucleus Diploid micronucleusMICRONUCLEAR FUSIONThe cells separate. Two rounds of cytokinesis partition one maccronucleus and one macronucleus into each of four daughter cells.The original macronucleus disintegrates. Four micronuclei become macronuclei, while the other four remain micronuclei.Micronuclei Three rounds of mitosis without fuse, forming a diploid cytokinesis micronucleus. produce eight micronuclei.Key Conjugation Reproduction 28. LE 28-12bCONJUGATION AND REPRODUCTION Meiosis of micronuclei Three micronuclei in each cell produces four haploid disintegrate. The remaining micromicronuclei in each cell. nucleus in each cell divides by mitosis.Two cells of compatible mating strains align side by side and partially fuse. Compatible matesMacronucleusThe cells swap one micronucleus.MEIOSISHaploid micronucleusDiploid micronucleus Diploid micronucleusMICRONUCLEAR FUSIONThe cells separate. Two rounds of cytokinesis partition one macronucleus and one macronucleus into each of four daughter cells.The original macronucleus disintegrates. Four micronuclei become macronuclei, while the other four remain micronuclei.Three rounds Micronuclei of mitosis fuse, forming without a diploid cytokinesis micronucleus. produce eight micronuclei.Key Conjugation Reproduction 29. Stentor 30. LE 28-2aStentor,100 mStentor 31. Vorticella 32. Plasmodium malariae 33. LE 28-11Inside mosquitoInside human Merozoitoesporozoitos (n)HIGADO hepatocitoOooquiste MEIOSIS Cigoto (2n)Apex Merozoito (n)Red blood cell0.5 mGlbulos rojosFERTILIZATION KeyGametes Gametocytes (n)Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) 34. ESPOROZOOS 35. Estramenpilos flagelos pilosos y lisos Ovomicetos (mohos de agua y especies cercanas) Diatomeas Algas doradas Algas pardas 36. LE 28-13Hairy flagellum Smooth flagellum5 mSynura petersenii 37. LE 28-14_3OogoniumGerm tubeEgg nucleus (n) CystAntheridial hypha with sperm nuclei (n)MEIOSISASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zoospore (2n) FERTILIZATIONZygote germination Zoosporangium (2n) Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)SEXUAL REPRODUCTIONZygotes (2n) 38. LE 28-16ALGAS UNICELULARESALGA SDIATOMEAS 50 m 39. 3 mLE 28-15 40. LE 28-17Dynobrion alga dorada formadora de colonias en agua dulce25 m 41. LE 28-18LMINAESTPITEANCLAJE PALMERA DE MAR Postelsia 42. Figure 28-19Selva de kelp. Macrocystis 43. LE 28-21C I C L OKey Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) SporangiaD EesporangioV I D A D E L A M I N A R I AMEIOSISzoosporasZoosporesEsporofito 2nFemeninoEsporofito en vas De desarrolloGametophytes (n)Zygote (2n) Gametofito femenino maduro (n)FERTILIZATIONEggoosferamasculinoanterozoide 44. Algas verdes y rojas 45. LE 28-2d500 mSpirogyra, a filamentous freshwater green alga (insert LM) 46. LE 28-2c4 cmDelesseria sanguinea, a multicellular marine red alga 47. LE 28-20El alga de mar se cultiva sobre redes en aguas costeras poco profundas. Porphyra ( alga roja )un operario esparce las algas de mar recolectadas sobre pantallas de bamb para que se sequenlaslminas satinadas de nori, delgadas como un papel, constituyen una envoltura rica en minerales para el arroz, mariscos y vegetales que forman el sushi 48. LE 28-28Dulse (Palmaria palmata). This edible species has a leafy form.A coralline alga. The cells walls of corralline algae are hardened by calcium carbonate. Some coralline algae are members of the biological communities called coral reefs.Bonnemaisonia hamifera, a filamentous red alga.Palmaria palmata 49. Figure 28-29 50. LE 28-3020 m50 mVolox, a colonial freshwater chlorophyte. The colony is a hollow ball whose wall is composed of hundreds or thousands of biflagellated cells (see inset LM) embedded in a gelatinous matrix. The cells are usually connected by strands of cytoplasm; if isolated, these cells cannot reproduce. The large colonies seen here will eventually release the small daughter colonies within them (LM).Calperpa, an inter-tidal chlorophyte. The branched filaments lack cross-walls and thus are multinucleate. In effect, the thallus is one huge supercell.Ulva, or sea lettuce. This edible seaweed has a multicellular thallus differentiated into leaflike blades and a rootlike holdfast that anchors the alga against turbulent waves and tides. 51. LE 28-31Flagella1 mCell wallNucleusZoosporesRegions of single chloroplastKey Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)ASEXUAL REPRODUCTIONSYNGAMYMature cell (n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTIONMEIOSISZygote (2n) 52. LE 28-3 PlastidDinoflagellatesSecondary endosymbiosisApicomplexansRed algae CyanobacteriumPrimary endosymbiosisStramenopilesSecondary endosymbiosisHeterotrophic eukaryotePlastidEuglenids Secondary endosymbiosisGreen algaeChlorarachniophytes 53. EuglenozoaParabasalaAlveolataAncestral eukaryotePlantsCharophyceansChlorophytesAnimaliaPlantaeChlorophytaRhodophyta(Opisthokonta) Red algaeMetazoansChoanoflagellatesFungiRadiolaria Amoebozoa FungiCellular slime moldsPlasmodial slime moldsEntamoebasGymnamoebasRadiolariansForaminiferansChlorarachniophytesBrown algaeGolden algaeDiatomsCercozoaOomycetesCiliatesApicomplexansStramenopilaDinoflagellatesEuglenidsKinetoplastidsParabasalidsDiplomonads DiplomonadidaLE 28-4(Viridiplantae) 54. LE 28-5aGiardia intestinalis, a diplomonad (colorized SEM)5 m 55. LE 28-5bFlagellaUndulating membrane5 mTrichomonas vaginalis, a parabasalid (colorized SEM) 56. LE 28-6Flagella 0.2 mCrystalline rodRing of microtubules Euglenozoo 57. LE 28-90.2 mFlagellumAlveoli 58. Table 28-1