protein synthesis dna-->rna-->protein-->trait. one gene one protein beadle and tatum...

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  • Protein SynthesisDNA-->RNA-->Protein-->Trait

  • One Gene one ProteinBeadle and TatumWorked with the Mold Neurospora.Looked at metabolic pathway to synthesize the amino acid Arginine

  • Studies of inherited metabolic disorders first suggested that phenotype is expressed through proteinsStudies of the bread mold Neurospora crassa led to the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesishttp://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1552/1589869/web_tut/21_04/21_04_01a.swf (has a narrator)http://www.dnalc.org/view/16360-Animation-16-One-gene-makes-one-protein-.html (no narrator)

    Figure 10.6B

  • Mutate wild type fungus*Supply all mutant isolates with complete media*Grow purified mutants with minimal media to find nutritional mutants*Determine what is the nutritional limitation find mutation

  • There for the gene used to produce an enzyme that helps cells manufacture Arginine amino acid was mutated in that fungal strain

  • .Beadle and Tatum This may not be totally accurate

  • Central DogmaOverview: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/central_dogma/central_dogma.swf

  • RNA vs DNADifferences between the two nucleotidesSugarRibose instead of deoxyriboseNitrogenous basesUracil instead of Thymine

  • Types of RNArRNARibosomes are made or rRNA and ProteinstRNAFolded into the t shape and carry an amino acid on the endM-RNASingle StrandedHnRNASNRPs

  • rRNA and Proteins

  • tRNA

  • Central DogmaOverview: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/central_dogma/central_dogma.swf

  • Transcription vs TranslationTranscription (DNA to RNA)Copying mRNA from DNAPromotor sequenceSome are modified before leaving nucleus (Eukaryotes)Prokaryotes are not modified

    Translation (RNA to Amino Acid)InitiationElongationTermination

  • TranscriptionSense vs Antisense.Sense strant is the coding strand and would have the same sequence as the mRNA with Us replacing Ts.The Antisense strand is the strand that is transcribed.Template strandRNA polymeraseReads DNA template 35, writes mRNA 5 3

  • TranscriptionPromotorSite that the RNA polymerase recognizes and binds to begin the process of TranscriptionRNA PolymeraseEnzyme that reads 35 and writes a 53 mRNANucleoside TriphosphatesThe nucleotides that are put in by the polymerasesTerminatorSequence that will code for a releasing factor transcription detail: http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202001.html http://www.dnalc.org/resources/3d/13-transcription-advanced.html Detailed realistic model http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/molgenetics/transcription.swf simple animation

  • Transcription transcription detail: http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202001.html http://www.dnalc.org/resources/3d/13-transcription-advanced.html Detailed realistic model http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/molgenetics/transcription.swf simple animation

  • Processing or not

  • Splicing (Eukaryotes)http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter14/animation_quiz_3.html http://www.four-h.purdue.edu/apple_genomics/flash/movie3.swf http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp14/1402001.html

  • Cap and TailSummary- eukaryotic control of gene expressionhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter16/control_of_gene_expression_in_eukaryotes.html mRNA Processing: The Movie from the Virtual Cell Animation collection: molecular and Cellular biologyhttp://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/mrnaprocessing/movie-flash.htm

  • Summary of TranslationStep by stephttp://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/molgenetics/translation.swf Intro overviewhttps://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter3/animation__how_translation_works.html

  • Ribosome Sites

  • Ribosome Siteshttp://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202003.html

  • mRNA codes for AAhttp://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202002.html Degenerate Code

  • TranslationT-RNA molecules are matched to the proper amino acid by an enzyme.Initiation, elongation, and translocation, and terminationLocation and Processhttp://www.dnalc.org/resources/3d/16-translation-advanced.html

  • Ribosome

  • Mutations and Protein SynthesisCan produce new allelesMust be in the gametes to be passed onTypes of MutationsPointCan be harmless because of redundency (Degenerate) of codeChromosomalDuplicationInversionTranslocationDeletion

  • Point Mutation and Frame Shift

  • Point Mutation and Sickle Cellhttp://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=1fN7rOwDyMQ http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=9UpwV1tdxcs

  • Outcome of Sicke Cell

  • Translocation

  • Inversion

  • Deletion

  • Duplication

  • Ribosome with tRNA and Amino Acids

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