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  • 1. Factors Contributing to IlliteracyProblem among Orang AsliStudents in Terengganu. Wan Muhaimin bin Wan Ahmad2011801048

2. Definition of TermsOrang Asli - refers to the indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysiawho are not Malay Muslims, Malaysias main ethnic group.Nicholas, 2003Literacy the ability to read, write, listen, speak and communicateeffectively.Cooper, 1997Illiteracy literate problem; inability to read and write.Cooper, 1997Socioeconomic - refers to the parents level of income, theiroccupational status, their level of education, and the personalpossessions in the home.Cooper, 1997 3. Definition of TermsMotivation - the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior. Franken, 2006 Attitudes - An evaluative disposition toward some object based upon cognitions, affective reactions, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors ...that can influence cognitions, affective responses, and future intentions and behaviors. Zimbardo and Leippe (1991) 4. Introduction Orang Asli or the indigenous people is acommunity that contributes a lot to thedevelopment of this country. In Malaysia, the population of Orang Asli is154896 people (JAKOA, 2010) These community is seen as less developedcompared to other races in the country. In terms of education, the illiteracy rate ishigh; 49.2% of the people are illiterate. 5. Problem StatementsIt has been observed that indigenous community are living in a widespread poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, absence of drinking water and sanitary living conditions, poor maternal and child health conditions. Bose et al. (1990), Chaudhuri (1990) 6. NEW MILLENIUM Children need to be prepared to be able to function effectively in a highly literate society. They have to demonstrate literate behaviour.PASTacquire the READability toLISTENWRITESPEAK COMMUNICATEEFFECTIVELYCooper, 1997 7. Inability to use reading to masterother subject areasLow academic achievementPoor self-esteem CONSEQUENCES Failure to finish high schoolASSOCIATED WITHAllington, 1995; Jacobson, Olsen, Rice, & Sweetland, 2001 ILLITERACY ANDLOW LITERACYLiving life in povertyUnemployment and underemploymentInvolvement in criminal activityIntergenerational transfer of illiteracyor low literacy DeBruin-Parecki, Paris, & Siedenburg, 1997; Rush, 1999 8. B e ca u s e o f t h e s e co n s e q u e n c e s , i t i si m p o r ta nt to p re ve nt i l l i te ra c y d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . U n d e rsta n d i n g t h e fa c to rs t h at co nt r i b u te to i l l i te ra c y i s a ni m p o r ta nt ste p to wa rd s c re at i n gi nte r ve nt i o n s to a d d re s s t h e p ro b l e m . 9. Theoretical FrameworkSocioeconomicBose et al (1990), Karine (2007),Andrejs & Antra (2008), Joshi (2010) Motivation Beach (1996), Guthrie (1996)Cooper (1997), Kamarulzaman (2008) Attitudes & Participation Illiteracy Davidson & Snow (1995),Kamarulzaman (2008), Andrejs & Antra (2008),AccessibilityKamarulzaman (2008), Andrejs & Antra (2008), Joshi (2010) Learning EnvironmentDickinson & DeTemple, (1998),Fitzgerald et al. (1991) 10. Research Objectives1. To examine the relationship between family socioeconomic status andilliteracy problem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.2. To examine the relationship between motivation and illiteracy problemamong Orang Asli students in Terengganu.3. To examine the relationship between attitudes and participations in learningand illiteracy problem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.4. To examine the relationship between accessibility to education and illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu.5. To examine the relationship between learning environment and illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu. 11. Research Questions1. How does family socioeconomic status affect the illiteracy problem amongOrang Asli students in Terengganu?2. How does motivation affect the illiteracy problem among Orang Aslistudents in Terengganu?3. How does attitudes and participations in learning affect the illiteracyproblem among Orang Asli students in Terengganu?4. How does the accessibility to education affect the illiteracy problem amongOrang Asli students in Terengganu?5. How does learning environment affect the illiteracy problem among OrangAsli students in Terengganu? 12. LITERATURE REVIEW Factors associated with effective literacy learning havebeen examined, identified and debated by manyresearchers throughout the years. (Stokes, 2002) Qualitative researches using teachers observations andinterviews done have given us some strategies for effectualliteracy instructions. (Pressly, 2002) Snow et al. (1998) state that due to the progressingtechnological society, there is a need for individuals to notonly be literate, but also capable to read the increasinglymore challenging materials. 13. Although there are some progress in the area of effectualliteracy instructions, many children are still experiencingliteracy difficulties. (Snow et al., 1998) Research findings over the years have shown that childrenwho are raised in poverty and whose parents reading andwriting skills are poor, are prone to have readingdifficulties. (Lyon, 1998; Snow et al., 1998) In addition to that, it has been observed that indigenouscommunity are living in a widespread poverty and illiteracy.(Bose et al., 1990) In a relatively newer finding, Xaxa (2001) supports Bose etal., stating that indigenous people are still lagging behindvery much against the general population in literacy andeducational attainment. 14. Andrejs and Antra (2008) have identified a few factors thatlead to children to have literacy difficulties, namely thesocioeconomic factors, collaboration of students andfamily, students reading habit inside and outside of school. Some factors suggested by Andrejs and Antra are alsosuggested by Joshi (2010). The factors suggested by Joshiare; the low status in health, education and economic, theaccess to schooling and effective participation, and alsopoverty. Besides those factors, other researchers looked intomotivation as one of the factors that contribute to theissue. (Beach, 1996; Cooper, 1997; Guthrie, 1996) 15. METHODOLOGY Research DesignCorrelational researchWhy? To examine the relationship between the independentvariables and the dependent variable. 16. METHODOLOGY PopulationLevel 2 students from SK Sungai Pergam, Kemaman (43 students) and SK Sungai Berua, Kuala Berang (58 students). Total population = 101 students. 17. METHODOLOGY Sampling FrameName lists of Year 4, 5 and 6 students from both schools. 18. METHODOLOGYSampling Size87 respondents(99% confidence interval, 5.0% margin error) 19. Sampling Technique Random Sampling Cluster -> StratifiedTotal sampleYearSKSP SKSBYear 46YearYear Year6Year 455 20. Significance of the study SCHOOL&JAKOATEACHERS PTANGOs 21. School and Teacher Provide conducive learning environment More reinforcement to the students Provide more facilities and easy access toreading materials. 22. Parents Teacher Association Give awareness to parents about theimportance of education. A platform for parents and teachers to shareknowledge and ideas on how to improve thesituation. 23. JAKOA Organise Education Awareness campaigns. Provide amenities to Orang Asli people foreasy access to education 24. NGOs Supports books, programs, motivation