properties of matter power point

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    Properties of matter

    http://www.docstoc.com/docs/

    642089/Properties-of-Matter

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    General Properties of

    Matter

    Matter is anything thathas mass and volume

    Everything is made ofmatter

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    What are properties?

    Characteristics used todescribe an object

    Ex: color, odor, shape,size, texture,hardness

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    General Properties of

    matter

    Mass, weight, volume,and density

    Properties are used toidentify a substance

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    What is mass?

    Mass is the amount ofmatter in an object

    Mass is constantMass is also themeasure of inertia

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    What is inertia?Inertia is theresistance of an object

    to changes in itsmotion

    The more mass thegreater the inertia

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    Questions

    How is mass related toinertia?

    Why are properties ofan object important?

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    Force and inertiaWhen an object is atrest, a force is

    needed to overcomethe inertia to make itmove and to stop the

    objects motion

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    Question

    Which object hasmore inertia, anempty wagon or one

    loaded with rocks?Why?

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    Question

    What does a seatbeltdo for a passengerwhen a car stops

    suddenly?

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    Question

    Why would thepassenger moveforward without the

    restraining force ofthe belt?

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    Question

    What would stop apassenger if theseatbelt were not in

    place?

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    Question

    What other safetyfeatures are presentin a car in responseto a persons inertia

    in a moving vehicle?

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    WeightThe measure of the forceof gravity on the mass ofan object

    Weight changes withgravity

    The metric unit forweight is a Newton (N)

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    Weight formula1 kg = 2.2 poundsWeight is mass times gravity

    (9.8 m/s2)

    W= m x gWhat is your mass?What is your weight in

    Newtons?

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    What is gravity?The force of attraction

    between objects is

    gravityAll objects exert a

    gravitational force on

    each other

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    QuestionWhy cant you feel theattraction between you

    and other objects thesame way you are

    pulled toward Earth?

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    Gravitational pull

    The greater the massof an object thegreater the

    gravitational force

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    Question

    Why cant we feelthe pull of gravityfrom Jupiter even

    though it is somassive?

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    What affects gravity?The pull of gravityweakens as the

    distance betweenobjects increases

    gravity depends onmass and distance

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    Gravity

    The further an objectis from the center ofthe earth, the less

    the object will weigh

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    Question

    Would you weigh less,more, or the same ontop of Mount Everest?

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    Question

    The moon is smallerthan the earth. Howwould your weight be

    different on the moon?

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    Questions

    What are threeproperties of matterrelated to mass?

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    Question

    What is density andhow is it calculated?

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    DensityThe density of water is1.0 g/ml

    Objects with densitiesgreater than 1.0 will

    sink in water

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    Density

    Objects withdensities less than1.0 g/ml will float on

    water

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    IceIce floats therefore it isless dense than water

    Ice mostly remainsunderwater with only aportion of it being

    exposed

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    Astronomy fact!The planet Saturn hasa density of less than

    1.0 g/ml. If there wasan ocean big enough to

    hold it, it would float!

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    Calculations

    If 96.5 grams of goldhas a volume of 5cubic centimeters,

    what is the density ofgold?

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    Calculation

    If 96.5 g of aluminumhas a volume of 35cm3, what is the

    density of aluminum?

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    CalculationIf the density of adiamond is 3.5 g/cm3,

    what would be themass of a diamondwhose volume is 0.5

    cm3?

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    What is specific gravity?

    A comparison of thedensity of asubstance and thedensity of water is

    specific gravity

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    Questions

    How is densitydifferent from specificgravity?

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    What is a physical property?

    Physical propertiesare those that can beobserved withoutchanging the identity

    of the substance

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    Phases of matter(video)Four phases of matter:

    solid, liquid, gas, and

    plasmasolids have a definite

    shape and volume

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    Solid particle arrangement

    Solids are tightly packedand the particles vibrate

    Two types of solids arecrystalline and

    amorphous

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    Types of solidsCrystalline solids arearranged in repeating

    patterns calledcrystals (salt, sugar)

    Amorphous solids canlose their shape

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    Examples of amorphous solids

    Tar, candle wax, glass Shape changes undercertain conditions(differences in

    temperature)

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    Liquid particle arrangement

    Liquids haveparticles that areclose together, but

    are free to move

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    Question

    Describe the shapeof a liquid.

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    Describe a liquid

    Liquids do not have adefinite shape, butthey have a definite

    volume

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    Question

    What happens whenone-liter of soda ispoured into a four-

    liter container?

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    Properties of liquidsLiquids do not expandto fill the volume of a

    containerLiquids arecharacterized by their

    ability to flow

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    What is viscosity?The resistance of a liquid

    to flow

    The difficulty of a liquidto flow easily

    Honey, motor oil, cornsyrup have a highviscosity

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    Behavior of liquidsCohesion is the force of

    attraction between LIKEparticles

    Adhesion is the force ofattraction betweenUNLIKE particles

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    Surface tension (video)

    Tendency of particlesto pull together at thesurface of a liquid due

    to cohesion

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    Question

    Describe the viscosityof a liquid.

    Describe a liquidsshape.

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    Questions

    How is adhesiondifferent fromcohesion?

    Explain surfacetension.

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    Properties of gasesGases do not have adefinite shape or

    volume (video)They fill all theavailable space in a

    container

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    Kinetic Molecular Theory of

    Matter

    Matter is made of tinyparticles in constantmotion

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    Question

    How are solids, liquids,and gases differentfrom one another?

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    Gas lawsBoyles and Charles law

    describe the behavior ofgases with changes intemperature, pressure,and volume

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    Charles

    LawAs the temperature of a

    gas increases, thevolume of a gasincreases

    Heating air causes it toexpand

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    Question

    How can you explainthe fact that gasparticles expand to

    fill space?

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    Pressure

    The force that particlesof a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a

    certain area

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    Boyle

    s LawBoyles law describesthe relationshipbetween the volumeand pressure of gases

    (constant temperature)

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    Boyle

    s lawIf the volume of a gasdecreases, then the

    pressure of a gasincreases (Boyles law)

    The smaller the spacea gas occupies, themore pressure

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    PlasmaPlasma (phase)most common phase in

    the universe, dangerous,

    very high energy (found in

    stars)

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    Question

    What are the fourphases of matter?

    Describe the plasmaphase of matter.

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    Phase changes (video)

    Phase changes inmatter are melting,freezing, vaporization,

    condensation, and

    sublimation

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    What is a physical change?Physical changes involve

    the changing of physical

    propertiesType of matter remains

    the same

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    Physical changes

    Changing color,shape, phase,texture, hardness,

    odor would be a

    physical change

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    Melting videoPhase change from asolid to a liquid

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    Melting point

    Temperature inwhich a solidchanges to a liquid

    Physical property

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    Questions

    How is meltingdifferent from freezing?

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    Vaporization

    Phase change from aliquid to a gas

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    Boiling point (video)The temperature in whicha liquid boils

    Point at which a liquidchanges to a gas

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    Freezing (video)Phase change of aliquid to a solid

    The temperature inwhich this occurs is

    the freezing point

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    CondensationCondensation is thephase change from a

    gas to a liquidSublimation is a phasechange from solid to a

    gas

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    Question

    Describe a differencebetween condensationand vaporization.

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    Sublimation examples

    Dry ice and iodineare examples solidsthat undergo

    sublimation

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    Chemical propertiesDescribe how asubstance changes

    into new substancesare chemicalproperties

    Ex: flammability

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    Chemical changesThe change of asubstance into a new anddifferent substance

    Also known as achemical reaction

    video

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