# properties of matter power point

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Properties of matter

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/

642089/Properties-of-Matter

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General Properties of

Matter

Matter is anything thathas mass and volume

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What are properties?

Characteristics used todescribe an object

Ex: color, odor, shape,size, texture,hardness

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General Properties of

matter

Mass, weight, volume,and density

Properties are used toidentify a substance

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What is mass?

Mass is the amount ofmatter in an object

Mass is constantMass is also themeasure of inertia

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What is inertia?Inertia is theresistance of an object

to changes in itsmotion

The more mass thegreater the inertia

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Questions

How is mass related toinertia?

Why are properties ofan object important?

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Force and inertiaWhen an object is atrest, a force is

needed to overcomethe inertia to make itmove and to stop the

objects motion

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Question

Which object hasmore inertia, anempty wagon or one

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Question

What does a seatbeltdo for a passengerwhen a car stops

suddenly?

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Question

Why would thepassenger moveforward without the

restraining force ofthe belt?

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Question

What would stop apassenger if theseatbelt were not in

place?

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Question

What other safetyfeatures are presentin a car in responseto a persons inertia

in a moving vehicle?

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WeightThe measure of the forceof gravity on the mass ofan object

Weight changes withgravity

The metric unit forweight is a Newton (N)

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Weight formula1 kg = 2.2 poundsWeight is mass times gravity

(9.8 m/s2)

Newtons?

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What is gravity?The force of attraction

between objects is

gravityAll objects exert a

gravitational force on

each other

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QuestionWhy cant you feel theattraction between you

and other objects thesame way you are

pulled toward Earth?

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Gravitational pull

The greater the massof an object thegreater the

gravitational force

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Question

Why cant we feelthe pull of gravityfrom Jupiter even

though it is somassive?

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What affects gravity?The pull of gravityweakens as the

distance betweenobjects increases

gravity depends onmass and distance

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Gravity

The further an objectis from the center ofthe earth, the less

the object will weigh

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Question

Would you weigh less,more, or the same ontop of Mount Everest?

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Question

The moon is smallerthan the earth. Howwould your weight be

different on the moon?

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Questions

What are threeproperties of matterrelated to mass?

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Question

What is density andhow is it calculated?

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DensityThe density of water is1.0 g/ml

Objects with densitiesgreater than 1.0 will

sink in water

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Density

Objects withdensities less than1.0 g/ml will float on

water

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IceIce floats therefore it isless dense than water

Ice mostly remainsunderwater with only aportion of it being

exposed

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Astronomy fact!The planet Saturn hasa density of less than

1.0 g/ml. If there wasan ocean big enough to

hold it, it would float!

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Calculations

If 96.5 grams of goldhas a volume of 5cubic centimeters,

what is the density ofgold?

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Calculation

If 96.5 g of aluminumhas a volume of 35cm3, what is the

density of aluminum?

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CalculationIf the density of adiamond is 3.5 g/cm3,

what would be themass of a diamondwhose volume is 0.5

cm3?

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What is specific gravity?

A comparison of thedensity of asubstance and thedensity of water is

specific gravity

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Questions

How is densitydifferent from specificgravity?

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What is a physical property?

Physical propertiesare those that can beobserved withoutchanging the identity

of the substance

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Phases of matter(video)Four phases of matter:

solid, liquid, gas, and

plasmasolids have a definite

shape and volume

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Solid particle arrangement

Solids are tightly packedand the particles vibrate

Two types of solids arecrystalline and

amorphous

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Types of solidsCrystalline solids arearranged in repeating

patterns calledcrystals (salt, sugar)

Amorphous solids canlose their shape

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Examples of amorphous solids

Tar, candle wax, glass Shape changes undercertain conditions(differences in

temperature)

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Liquid particle arrangement

Liquids haveparticles that areclose together, but

are free to move

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Question

Describe the shapeof a liquid.

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Describe a liquid

Liquids do not have adefinite shape, butthey have a definite

volume

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Question

What happens whenone-liter of soda ispoured into a four-

liter container?

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Properties of liquidsLiquids do not expandto fill the volume of a

containerLiquids arecharacterized by their

ability to flow

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What is viscosity?The resistance of a liquid

to flow

The difficulty of a liquidto flow easily

Honey, motor oil, cornsyrup have a highviscosity

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Behavior of liquidsCohesion is the force of

attraction between LIKEparticles

Adhesion is the force ofattraction betweenUNLIKE particles

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Surface tension (video)

Tendency of particlesto pull together at thesurface of a liquid due

to cohesion

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Question

Describe the viscosityof a liquid.

Describe a liquidsshape.

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Questions

Explain surfacetension.

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Properties of gasesGases do not have adefinite shape or

volume (video)They fill all theavailable space in a

container

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Kinetic Molecular Theory of

Matter

Matter is made of tinyparticles in constantmotion

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Question

How are solids, liquids,and gases differentfrom one another?

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Gas lawsBoyles and Charles law

describe the behavior ofgases with changes intemperature, pressure,and volume

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Charles

LawAs the temperature of a

gas increases, thevolume of a gasincreases

Heating air causes it toexpand

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Question

How can you explainthe fact that gasparticles expand to

fill space?

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Pressure

The force that particlesof a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a

certain area

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Boyle

s LawBoyles law describesthe relationshipbetween the volumeand pressure of gases

(constant temperature)

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Boyle

s lawIf the volume of a gasdecreases, then the

pressure of a gasincreases (Boyles law)

The smaller the spacea gas occupies, themore pressure

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PlasmaPlasma (phase)most common phase in

the universe, dangerous,

very high energy (found in

stars)

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Question

What are the fourphases of matter?

Describe the plasmaphase of matter.

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Phase changes (video)

Phase changes inmatter are melting,freezing, vaporization,

condensation, and

sublimation

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What is a physical change?Physical changes involve

the changing of physical

propertiesType of matter remains

the same

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Physical changes

Changing color,shape, phase,texture, hardness,

odor would be a

physical change

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Melting videoPhase change from asolid to a liquid

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Melting point

Temperature inwhich a solidchanges to a liquid

Physical property

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Questions

How is meltingdifferent from freezing?

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Vaporization

Phase change from aliquid to a gas

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Boiling point (video)The temperature in whicha liquid boils

Point at which a liquidchanges to a gas

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Freezing (video)Phase change of aliquid to a solid

The temperature inwhich this occurs is

the freezing point

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CondensationCondensation is thephase change from a

gas to a liquidSublimation is a phasechange from solid to a

gas

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Question

Describe a differencebetween condensationand vaporization.

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Sublimation examples

Dry ice and iodineare examples solidsthat undergo

sublimation

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Chemical propertiesDescribe how asubstance changes

into new substancesare chemicalproperties

Ex: flammability

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Chemical changesThe change of asubstance into a new anddifferent substance

Also known as achemical reaction

video

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