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    PROOFREADING,REVISING, &

    EDITING SKILLS SUCCESSIN 20 MINUTES A DAY

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    N E W Y O R K

    PROOFREADING,

    REVISING, &EDITINGSKILLSSUCCESSIN 20 MINUTES

    A DAY

    Brady Smith

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    Copyright 2003 LearningExpress, LLC.

    All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.

    Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

    Smith, Brady.

    Proofreading, revising, and editing skills : success in 20 minutes a day /

    Brady Smith.1st ed.

    p. cm.

    ISBN 1-57685-466-3

    1. Report writingHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. ProofreadingHandbooks,manuals, etc. 3. EditingHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title.

    LB1047.3.S55 2003

    808'.02dc21 2002013959

    Printed in the United States of America

    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    First Edition

    ISBN 1-57685-466-3

    For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at:

    55 Broadway

    8th Floor

    New York, NY 10006

    Or visit us at:

    www.learnatest.com

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    About the AuthorBrady Smith teaches English at Adlai E. Stevenson High School in the Bronx, New York. His work has been pre-

    viously published in textbooks, and this is his first complete book. He would like to dedicate this book to Julie,

    Gillian, and Isabel, with love.

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    INTRODUCTION How to Use This Book ix

    PRETEST 1

    LESSON 1 Understanding the Writing Process 13

    LESSON 2 Writing Sentences 21

    LESSON 3 Avoiding Awkward Sentences 33

    LESSON 4 Creating Sentence Variety 41

    LESSON 5 Shaping Paragraphs 49

    LESSON 6 Using Transitions 57

    LESSON 7 Establishing a Writing Style 63

    LESSON 8 Turning Passive Verbs into Active Verbs 75

    LESSON 9 Making Sure Subjects and Verbs Agree 83

    LESSON 10 Making Sure Nouns and Pronouns Agree 91

    LESSON 11 Using Modifiers 99

    LESSON 12 Checking Capitalization and Spelling 109

    LESSON 13 Punctuating Sentences 121LESSON 14 Using Commas 127

    LESSON 15 Using Semicolons and Colons 137

    LESSON 16 Using Apostrophes in Plurals and Possessives 143

    LESSON 17 Using Quotation Marks 147

    LESSON 18 Using Hyphens, Dashes, and Ellipses 153

    Contents

    v i i

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    LESSON 19 Checking for Commonly Confused Words and Clichs 161

    LESSON 20 Putting It All Together 169

    POST-TEST 179

    APPENDIX A Proofreading Symbols 189APPENDIX B Additional Resources 191

    v i i i

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    Since you are reading this right now, let us assume you have at least one draft of your writingthat you want to proofread, revise, and edit in order to present a well-written and clear fin-ished piece. As all good writers know, a first draft needs to be cleaned up, trimmed down,andorganized. This book is designed to help you do just thatin 20 short lessons in just 20 minutes a day.

    This book stands alone as a teaching tool. You can pick it up and learn a new skill at any point during

    the writing process. Whether you are prewriting, drafting, editing, revising, or working on a final copy, this

    book will become a useful reference guide. You may find it helpful to turn to this book as you finish differ-

    ent sections of your writing because it can help you correct as you write. Or you can read the lessons in this

    book and then go back to your own piece of writingjust to reinforce important writing skills. No matter

    which method you choose, you will accomplish what you set out to do: master the skills you need to proof-

    read, revise, and edit your writing.

    Proofreading, Revising, and Editing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Daybegins with a discussion about

    the steps to create a piece of writing, and then gives you the coaching you will need to correct any errors

    you find in your work. It walks you through the revision process by showing you how to transform your

    sentences from awkward and choppy sentence fragments and run-ons to clear, concise expressions. It shows

    How to UseThis Book

    i x

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    you how to organize paragraphs and how to use tran-

    sitions skillfully. You will also learn the fundamental

    rules of noun/pronoun agreement as well as sub-

    ject/verb agreement. When you are finished with this

    book, you will find that your writing has improved,has style and detail, and is free of cluttered sentences

    and common errors.

    Some writers think that once a word has been

    written, it is sacred. Successful writers know that

    change is an important part of the writing process.

    Early drafts that may seem finished can most likely be

    improved. Since writing is a process, you have to be

    willing to change, rearrange, and discard material to

    achieve a well-crafted final product. Very few writers

    create the perfect draft on the first try. Most writerswill tell you that writing the first draft is only the

    beginning and that the majority of the work comes

    after the initial drafting process. You need to look very

    closely at your writing, examine it sentence by sen-

    tence, and fine-tune it to produce excellence.

    Your writing is a reflection of you. The proof-

    reading,revising,and editing processes provide a mirror

    in which you can examine your writing. Before your

    writing goes public, you must iron out the transitions

    between ideas and make sure your paragraphs are struc-tured correctly.You need to clean up your writing and

    pick out the unnecessary auxiliary verbs from your sen-

    tences, perfect your tone, and polish your verbs. Your

    efforts will show.

    Even if you are not currently working on a piece

    of writing that you need to hand in, present to an audi-

    ence, or send to a client, this book will teach you the

    skills that will improve your everyday writing. Each

    skill outlined in this book is an important part of a

    good writers toolbox. While you will not use every

    tool for each piece of writing, you will have them ready

    when you need to apply them.

    If you are job hunting, perhaps you need to

    revise a draft of a cover letter.. This piece of writing is

    the first impression your employer will have of you, so

    its important to submit your best effort. Perhaps you

    are working on an essay for school. Your teachersassessment of your abilities will certainly improve if

    you turn in a composition that shows thoughtful revi-

    sion, attention to detail, and an understanding of

    grammatical rules.

    Like your ideal final draft, Proofreading,Revising,

    and Editing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Dayhas no

    filler or fluff. It is a book for people who want to learn

    the editorial skills needed to revise a piece of writing

    without doing a lot of busy work. Each lesson intro-

    duces a skill or concept and offers exercises to practicewhat you have learned.

    Though each lesson is designed to be completed

    in about 20 minutes, the pace at which you approach

    the lessons is up to you. After each lesson, you may

    want to stop and revise your own writing, or you may

    want to read several lessons in one sitting and then

    revise your work. No matter how you use this book,

    you can be sure that your final drafts will improve.

    Start by taking the pretest to see what you already

    know and what you need to learn about proofreading,revising,and editing.After you have completed the les-

    sons, you can take the post-test to see how much you

    have learned. In the appendices, you will find a list of

    proofreading marks to use as you write, as well as a list

    of additional resources if you find you need a little

    extra help.

    If you apply what you have learned in this book,

    you will find that your writing gets positive attention.

    Teachers, employers, friends, and relatives will all

    notice your improvement. It is certain, though, that

    you will be the most satisfied of all.

    HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

    x

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    PROOFREADING,REVISING, &

    EDITING SKILLS SUCCESSIN 20 MINUTES A DAY

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    Before you begin the lessons in this book, it is a good idea to see how much you already knowabout proofreading, revising,and editing andwhat you nee