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  • Japan International Cooperation AgencyVietnam Office

    Policy Paper

    Promoting Tripartite Partnerships to Tackle Skills Mismatch:Innovative Skills Development Strategies to Accelerate Vietnams Industrialization

    October 2014

  • Table of Contents

    Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................................................................iiAbbreviations......................................................................................................................................................................................iiExecutive Summary............................................................................................................................................................................11. Skills Development Toward the Next Stage of Industrialization.....................................................................................................42. Key Constraints to Increasing the Supply of Skilled Technicians...................................................................................................5

    2.1. Necessity to Analyze Why the Supply Side Does Not Follow Skills Demands.......................................................................52.2. Difficulty in Grasping Skills Demands of Industry...................................................................................................................6

    2.2.1. Lack of Detailed Information on Specific Skills Needs............................................................................................62.2.2. Dynamic Changes in Skills Demands.......................................................................................................................6

    2.3. Insufficient Information about Industry Demands Provided to TVET Students.....................................................................62.4. Low Social Status of TVET Graduates and Technicians.......................................................................................................7

    3. Strategic Solutions to Reduce Skills Mismatch.............................................................................................................................73.1. Three Strategic Solutions to Connect TVET Institutions and Industry..................................................................................73.2. Basic Steps of Partnership Development.............................................................................................................................83.3. Training Process Management (Training PDCA Cycle): Optimizing Training Programs based on Industry Demands.......93.4. Employment Support System: Helping students find suitable jobs and enterprises find suitable candidates.................123.5. Skills Evaluation System: Ensuring Fair Social and Economic Status of Technicians.........................................................14

    4. Accelerating Skills Development through Tripartite Partnerships between TVET Institutions, Industry, and the Government....164.1. Importance of Tripartite Partnerships for Actions ...............................................................................................................164.2. Actions Required for Expansion of Training Process Management.....................................................................................17

    4.2.1. Enhancement of Interaction between Industry and TVET Institutions.......................................................................174.2.2. Promotion of Dynamic Training Program Development.............................................................................................20

    4.3. Actions Required for Expansion of Employment Support System.......................................................................................234.3.1. Provision of Sufficient and Accurate Job Opportunity Information for Students.........................................................234.3.2. Improvement of Internship Program Quality................................................................................................................25

    4.4. Actions Required for Improvement of Skills Evaluation System...........................................................................................264.4.1. Improvement of Skills Tests Credibility and Social Recognition.................................................................................274.4.2. Strategic and Sustainable Expansion of Skills Tests ................................................................................................29

    4.5. Monitoring Results of Actions...............................................................................................................................................305. Summary and the Way Forward..................................................................................................................................................31References........................................................................................................................................................................................33List of Annexes..................................................................................................................................................................................33

    Box 1. Machinery Maintenance Short-term Course Developed under the HaUI-JICA Project..........................................................11Box 2. 5S Activities for Improvement of Working Behaviors..............................................................................................................11Box 3. Improvement of Practical Training Equipment in Cooperation with Enterprises....................................................................12Box 4. Development of Short-term Course on Quality Control.........................................................................................................12Box 5. Making Internship Programs More Effective in Cooperation with Enterprises.......................................................................13Box 6. Organizing Comprehensive Company Study Tours...............................................................................................................13Box 7. Development of Skills Test on Machining Center Operation...................................................................................................15Box 8. Skills Tests on Conventional Turning and Milling Machine Operation....................................................................................16Box 9. An Example of How Two-way Communications Promoted Partnerships...............................................................................19Box 10. Campus Tours in Cooperation with Industrial Zone Management Companies....................................................................19Box 11. Trial Matching Meeting between TVET Institutions and Japanese Enterprises....................................................................20Box 12. Improvement of Mechanical Drawing Course at HaUI.........................................................................................................20Box 13. Attempts to Introduce New Subjects under JICAs Grass-Roots Projects............................................................................21Box 14. HaUIs Tailor-made Training Courses for Enterprises..........................................................................................................22Box 15. Trial Implementation of Career Counseling by HaUI and Remaining Challenges................................................................24Box 16. A Frequently Discussed Issue in Formulating Internship Programs.....................................................................................26Box 17. How Do Japanese Enterprises Utilize Skills Tests?.............................................................................................................28Box 18. Adoption of National Skills Test by a Leading Vietnamese Company..................................................................................28Box 19. Transfer of HaUIs Knowledge and Technology to Other TVET Institutions.........................................................................32Box 20. The Project for Heavy-Chemical Industry Human Resource Development in Thanh Hoa..................................................32

    Figure 1. Structure of Industrial Human Resources............................................................................................................................4Figure 2. Paradigm Shift for Skills Development.................................................................................................................................5Figure 3. Skills Mismatch and Supply Side Key Constraints..............................................................................................................6Figure 4. Strategic Solutions for Supply Side Constraints................................................................................................................8Figure 5. Basic Steps of Partnership Development between Educational and Training Institutions and Industry..............................9Figure 6. Overview of Training Process Management.......................................................................................................................10Figure 7. Basic Steps for Grasping Industry Demands.....................................................................................................................10Figure 8. Overview of Employment Support System.............................................................................................................