promoting empathy and a sense of community
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DESCRIPTIONEDU 146, Chapter 8, fa2014, CCC, empathy, community, Child Guidance, cdb, Katz
- 1. Promoting Empathy and aSense of CommunityChapter 8 in Guiding Childrens Social and Emotional Development: AReflective Approach. Katz, Janice Englander. 2014.
2. Nature and Nurture Again! Children are born with an innate capacity for empathy and forsocialization (sense of community) Both empathy and sense of community can be nurtured throughparenting practices and high quality childcare Consider dandelion and orchid children. How do our actions andinteractions with young children help children thrive in communitiesor, perhaps, wither and die as contributing members of communities?Connections to prior knowledge Nature and Nurtureresilience relationship based guidance supportiveenvironments developmentally appropriate guidanceculturally responsive guidance temperament other? 3. Empathy Empathy a persons ability to walk in anothers shoes by having asense of what the other person is feeling and appreciating their pointof view because of this understanding. Child development connection and progression Babies and toddler generally unconsciously mirror others emotions Pre-K children try to help their friends feel better Older children can plan and carry out activities for the betterment of theircommunity at large 4. Sense of Community More connections! Remember Maslow?We all want to belong to a group that caresfor us and we want to know that our needswill be met within this group. 5. Elements of community McMillan and Chavis (1986)1. Membership belonging2. Influence reciprocal; individuals have an impact of the well-being of thegroup and the group has an impact on the individual3. Fulfillment of needs shared values4. Shared emotional connection - the importance and strength of therelationships within the groupLook at how those align with Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 6. Impact of Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman (1995) theorized that ones emotional intelligence ismore important than ones intellectual capacity for future success Further clarification explains the necessity of ones use of emotionalintelligence and/or sensitivity for prosocial purposes. Prosocial behaviors using ones behaviors for the benefit of others Antisocial behaviors using ones behaviors for purposes thatdisregard and/or violate the rights of others (Katz, 2014) 7. Natural (Nature) Influences(Biology and Maturity) Predisposition to empathize Temperamental characteristics Remember the Still Face Experiment? Babies use emotions andexpressions of others to influence their own emotional responses Toddlers are able to label some emotions 2 year olds can identify cause for others emotions 8. Natural (Nature) Influences(Biology and Maturity) (cont.) 3 involuntary and preverbal empathetic responses1. Motor mimicry imitation of others expressions of distress that result inemotional distress in the baby1. Mirror neurons brain connections fire in a babys brain at the same rate and in the sameareas as the brain connections of a person actually experiencing the emotion.2. Classical conditioning the signals of distress may be transferred to a baby. In thefuture, expressions or posture can be the stimulus that results in a childsempathetic response (distress)3. Direct association memories of similar situations may trigger empatheticresponses 2 higher level responses that require language and symbolic thinking1. Mediated association another person labels anothers emotions2. Role- or perspective taking the ability to imagine anothers thoughts, feeling andneeds (Hoffman, 2007) 9. SympatheticdistressEmpatheticDistress Table 8.1 on p. 149 in your text 10. Experiential Influences Secure attachments and bonding relationships Positive emotional interactions and experiences ** Note the damaging biological (neurological) impact of stressfuland unhealthy relationships and interactions. More connections: Remember the CSEFEL Pyramid? Cultural influences Individualistic and collectivist perspectives Family circumstances Behaviors that promote respect and prosocial interactions 11. Inductive Guidance Making clear the negative consequences of ones actions towardsanother Non-punitive Emphasizes the feelings of others Teaches prosocial behaviors Purpose is to teach children to behave appropriately from a moraland empathetic perspective rather than fear of power andpunishment. 12. Practices and Strategies that Promote Empathyand Community Organic metaphor classrooms are living organisms that are dynamic andrequire nurturing. Environment (space) inviting and comfortable from a childs perspective Integrates the familiar with novelty Encourages discovery and exploration Allows children to make choices Well organized with accessible, interesting materials Remember NAEYC Key Element 1c? Using developmental knowledge tocreate healthy, respectful, supportive, and challenging learningenvironments. 13. Practices and Strategies that Promote Empathyand Community (cont.) Time Time is important, but must include some down time (consider the schoolphilosophy that suggests that every minute should be spent on task) Project-oriented approach are children allowed large blocks of timein which they can pose questions and work to create solutions andresolve problems? Is extended time provided for continuation of andcompletion of interesting, engaging activities? Note the example on pp. 155 & 156 in your text Consider the Looking in the Mirror. . . on p. 156 in your text. Whattemperamental characteristics do you see working well in project orientedclassrooms? What might you have to do to help engage a more reservedchild? 14. Practices and Strategies that Promote Empathyand Community (cont.) Expectations and group goals Are our expectations and group goals based on our knowledge of childdevelopment, the individual needs of each child, and the culturalexpectations of the families and community in which we live (DAP)? Do we help children practice the skills of empathy and community we wantthem to demonstrate in their everyday interactions and experiences? Do we remind and encourage rather than punish as skills emerge and becomemore prevalent as the year progresses and the children develop socially andemotionally? Do we help children develop and own the classroom expectations? Do theyhave a clear idea of what the behaviors look like and sound like? Do we model expected behaviors, reinforce emerging skills and provideformal and informal opportunities to practice these skills? 15. Example You are a new teacher in a classroom. A child says, That is not mineand rolls her eyes when you ask her a 2nd time to pick up the napkinthat fell on the floor. Lets go to Discussion Board. We will identify the ABCs of the behavior, possible responses, and the bestresponses that will support empathy and community building (NAEYC KeyElement 3c Understand and practice responsible assessment to promotepositive outcomes for each child). We will try to identify multiple influences that may impact her choices andyour responses (NAEYC Key Element 1b). What do we know about this childs characteristics and needs (NAEYC KeyElement 1a)? 16. Practices and Strategies that Promote Empathyand Community (cont.) Everyday strategies All children need direct guidance All children will have problems demonstrating empathy and prosocialbehaviors on occasion Even if child cannot yet comprehend the causal connection between actionsand consequences of their behaviors, we must articulate those connectionsand continue to remind children of expected behaviors. Model expected behaviors and label emotions in others Note the developmentally typical behaviors of the children in the scenario atthe bottom of p. 159 in your text. More strategies: role playing, role reversal, dramatic play, childrens literature,reflections, mental modeling 17. What Do You Do? Looking in the Mirror. . . on p. 160 What do you do in your class, home, church, or wherever thatpromotes community-building with young children? 18. ResourcesGoleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York:Bantam.Hoffman, M. L. (2007). The Origins of Empathic Morality in Toddlerhood. In C. Brownwell,& c. Kopp, Socioemotional development in the toddler years: transitions andtransformations (pp. 132-149). New York: The Guilford Press.Katz, Janice Englander (2014). Guiding Childrens Social and Emotional Development: AReflective Approach, Pearson, 142 161Learn about the Pyramid Model. (2011). Technical Assistance Center on Social EmotionalIntervention. Retrieved October 24, 2014, from TACSEI:http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/index.htmMcMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory.Journal of Community Psychology, 14 (1), 6-23.National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (2011, July). 2010 NAEYCStandards for Initial & Advanced Early Childhood Professional PreparationPrograms. Retrieved October 24, 2014, fromhttp://www.naeyc.org/ncate/files/ncate/NAEYC%20Initial%20and%20Advanced%20Standards%2010_2012.pdf