Project Scope Management Days 1 & 2 1. Project Scope Management  Project Scope Management Ensures that project includes all the work required, and only

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Project Scope ManagementDays 1 &amp; 21</p> <p>1Project Scope ManagementProject Scope ManagementEnsures that project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfullyPrimarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the projectProcesses need to be integrated with other knowledge area processes so that the work of the project will result in delivery of the specified product scope</p> <p>22Project Scope Management ProcessesPlan Scope ManagementCreating a plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlledCollect RequirementsDefining and documenting stakeholders needs to meet the project objectivesDefine ScopeDeveloping a detailed description of the project and productCreate WBSSubdividing the major project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable componentsValidate ScopeFormalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverablesControl ScopeMonitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline33What is scope?Project scopeThe work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functionsCompletion is measured against the project management planProduct scopeThe features and functions that characterize a product, service, or resultCompletion is measured against the product requirements44The Scope Baseline isA detailed agreement between the customer and the service provider stating what work (tasks/activities) will and wont be delivered that will satisfy stakeholder requirementsThe approved version of the Project scope statementWork Breakdown Structure (WBS)WBS Dictionary</p> <p>55A BaselineCan be changed only through formal change control proceduresUsed to measure the acceptability of the deliverable during Validate and Control Scope processes as well as other controlling processes</p> <p>66Plan Scope ManagementCreates the scope management planSays how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlledHelps you to decided how to manage scope throughout the project</p> <p>7</p> <p>7</p> <p>8DFD8Plan Scope Management: InputsProject Management PlanApproved subsidiary plans of the project management plan are used to create the scope management plan and influence the approach taken for planning scope and managing project scopeProject CharterProvides the high-level project description characteristics from the project statement of work</p> <p>99Plan Scope Management: InputsEnterprise Environmental FactorsOrganizations culture, InfrastructurePersonnel administrationMarket place conditionsOrganizational Process AssetsPolicies and proceduresHistorical information and lessons learned</p> <p>1010Plan Scope Management: Tool and TechniquesExpert JudgmentInput received from knowledgeable and experienced peopleMeetingsCollaborative meetings to discuss the solution alternative, boundaries of investigation, how scope will be define, validated and controlled</p> <p>1111Plan Scope Management: OutputsScope Management PlanDescribes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verifiedIs a major input into the Develop Project Management Plan process, and the other scope management processes</p> <p>1212Scope Management Plan: ComponentsProcess for preparing a detailed project scope statementProcess that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statementProcess that establishes how the WBS will be maintained and approvedProcess that specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtainedProcess to control how requests for changes to the detailed project scope statement will be processedThis process is directly linked to the Perform Integrated Change Control process </p> <p>1313Requirements Management PlanA component of the project management planDescribes how the requirements will be analyzed, documented and managedIndicates which phase-to-phase relationship will be usedSequentialOverlapping</p> <p>1414Requirements Management Plan ComponentsHow requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reportedConfiguration management activities such as: how changes to the product will be initiated, how impacts will be analyzed, how they will be traced, tracked, and reported, as well as the authorization levels required to approve these changesRequirements prioritization processProduct metrics that will be used and the rationale for using themTraceability structure to reflect which requirement attributes will be captured on the traceability matrix1515Collect RequirementsRequirements Development starts by analyzing the project charterInclude needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer and other stakeholdersAre asked for, analyzed and recorded in enough detail to be measured once the project execution beginsBecome the foundation of the WBSAre used for cost, schedule &amp; quality planningAre categorized into project and product efforts</p> <p>1616Collect Requirements: ITTO</p> <p>171718</p> <p>DFD18Collect RequirementsSuccess directly influenced by Active stakeholder involvement in the discovery and decomposition of needs into requirementsCare taken in determining, documenting and managing the requirements of the product, service or result</p> <p>1919Collect Requirements: IncludeConditions or capabilities to be met by the project or are present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specificationQuantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer and other stakeholders</p> <p>2020How are requirements obtained?Elicited (asked for), analyzed, and recorded in enough detail to be included in the scope baseline and to be measured once project execution beginsStart by analyzing the project charter, stakeholder register and stakeholder management plan2121Requirements become or are used as:The foundation of the WBSThe basis for:CostScheduleQuality PlanningProcurement2222Requirements are categorized into different typesBusinessStakeholder needsTechnical SolutionsHow stakeholder needs will be implemented</p> <p>2323Requirements are categorized into different classificationsBusiness RequirementsHigher-level needs of the organization as a whole, like business issues or opportunities and reasons why the project is undertakenStakeholder requirementsDescribe needs of a stakeholder or stakeholder group</p> <p>2424Requirements are categorized into different classificationsSolution RequirementsDescribe features, functions, and characteristics of the product, service, or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirementsFunctionalDescribe the behaviors of the product which may include processes, data and interactions with the productNonfunctionalDescribe the environmental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective</p> <p>2525Requirements are categorized into different classificationsNonfunctional examples include:ReliabilitySecurityPerformanceSafetyLevel of ServiceSupportabilityRetention/Purge</p> <p>2626Requirements are categorized into different types or classifications:Transition RequirementsDescribe temporary capabilities, such as data conversion and training requirements, needed to transition from the current as-is state to the future to-be stateProject RequirementsDescribe actions, processes, or other conditions the project needs to meetQuality RequirementsDescribe any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion of a project deliverable or fulfillment of other project requirements</p> <p>2727Collect Requirements: InputScope Management PlanProvides clarity as to how project teams will determine which type of requirements need to be collectedRequirements Management PlanProvides the processes used to define and document the stakeholder needsStakeholder Management PlanHelps understand stakeholder communications requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder involvement in requirements activities2828Collect Requirements: InputProject CharterHigh-level project requirements and product descriptionStakeholder RegisterDefines which stakeholders can provide information on detailed project and product requirements</p> <p>2929Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesInterviewsFocus GroupsFacilitated WorkshopsGroup Creativity TechniquesGroup Decision Making TechniquesQuestionnaires and SurveysObservationsPrototypesBenchmarkingContext DiagramsDocument Analysis3030Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesInterviewsWays to discover information from stakeholders by talking to them directlyMay be one on one or involve multiple interviewersAids in identifying and defining features and functions3131Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesFocus GroupsGather prequalified stakeholders and SMEs to learn about their expectations and attitudes about the proposed product service or resultUses a trained moderator to guide the team through an interactive discussionAre designed to be more conversational than the one on one interview3232Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesFacilitated WorkshopsBrings key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirementsBuild trust, foster relationships, improve communication among participants which leads to increased stakeholder consensusSupports:Risk identification and mitigationIssue discovery and resolution3333Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesFacilitated WorkshopsParticipants create business perspective stories to describe functionality and featuresWho wants What and Why, (but not the How) . So thatJoint Application Design (JAD) in SW brings users and developers together to improve the SW development processQuality Function Deployment (QFD) in manufacturing helps to determine critical product characteristics and starts by collecting customer needs; aka: the voice of the customer3434Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesGroup Creativity Techniques organized to identify project and product requirementsBrainstorming used to generate and collect multiple ideasNominal Group Technique enhanced brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas gathered during brainstormingIdea/Mind MappingIndividual brainstorming ideas consolidated and mapped to show commonalities and differences in understandingHelps to generate new ideas</p> <p>3535Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesGroup Creativity TechniquesAffinity DiagramIdeas generated from other gathering methods are organized or categorized by similarities and then given a nameMulti-criteria Decision AnalysisUses a decision matrix to provide an objective but systematic approach for establishing criteria to evaluate and rank many ideas like:Risk levelsUncertaintyBusiness value3636Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesGroup Decision Making Technique is:An assessment process of multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actionsUsed to generate, classify and prioritize product requirements</p> <p>3737Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesGroup Decision Making TechniquesUnanimity everyone agrees on a single course of action. One way to achieve unanimity is to use:Delphi Technique selects SMEs to answer questionnaires and provide feedback only available to the facilitator to maintain anonymity regarding responses from each round of requirements gatheringMajority support for more than 50%Plurality the largest block in the group decides even if a majority is not achievedDictatorship one individual makes the decision for the group3838Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesQuestionnaires and SurveysWritten set of questions designed to quickly obtain accurate information from a wide number of respondentsUsed with broad audiences when quick turnaround is needed and where statistical analysis is appropriate3939Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesObservationsViewing workers in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processesHelpful when the people have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirementsJob shadowingDone externally by the observer viewing the user doing the jobDone by a participant observer who actually performs a process or procedure to experience how work is done to uncover hidden requirements</p> <p>4040Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesPrototypesMethod used to get early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before building itLets stakeholders experiment with a model of the final product rather than talking about conceptsSupports the concept of progressive elaboration and used in iterative cyclesWhen feedback cycle are done requirements obtained are sufficient to build the product4141Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesBenchmarkingInvolves comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable internal or external organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance4242Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesContext DiagramsVisually depict the product scope by showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. Show inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and the actor(s) receiving the output434344</p> <p>Collect Requirements: Tools and TechniquesDocument AnalysisElicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant to the requirementsExamplesBusiness plans, marketing literature, agreements, requests for proposal, current process flows, logical data models, business rules repositories, application software documentation, business process or interface documentation, use cases, other requirements documentation, problem/issue logs, policies, procedures, and regulatory documentation such as laws, codes, or ordinances4545Collect Requirements: OutputsRequirementsA condition or capability that must be metQuantified and documented needs, wants, and expectations of the sponsor, customer and other stakeholdersRequirements DocumentRequirements Traceability Matrix</p> <p>4646Collect Requirements: OutputsRequirements DocumentationDescribes how individual requirements meet the business need for the projectStart out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more is known (progressively elaborated)Must be measurable and testable, traceable, complete, consistent and acceptable to key stakeholdersFormat may range from a simple listing categorized by stakeholder and priority, to more elaborate forms containing executive summary, detailed descriptions and attachments</p> <p>4747Requirements documentation can include but is not limited to:Business need or opportunity with limitations and why project is being doneBusiness/project objectives for traceabilityFunctional requirements describing business processesNon-functional requirements like leve...</p>


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