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- 1. InternationalBusinessSolutions Project management -an initial briefing At the end of this chapter you should be able to: Describe the driving forces behind the development of project management Define what is meant by the term 'project management' Identify the characteristics of a project Discuss the relationship between the four project constraints Discuss the importance of the project life cycle Identify the common stakeholders to a project
- 2. Introduction Everyone at some time in their life will be involved in a project of one kind or another. in fact, the reality is that most of us have been involved in many projects for some considerable time, and will face many more in the future. Projects come in all sizes and each project brings with it a differing degree of complexity requiring a specific set of team and management skills that will underpin the project's success.
- 3. Introduction The evolution of projects has increased exponentially to the point where the discipline, methods and tools behind projects (and their management) have reached huge heights of application, sophistication and popularity. What is the drive for this development and interest. Is it due to: advances in technology? increasing influence of market pressures? global competition and the need to remain competitive? the need to deliver products or services that meet certain benchmarks, quality assurance or best practice standards? greater emphasis on business producing cost-effective solutions? the constant cycle of change that business operates within? The reason should be obvious change must be managed if the project is to succeed.
- 4. Demystifying project management - 1 Modern competition is rapidly becoming focused on three critical issues: the timing of decision making the costs driving the decisions the impact that change will have on these decisions To deal with these pressures, project management has grown in importance and stature as a toll for successfully dealing with time, cost and change -driven decisions.
- 5. Demystifying project management - 2 So what is project management? Let's start with a simple explanation. Think abut any project (big or small) you are involved with and answer the following questions: What type of information do you need to complete the project? What type of decisions will this information produce throughout the project? What actions will these decisions result in? (Answers??) the work required to be completed (let's call these project 'tasks'); who would be doing that work (let's call these project 'resources'); the cost of the work being performed (let's call this project 'costs'); how well the work had to be completed (let's call this project 'specification').
- 6. Project management a balancing act Resources Tasks
- 7. The tasks more than just the work required All projects involve delivering something (often referred to as 'outcome', 'asset', 'deliverable' or 'solution') to someone (often referred to as the 'client'). To achieve this 'something', a range of work will need to be first identified and then performed. But (and it is a big but) consider the additional task information you need before you 'go live' on the project given in the next slide.
- 8. Additional task information Will all this work be performed simultaneously or will some follow earlier completed work? How long will each component of work take (commonly referred to as duration)? How accurate will these duration estimates be? What impact will this work duration have on the project's planning, execution, management and completion activities? Will all the required work be correctly identified and scheduled? What risk factors might impact on the start or finish of the scheduled work? Does the completed work comply with the required specification or standard?
- 9. The resources more than just the workers A considerable amount of resource information is required concerning the work needed to complete the project. Consider the following for starters: Exactly what resources are required? Are these resources available to be assigned to the project tasks? Have these resources got the required skills, authority and power (if people), the right technical features (if materials)? Do any of the human resources need training in particular skills? How much do these resources cost? Are there any substitute resources? Will risk be a factor in assigning and tracking the performance of these resources? What impact will these resources have on the project's planning, execution, management and completion activities?
- 10. What exactly is a project? To some people, projects are a little like a puzzle too many pieces and not enough clues. A project can be defined in terms of a number of criteria which collectively distinguish it from an everyday activity performed by an individual or organisation. Client or Logical task stakeholders Temporary dependencies Agreed budget Shared available and Initiated and Agreed start committed managed to and finish dates resources succeed Agreed specification An agreed and Discrete organisational measurable objective, resource (and management deliverable or outcome structure)
- 11. Essential project characteristics - 1 Criteria Explanation An agreed and Projects 'create' and 'hand over' a tangible result that addresses a measurable objective, problem or perhaps an opportunity. deliverable or outcome An agreed budget In most projects, the budget is a finite resource. While contingent funding (in case the estimates fall short of true costs) should be available, the greater majority of projects will be constrained by limited funding. Discrete organisational While many organisations operate by habitual practice and follow what resource (and has worked before, the creation and management of a project should management) structure be based on an appropriate organisational structure suited to the particular project. Client or stakeholders All projects are owned by their ultimate client (the party the final deliverable is handed over to) and all the other parties to the project (staff, contractors, professional advisers, management, suppliers). Temporary Projects are not enduring. That is, they do not go on for ever (though many have been known to drift off target and get lost)The very nature of the project (deliverable) dictated that it must end.
- 12. Essential project characteristics - 2 Criteria Explanation Shared, available and Projects require a pool of resources to achieve agreed deliverables. committed resources These could include any of the following: people, materials, equipment, facilities, tools, information, systems, policies, procedures, techniques, finances and knowledge, among others. These resources are often deployed on other projects and/or their normal work duties, which brings another degree of complexity and management to the project. Agreed start and finish Projects (should) have target start and finish dates that define (and dates constrain) the project window. That is, the project has a finite life span. An agreed specification The work performed on a project will not be completed 'on a whim'. It will comply with a standard, a performance measure or a benchmark of some kind that explicitly defines and clarifies the exact nature of the work to be performed. Logical task All the required work will probably not be performed at the same time. dependencies S
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Chapter 8 - Project Management1 Chapter 8 - Project Management Chapter Topics The Elements of Project Management The Project Network Probabilistic Activity