Proceedings 2009

Download Proceedings 2009

Post on 04-Nov-2015

227 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Materiais Verdes

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>2009 </p><p>2nd Amazon Green Materials Meeting </p><p> Manaus, AM, Brazil, 2009 </p><p> Edited by R. P. Vasconcelos </p><p>J. A. Melo Filho V. M. Giacon </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>2 </p><p>2nd Amazon Green Materials Meeting </p><p>Manaus, AM, Brazil, 2009 </p><p>ISBN: 978-85-7401-757-0 </p><p>Edited by R. P. Vasconcelos J. A. Melo Filho </p><p>R. K. Vieira </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>3 </p><p>Tema Principal </p><p>Materiais Verdes </p><p>Temas </p><p>1- Materiais Verdes para Construo Civil </p><p>2- Caracterizao de Materiais </p><p>3- Reciclagem </p><p>4- Compsitos </p><p>5- Metodologias de Extrao </p><p>6- Materiais Cermicos </p><p>7- Sustentabilidade </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>4 </p><p>Apresentao </p><p>O termo Qumica Verde refere-se ao projeto de produtos qumicos e processos que </p><p>reduzem ou eliminam a gerao e o uso de substncias perigosas. A prtica teve incio nos </p><p>Estados Unidos com a aprovao da Lei de Preveno Poluio de 1990, estabelecendo </p><p>uma poltica nacional para a preveno ou reduo da poluio na sua fonte, quando </p><p>possvel. Por outro lado a procura de construes sutentveis tem fomentado a investigao </p><p>de produtos alternativos, baseados em materiais resultantes do aproveitamento de materiais </p><p>renovveis e residuos industriais, convencionalmente designados por green materials, </p><p>por todo o Mundo. </p><p>Neste contexto, o grupo de pesquisadores do Programa de Ps Graduao em Engenharia </p><p>Civil da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, organizou o Primeiro Amazonic Green </p><p>Materials Meeting Encontro em Materiais Verdes da Amaznia que ocorreu entre 18 a 20 </p><p>de agosto de 2008 no auditrio Rio Javari da Faculdade de Tecnologia. Embora organizado </p><p>em um espao curto de tempo, o entusiasmo e o apoio dos participantes mostraram o </p><p>grande potencial e os benefcios de se organizar tais eventos no futuro. Neste primeiro </p><p>evento houve a participao de pesquisadores de Cornell University (USA), North Caroline </p><p>University (USA), UNICAMP, COPPE/UFRJ e INPA, alm da participao de </p><p>pesquisadores e discentes, tanto da ps como da graduao, da UFAM. Em 04 de agosto de </p><p>2009, o Programa de Ps-Graduao em Engenharia Civil (PPGEC) organizou o Segundo </p><p>Simpsio de Materiais Verdes da Amaznia como atividade de encontro desenvolvida pelo </p><p>Programa da UFAM. Este evento contou com a participao de engenheiros, professores, </p><p>pesquisadores e especialistas da rea. O Programa forneceu uma oportunidade nica de </p><p>uma rede de trabalho e aprendizado para cientistas da indstria e estudantes da UFAM, </p><p>alm de buscar desenvolver atividades de colaborao em qumica verde, compsitos </p><p>verdes e reas relacionadas. O Programa incluiu a participao de especialistas de Cornell </p><p>University (USA), Universidade do Minho (Portugal), bo Akademi University </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>5 </p><p>(Finlndia), COPPE/UFRJ, USP, UNICAMP, INPA e UFAM que contriburam com suas </p><p>experincias nesta rea. </p><p>Patrocinadores </p><p>UFAM Universidade Federal do Amazonas </p><p>NUTEC Ncleo Interdisciplinar de Gesto Tecnolgica de Materiais e Processos </p><p>FAPEAM Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas </p><p>AMAZONAS GOVERNO DO ESTADO </p><p>INCRA - Instituto Nacional de Colonizao e Reforma Agrria. </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>6 </p><p>Comisso Organizadora - 2nd Amazon Green Materials Meeting </p><p>1. Raimundo Pereira de Vasconcelos, Ph.D.- Coordenao. Professor, Technology Faculty Amazonas Federal University. e-mail: vasconcelos@ufam.edu.br </p><p>2. Raimundo Kennedy Vieira, Ph.D. Professor, Technology Faculty Amazonas Federal University. e-mail: maneiro@ufam.edu.br </p><p>3. Adalena Kennedy Vieira, Ph.D. Professor, Technology FacultyAmazonas Federal University. e-mail: adalenakennedy@gmail.com </p><p>Comit Cientfico 2nd Amazon Green Materials Meeting </p><p>4. Edison Bittencourt President. State University of Campinas Unicamp. Dept. of Polymer Technology. School of Chemical Enginnering. e-mail: </p><p>e_bittencourt@uol.com.br </p><p>5. Juan P Hinestroza, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Fiber Science. Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design. CORNELL UNIVERSITY. e-mail: </p><p>jh433@cornell.edu </p><p>6. Orlando Rojas, Ph.D. Wood &amp; Paper Science. N C State University.e-mail: ojrojas@ncsu.edu </p><p>7. Anil N. Netravali, Ph.D. Professor, Fiber Science Program. Dept. of Fiber Science and Apparel. Cornell University. e-mail: ann2@cornell.edu </p><p>8. Dr. Lucian Lucia. Department of Wood &amp; Paper Science. NC State University.e-mail: lucian.lucia@ncsu.edu </p><p>9. Raimundo Kennedy Vieira, Ph.D. Professor, Technology Faculty Amazonas Federal University. e-mail: maneiro@ufam.edu.br </p><p>10. Raimundo Pereira de Vasconcelos, Ph.D.- Coordenao. Professor, Technology Faculty Amazonas Federal University. e-mail: vasconcelos@ufam.edu.br </p><p>11. Adalena Kennedy Vieira, Ph.D. Professor, Technology FacultyAmazonas Federal University. e-mail: adalenakennedy@gmail.com </p><p>12. Baslio Frasco Vianez. Coordenao de Pesquisas de Produtos Florestais - Preservao da Madeira. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia. e-mail: </p><p>basilio@inpa.gov.br </p><p>13. Ruy A. S Ribeiro. Coordenao de Pesquisas de Produtos Florestais - Preservao da Madeira. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia. e-</p><p>mail: ruy_saribeiro@yahoo.com </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>7 </p><p>ndice </p><p>1. Uses and alternatives: Chemical characterization of lignocellulolitics materials. Maria de Jesus Coutinho Varejo &amp; </p><p>Cristiano Souza do Nascimento. National Institute for Amazonian </p><p>Research- INPA, Manaus, AM Brazi.................................................7 </p><p>2. Green Building Research Projects at Amazonian Structural Engineering Laboratory. Ruy A. S Ribeiro, and Marilene G. S </p><p>Ribeiro18 </p><p>3. Quality Management in the recycling of PET for the conversion in ecological coverage in the city of Manaus (AM). Edsandra Magalhes </p><p>Ferreira, Joo Bosco Ladislau de Andrade ..30 </p><p>4. Vegetable Fiber-reinforced Cement Building Components: Some Issues about Using Residues. Gustavo H. D. Tonoli, Srgio F. Santos, </p><p>Juliano Fiorelli, Ronaldo S. Teixeira, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Holmer </p><p>Savastano Jr..........................................................................................40 </p><p>5. Functional Cellulose Beads. Pedro Fardim, Nasir Ali and Peter Rosenberg.53 </p><p>6. New Methods for Extraction of Polysaccharides. Pedro Fardim, Nina Lindstrm, Risto Korpinen, Marjo Lukkarinen and Jan Gustaffson.57 </p><p>7. Pozzolanic Reactivity of Powder Brick. Luciane F. Ribas, Maria Rita P. Carvalho, Jo Dweck, Guilherme C. Cordeiro, Eduardo M. R. </p><p>Fairbairn, Romildo D. Toledo Filho.....................................................58 </p><p>8. On The Issue of Education for Sustainability. Edison Bittencourt..71 </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>8 </p><p>Uses and alternatives: Chemical characterization of lignocellulolitics </p><p>materials </p><p>Maria de Jesus Coutinho Varejo &amp; Cristiano Souza do Nascimento </p><p>National Institute for Amazonian Research- INPA, Manaus, AM Brazil varejao@inpa.gov.br </p><p>Abstract </p><p>This work the process of technological characterization of green materials of the Amazon Forest will be </p><p>approached by using the chemical tool. The wide use and application of certain green materials depends on </p><p>the physical, mechanics and mainly chemistry properties, due the interaction between products and chemical </p><p>composition were entirely linked to the environmental conditions. Traditional materials such as fibers of </p><p>cotton, ramie, sisal, coconut, bagasse or sugar cane, bamboo, jute, kenaf, straw of the banana and rice among </p><p>other is still quite used and your wide utilization brings together classic applications in the textile and paper </p><p>industries. However, new industrial branches are in the dispute for green raw materials, as for instance, in the </p><p>building, automobile and thermoplastic industries, tends in view the developing of new technologies that </p><p>making possible the use of products with lower environmental impact. Their use generates a larger number of </p><p>employments in areas of low of human development index (IDH). Basically the green materials are </p><p>constituted by the primary metabolites cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and in low proportion inorganic </p><p>compounds and extractives. Woody vegetable species are constituted of 40-50% of cellulose, 20-30% of </p><p>hemicellulose and 20-28% of lignin. These components constitute the cellular wall, together with low </p><p>amounts of material intercellular. They form the basis of the physical structure of the vegetable. In the last </p><p>years studies on the chemical composition of green materials of the Amazonian has been developed in Forest </p><p>Research Products Coordination/Amazonian Research National Institute (CPPF/INPA). On stipe and spongy </p><p>tissue of Bactris gasipaes (pupunha tree) several artifacts were created. Wooden residues had been used as </p><p>substrates in the production of comestible mushrooms. Barks of native species had been formulated in the </p><p>manufacturing of adhesives. Fibers of Astrocaryum acaule (tucum-i) were used at manufacturing of clothes, </p><p>while tests with fibers of Ischnosiphon polyphyllus (arum) for strengthening cement structures. Therefore, </p><p>these studies showed chemical properties that potentialized the use of green materials. Chemical </p><p>characterization of these materials played a relevant part on the creation of new bio-products. The potential to </p><p>be discovered on this raw material in the Amazonian provides us more and more in the technological </p><p>research, because the advances are beyond the academy contributing with the economical and social </p><p>development of the region. </p><p>Keywords: Lignocellulotics materials; chemical characterization; extractives; vegetable fibers </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>9 </p><p>Introduction </p><p>Vegetable raw materials have a long time ago been used by the man and your use is so </p><p>important that the designation "age of the wood" was created. Several substitutes emerged </p><p>such as: steel, plastic and concrete. However, the energy for your production and </p><p>decomposition in the environment has been a great difficulty in the last years. Green raw </p><p>materials have been adopted at countries developed, producing new bio-products with </p><p>fewer environmental risks by using renewable sources and of easy decomposition. </p><p>Amazon tropical forest is an inexhaustible source of raw material since is managed and/or </p><p>sustainable forms. A priori the wooden resource is main source of the forestry and others </p><p>types of vegetables can and should be used relatives of the substituting bio-composites, </p><p>construction and industrial materials. </p><p>The use wide of certain green materials depends on the physical, mechanics and chemical </p><p>properties, due the interaction between these products and chemical composition close </p><p>linked to the environmental conditions. This combination and the green materials require </p><p>information of the physical-chemical characteristics of this raw material as well as the </p><p>factors affect its feasible performance. </p><p>Commonly designated as fiber there is a true group of filaments formed by fibrils </p><p>composed of carbohydrates oriented in different angles, consisting of the several layers of </p><p>the macrofiber designation known and composed preferably by cellulose molecules and of </p><p>hemicellulose and lignin units. </p><p>Studies accomplished in the last years on the use of natural fibers as reinforcement in </p><p>cement matrices has been motivated by the large number of available fibers and your high </p><p>mechanical resistance. The process of simple manufacture allows the production of </p><p>composites by several ways considered models for using at low cost houses. </p><p>Researchers of the Wood Chemical Laboratory of CPPF/INPA, Manaus, state of </p><p>Amazonas are developing studies with green materials. Chemical characterization was </p><p>initiated with studies of wooden wastes and barks; nowadays other types of vegetables are </p><p>studied such as lianas, herbaceous, palm trees etc. The research became indispensable for </p><p>acquisition of a database of the chemical substances and physical properties, before the </p><p>vast and important materials of the tropical forest, making possible the elaboration of </p><p>several bio-products of ecologically correct form and compromise with the quality of life </p><p>of the populations. </p><p>Brief review on traditional green materials </p><p>The wood for a long ago played a major paper due its variability, however, other materials </p><p>such as vegetables fibers: cotton, ramie, sisal, coconut, bagasse or sugar cane, bamboo, </p><p>jute, straw of the banana, among others. The use of the green materials is quite wide, </p><p>embracing classic applications as at the textile industry and paper. However, new industrial </p><p>fields are entering in the dispute for green raw materials, as for example, buildings, </p><p>automobile and thermoplastic industries that make possible the use of these products with </p><p>lower environmental impact. </p></li><li><p> 2nd AMAZON GREEN MATERIALS MEETING </p><p>10 </p><p>The green materials receive special attention because originate several subjects that should </p><p>be focalized, mainly the no biodegradability and the recycling difficulty, which produce a </p><p>great accumulation of this material type in deposits, trashes and in the own nature (Mattoso </p><p>et al., 1999). </p><p>Among the products of natural fibers have prominence the finishing of inside vehicle due </p><p>their mechanical, thermal and acoustics properties. Several vegetable fibers are found </p><p>practically in all the continents and happen spontaneously in the nature, or cultivated as </p><p>agricultural activity and there are still those that are generated by residues, for the agro and </p><p>wooden industries. </p><p>The potential production of traditional green matters increases every year in Brazil of the </p><p>view point economical and social due to the contents lignocellulosics of these fibers as </p><p>well as your availability at market and their physical-chemical characterization (Table 1). </p><p>The utilization of the natural fibers is quite wide, involves since the classic applications in </p><p>the textile industry until the reinforcement thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers </p><p>matrices. Recently, the utilization of natural fibers as materials that absorb heavy metals in </p><p>the treatment of industrial wastes as been as alternative. </p><p> Table 1. Brazilian production of traditional green materials </p><p> Annual production (103 tonnes) </p><p>2004 2005 2006 2007 </p><p>Jute (fiber) 2 6 4 6 </p><p>Malva (fiber) 10 20 14 20 </p><p>Ramie (fiber) 1 1 - - </p><p>Sisal (fiber) 199 207 248 215 </p><p>Herbaceous cotton </p><p>(kernel of fruit) </p><p>3.798 </p><p>3.666 </p><p>2.884 </p><p>3...</p></li></ul>