Problems faced by handicapped

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<p>Problems faced by visually impaired</p> <p>Problems faced by visually impaired</p> <p>Interview Pune blind men's associationAs far as accessibility to various areas was concerned they said that they felt comfortable travelling in familiar surroundings. While going out to relatively new places, they preferred to take a companion or a guide who almost always happened to be one of their family members or close friends so there was no question of paying this guide. While walking they felt insecure at narrow roads because different kinds of structures, various vehicles such as bicycles, scooters, etc were parked randomly at street corners. Furthermore, the streets were infested with potholes which many times were left open. Often streets were suddenly dug up and no guiding mark was available to the blind cautioning them about the same. They narrated an incident when a truck with pointed metal rods protruding outside was parked at a street corner and a blind person ran into those rods and was seriously injured. At crossings they said they did not find a major problem, as most were mobility trained1. At unruly traffic situations, they added that someone or the other always lent them a helping hand when they asked for it. They expressed their desire for footpaths without any encroachments or structures so that they could walk comfortably.</p> <p>EnvironmentalPeople with complete blindness or low vision often have a difficult time self-navigating outside well-known environments. In fact, physical movement is one of the biggest challenges for blind people, explains World Access for the Blind. Traveling or simply walking down a crowded street may pose great difficulty. Because of this, many people with low vision will bring a sighted friend or family member to help navigate unknown environments.</p> <p>solutionAs well, blind people must learn every detail about the home environment. Large obstacles such as tables and chairs must remain in one location to prevent injury. If a blind person lives with others, each member of the household must diligently keep walkways clear and all items in designated locations.</p> <p>SocialBlindness causes considerable social challenges, usually in relation to the activities in which a blind person cannot participate. All too frequently, blindness affects a person's ability to perform many job duties, which severely limits her employment opportunities, explains the World Health Organization. This may not only affect a person's finances, but also her self esteem.</p> <p>Blindness may also cause difficulties with participating in activities outside of a workplace, such as sports and academics. Many of these social challenges limit a blind person's ability to meet people, and this only adds to low self esteem.</p> <p>Symbolic worldSymbols used by society are typically presented only to the visual system, so people with impaired vision are partly or totally excluded from this network of information exchange. Attempts to address the matter of disrupted information exchange have only focused on small pieces of the problem, and have often done so without input from blind people. They have often relied on the clemency of public agencies and corporations to accommodate blindness needs, but response to these needs has shown itself to be very limited and grudging.</p> <p>Problems faced by hearing impaired </p> <p>The functional limitations faced by people with hearing impairment fall into four categories. First, individuals may not be able to hear auditory information if it is not presented loudly enough as compared to the background noise. The ability to control volume or to plug headphones or other devices into a headphone jack are the primary strategies for dealing with this problem. Second, individuals who are deaf or who have more severe hearing impairments will not receive any information which is presented only in auditory form. Beeps which are accompanied by an on-screen visual indication prevent this problem. They also avoid the problem of the sound output being too quiet, since the auditory information is also provided visually. With newer systems which include voice output, presentation of the text on-screen or the ability to turn on captions may be necessary. Third, as voice input becomes more prevalent, it too will present a problem for many deaf individuals. While many have some residual speech, which they work to maintain, those who are deaf from birth or a very early age often are unable to learn to speak or have very poor speech. Thus, alternatives to voice input will be necessary for these individuals to access products which require voice input. Fourth, many individuals who are deaf communicate primarily through ASL (American Sign Language). It should be noted, however, that this is a completely different language from English. Thus, deaf people who primarily use ASL may understand English only as a second language (and may therefore not be as proficient with English as native speakers). ** Access to Support Services Because individuals who are deaf cannot hear and sometimes cannot speak, they have difficulty using telephone support services. Special telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDDs) have been developed, however, which allow individuals to communicate over the phone using text and a modem. In order for these users to access phone-in support services, software companies would need to have TDD-equipped support personnel. Individuals who are deaf are also be unable to take advantage of support systems that use touch-tone input and recorded voice output.</p> <p>COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS OF HEARING IMPAIRED ADULTSTypes of hearing problems present in adults:1.Conductive hearing loss2.Sensori-neural hearing loss3.Mixed type of hearing loss.Communication problems of people with conductive hearing loss are difficulty in hearing soft and moderately loud sounds and difficulty in understanding loud speech.Interventions for this kind of hearing loss are medical/surgical interventions and audiological interventions.Communication problems of people with sensori-neural hearing loss are that they may have problems in hearing soft to very loud sounds, depending on the degree of hearing loss. They may hear speech but may have difficulty in identifying what is spoken.Interventions for sensori-neural hearing loss are the use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices and cochlear implants, speech reading and use of communication strategies.Communication problems with mixed hearing loss are problems in hearing soft to very loud sounds, depending on the degree of hearing loss. They may hear speech, but may have difficulty in identifying what is spoken.Interventions vary depending on the problem into any of the methods listed earlier.</p> <p>Title II: Public Services.Programs, activities, and transportation can't discriminate against disabled people. Buses, taxis, and other public means of transportation need to accommodate the disabled population. Programs such as job training, educational classes, and other assistance to gainful employment must also be provided.Title III: Public Accommodations.All new construction of establishments such as hotels, grocery stores, retail stores, and restaurants are mandated to add physical assistance, such as ramps and railings.Title IV: Telecommunications.Telecommunication agencies that provide phone services must provide a relay service for TTY users.Title V: Miscellaneous.Prohibits any threats to disabled people or to persons assisting the disabled.</p> <p>individuals with hearing impairments often use some combination of lip-reading, sign language, and amplification to understand spoken information. People who are deaf from birth generally have more difficulty speaking and understanding the structure of language than those who lost their hearing later in life. In a job setting, everyday noises -- fans and lights -- that are not a bother to hearing people, may have a profound effect on the ability of people with hearing impairments to hear. Career development providers and employers should make worksite adjustments to allow interns or employees to maximize their learning potential and success.Individuals with hearing impairments may have difficulty following instructions when delivered in large and open settings, particularly if the acoustics cause echoes or if the speaker talks quietly, rapidly, or unclearly. They may find it difficult to simultaneously watch demonstrations and follow verbal descriptions if they are watching a sign language interpreter, a "real-time" captioning screen, or a speaker's lips. It may also be difficult for them to follow or participate in group discussions, particularly when they are fast-paced and unmodulated, since there is often lag time between a speaker's comments and their interpretation to people with hearing impairments.Examples of accommodations for people who have hearing impairments include the provision of interpreters, sound amplification systems, note takers, visual aids, and electronic mail for meetings and office discussions. Visual warning systems for emergencies may also need to be installed.The following suggestions can be employed when employers and career counselors communicate with a worker who has a hearing impairment.Face the person with a hearing impairment and speak directly and normally to her.If an intern who is deaf is using an interpreter, talk directly to the intern, not to the interpreter. The interpreter should be treated as an inanimate object. Focus on the relationship with the intern.Use drawings, writing, and gestures to assist you in communicating.Make sure lighting levels are adequate.Be aware of jargon used on the job and avoid it whenever possible. For example, ADA could mean Americans with Disabilities Act, the American Dental Association, or average daily attendance. Additionally, ASAP (as soon as possible), and BCOB (by the close of business) could be confusing.A person with a hearing impairment may wish to use a closed FM amplification system or sign language interpreter when participating in group activities. Upon request, these services should be made available by the career services staff or the employer, depending on who is hosting the activity.Find ways to fully include the person with a hearing impairment in group conversations. For example, repeat discussion questions and statements made by other participants in a meeting or presentation.</p> <p>Speech ImpairmentsShowOverhead #19Some disabilities affect the ability to speak. Computer-based speech output systems provide an alternative voice for some people who cannot speak. Since electronic mail does not require the ability to speak, it provides an efficient medium for communication. The following suggestions will assist employers and career counselors in working with an intern who has a speech impairment.Concentrate on what the person is saying.If you do not understand something, ask the person to repeat what he said and then repeat it back to him.Be patient; take as much time as necessary to communicate effectively.When appropriate, ask questions which only require short answers, or a nod of the head.Avoid communication in noisy, public places. Talk in a private, quiet area when possible, particularly when discussing things that apply only to her.Do not speak for the person or attempt to finish his sentences.If you are having difficulty understanding what a person is saying, consider writing or electronic mail as an alternative means of communicating.Encourage the worker with a speech impairment to participate in discussions.</p> <p>Mobility impaired</p> <p>Mobility ImpairmentsShowOverhead #21Mobility impairments range from lower body impairments, which may require use of canes, walkers, or wheelchairs, to upper body impairments, which may result in limited or no use of the hands. It may take longer for individuals with mobility impairments to get from one worksite to another. It may require special accommodations for them to get to field worksites or off-site meetings. Some people with mobility impairments find it difficult or impossible to manipulate objects, turn pages, write with a pen or pencil, type at a keyboard, or retrieve work-related documents without accommodations.Examples of accommodations for interns and employees with mobility impairments include the provision of office assistants for specific tasks, accessible office locations, adjustable tables, equipment located within reach, work-related materials available in electronic format, and access to job-related resources on the Internet. Computers can be equipped with special devices such as voice input, Morse code input, and alternative keyboards. Job-related items need to be able to be reached and accessed, and wheelchairs and walkers need space. Avoid clutter and maintain a well-organized worksite.The following suggestions will assist career services staff and employers in working with a person who has a mobility impairment.Offer to help (opening a door, carrying packages) if it makes sense. Ask yourself, "Would I want help in a similar situation?"Consider a person's wheelchair or walker as an extension of his body. Therefore, leaning on the wheelchair or walker, or placing your foot on a wheel, is not okay.Speak to a person who uses a wheelchair, walker, cane, or crutches in a normal voice strength and tone.Talk to a person who uses a wheelchair at eye-level whenever possible. Perhaps you can sit rather than stand.Feel free to use phrases such as "walk this way" with a person who cannot walk. Expressions such as this are commonly used by wheelchair users.</p> <p>Queen marys technical institute for disabled soldiersThey felt that the road surfaces were extremely uneven which caused them pain and fatigue at the time of walking. Crossing of roads was almost impossible without escort.negotiating steep gradients and over bridges was cumbersome. The heavy traffic flows left them with a sense of insecurity and unsafe feeling.Public places, they felt, do not have specially designed facilities like approaching ramps, toilets / urinals.The early morning and off peak hours in general are felt safe for travel as they are spared from the fury of the undisciplined motorists</p> <p>solutions</p> <p>Establishments in the transport sector shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development for the benefit of persons with disabilities, take special measures to-a)Adapt rail compartments, buses, vessels and aircrafts in such a way as to permit easy access to such persons;b)Adapt toilets in rail compartments, vessels, aircrafts and waiting rooms in such a way as to permit the wheel chair users to use them conveniently.The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide for a)Installation of auditory signals at red lights in the public roads for the benefit of persons with visual handicap;b)Causing curb cuts and slopes to be made in pavements for the easy acc...</p>