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Problem Weeds of Turfgrasses. Tim R. Murphy Crop and Soil Sciences The University of Georgia. Why control weeds?. Reduce crop yields and quality Lower aesthetic appeal and property value Some are allergens or poisonous Disrupt native ecosystems Harbor insects and diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Problem Weeds of TurfgrassesTim R. MurphyCrop and Soil SciencesThe University of Georgia

  • Why control weeds?Reduce crop yields and qualityLower aesthetic appeal and property valueSome are allergens or poisonousDisrupt native ecosystemsHarbor insects and diseasesInterfere with right-of-way safety and transmissions

  • Weed Management StrategyIdentify weed, life cycle, habitatInstitute Control ProceduresPreventiveMechanicalBiologicalCulturalChemical

  • Virginia buttonweed

  • Virginia buttonweed (Diodia virginiana)Warm-season perennial broadleafReproductioncreeping stems creeping roots above and below ground seed production

  • Virginia buttonweed Seed germination - optimum at 85 to 95 F. - no germination < 70 F. - optimum depth 1.0 to 1.5 inchesShoot emergence - root fragments 0.25 inch long can produce shoots from 8 inch soil depth

  • Virginia buttonweed - Control2,4-D + 2,4-DPGood2,4-D + dicambaGood2,4-D+MCPP+dicambaGoodResearch at MSU show formulations high in 2,4-D concentration provide better control (ex. Trimec Classic, Escalade)Spray regrowth when noted (21 to 35 days)

  • Virginia buttonweed - ControlRonstar - seed onlyPrincep - seed onlyConfront, Manor - fair control (variable)Monument, Katana good control (variable)Glyphosate - the last resort!

  • Sedge Herbicides - TurfgrassesBasagran T/O - yellow, annual sedgesManage, SedgeHammer - yellow, purple, annual sedgesMonument - yellow, purple, annual sedgesKatana - yellow, purple, annual sedgesMSMA/DSMA - yellow, purple, annual sedgesImage - yellow, purple, annual sedgesCertainty yellow, purple, annual sedgesPennant - yellow, annual sedges

  • Green (perennial) kyllinga

  • Kyllinga spp. (Kyllinga spp.)Sedge familyAnnuals and perennialsReproduce by seed and rhizomesNo tuber formationThrive in wet soilsIncreasing in severityLack of MSMA use??

  • Kyllinga spp. - ControlImageImage + MSMAManage, SedgeHammerKatanaMonumentCertaintyMSMA/DSMA

    Repeat applications will be needed

  • Sedge control ratings.

    HerbicideAnnual SedgePurple NutsedgeYellowNutsedgeAnnual KyllingaGreen KyllingaPennantGFGF-GPCertaintyGG-EG-EGG-EBasagran T/OGPGF-GF-GImageGF-GP-FGGSedgehammerGGGGF-GMSMA/DSMAGP-FFGGImage+MSMAGG-EGGGMonument??G-EGGG-E

  • Violet spp. (perennial)

  • Violets spp. (Viola spp.)Annuals and perennialsShade or full sunReproduce by seed (rhizomes)2- and 3-way products - P to F2 appl. Confront, 3 to 6 wks apart2 appl. Chaser, Turflon II Amine. 4 wks apartKatana, Manor, Blade

  • Wild garlic

  • Wild Garlic/Onion (Allium vineale and canadense)Cool-season perennial,reproduces by seed, aerial bulbils and underground bulbs and bulblets2,4-D and other phenoxy products, 2 appl. 6 wks apart, 2 to 3 yearsImage - apply after dormancy, mow 1 to 2 wks after applicationManor, Blade

  • Doveweed

  • Doveweed (Murdannia nudiflora)Summer annual, reproduces by seedfleshy stems, root at nodes3 appl. MSMA + 2,4-D2 appl. MSMA + SencorAtrazine, 2 applications, 3 weeks apart 2 appl. Trimec Southern (14 d intervals)

  • DoveweedIneffective Herbicides- Basagran T/O- Confront- Vanquish- Manor, Blade

  • Spreading dayflower

  • Spreading Dayflower (Commelina diffusa)Summer annualReproduces by seed and stem fragmentsMSMA + SencorBasagran T/O, PromptMSMATurflon II Amine (2,4-D + triclopyr)

  • Annual blue-eyed grass

  • Annual Blueeyed-grass(Sisyrinchium spp.)Annuals and perennials, Member of Iris familyReproduce by seedThrives in compacted soils, some species like moist soilsTranXitTriazines in late fall2 appl. MSMA + Sencor, 14 d interval

  • Chamberbitter, niruri, gripeweed

  • Chamberbitter - Phyllanthus niruriEuphorbiaceae (spurge family)niruri, gripeweed, leafflowersummer annual, reproduces by seedalternate leaves, numerous leafletsinconspicuous flowersstalkless green, round fruitno milky juice

  • Longstalked Phyllanthus

  • Longstalked Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus tenellus)Euphorbiaceae (spurge family)summer annual, reproduces by seedalternate leaves, numerous leafletsinconspicuous flowersstalked green, round fruitno milky juice

  • Chamberbitter & Longstalked Phyllanthus Controlatrazine, simazine, 2 appl., 3 wks apartRonstar - Pre (no home lawns)Gallery - PreMSMA, 2 to 3 appl., 7 days apart ???2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba ????Manor, Blade????

  • Prostrate spurge - summer annualPostemergence: Manor, Blade, Sencor, Trimec, MonumentPreemergence: Simazine, atrazine, Gallery

  • summer annualfireweedPostemergence : 2- and 3-way growth regulator herbicides, Manor, Blade.Preemergence products are not very effective or provide only short term control.American burnweed (fireweed)

  • Pennywort or dollarweedperennialAtrazine or simazine applied twice, 30 days apart. Prompt, Image, Manor, Blade.2 or 3-way broadleaf mixtures applied 7 days apart are also effective in tolerant turfgrasses.

  • Dichondra, rhizomatous perennialControlled by repeat applications of atrazine, 30 days apart.2 and 3-way growth regulator herbicides. Confront is a little better than Trimec related compounds.*Monument

  • Lawn burweed (spurweed)

  • Lawn Burweed - Soliva pterospermaCompositae (aster family)spurweed, sandburwinter annual, reproduces by seedopposite leavesfruits with sharp spines

  • Lawn Burweed Controlatrazine, simazine - Pre or PostGallery - Pre, early fall2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba, repeat applications may be necessaryManor, BladeKatana

  • Florida betony

  • Florida Betony - Stachys floridanaLabitae (mint family)Rattlesnake weedperennialreproduces primarily by tubersopposite, serrated leavesoccurs in turf and ornamentals

  • Florida Betony Controlatrazine - F-G2,4-D - G2,4-D+MCPP+dicamba - GRoundup, FinaleManor, Blade

  • Annual bluegrass Poa annuaWinter annual, but perennial biotypes also found on bentgrass greensGerminates late summer-fall at soil temperatures around 70 F.Second germination flush in mid- to late-winter

  • Continuous annual bluegrass seedgermination occurred from mid-Nov.through early January in Knoxville, TN.

    Callahan and McDonald, 1992

  • Annual bluegrass controlPreemergence ControlBarricade, PendulumSurflan, DimensionBalan, RonstarKerbAtrazine, Simazineannual bluegrassBoat shaped leaf tip

  • Non-Overseeded Bermudagrass

    Triazines standard, but resistance increasingKerb works, costly, lateral run-offPres work, but DNA resistance is hereGlyphosate works, partial dormancyDiquat ineffectiveRevolver, TranXit, Monument, Certainty

  • Overseeded BermudagrassOptions for annual bluegrassKerb - 60 to 90 days (or charcoal)Dimension 6 to 8 wksBarricade 8 to 10 wks (supplemental label)Balan low rate, 6 weeksRubigan cost limits use to greensPrograss greenup issue TranXit and Revolver 2 weeks before seeding

  • Poa Control with KerbExcellent for annual bluegrass Will move with water and damage cool-season grassesKerb movement onto bentgrass

  • Annual Bluegrass ControlBentgrass Greenspaclobutrazol (Trimmit) at 0.25 lb/ac in the fall followed by 2 to 3 applications in the spring.Pres tend to select for the perennial type Poa annua

  • Roundup is effectiveMonument, Revolver, Katana are effectiveKerb and Illoxan provides some controlReward and Finale ineffectiveManor, Blade partial controlItalian Ryegrass

  • Italian Ryegrass Control

    Herbicide

    Rate/A

    % Ryegrass Control

    Roundup

    2 qt

    93

    Finale

    2 qt

    43

    Reward

    2 qt

    10

    Illoxan

    1.25 lb

    47

    Manor

    1 oz

    40

  • OverseedingClumpy perennial ryegrassMonument, Revolver, Katana

  • Tall FescueRoundup (risky) Kerb during winter monthsCorsair, Monument, Revolver, Certainty, Katanacool-season perennial

  • Repeat applications of MSMAUsually 3 to 4 treatments required on a 5 to 7 day scheduleDallisgrass

  • Dallisgrass New OptionApply MSMA at normal rateFollow 2 weeks later with spot treatment of Revolver at 1.0 fl. oz/gallonFollow 7 to 10 days later with MSMA at normal rate

  • Roundup Rate and Bermudagrass Control

  • Bermuda Control with Roundup 1 yr.

  • Bermuda Suppression in ZoysiagrassAcclaim Extra 20.0 fl. ozs./acreApply every 4 weeks during growing seasonFusilade II3.0 to 4.0 fl. ozs./acre Apply every 4 weeks during growing seasonTank-mix with Turflon Ester at 1.0 qt./acre will improve control

  • Bermuda Suppression in Tall FescueApply 4 to 5 applications per year of Acclaim Extra at 20.0 fl. ozs./acre. Add Turflon Ester at 1.0 qt./acre to improve control. Apply every 4 weeks.Apply 2 applications (spring + fall) of Fusilade II at 5 to 6 fl. ozs./acre per year for 2 years

  • Bermuda Suppression in CentipedegrassApply 2 applications (spring + 3 to 4 wks) of Vantage at 2.25 pts./acre per year for 2 yearsApply 2 applications (spring + 3 to 4 wks) of Envoy at 34 fl. ozs./acre per year for 2 years (sod farm label)

  • Bermuda Suppression in St. AugustinegrassPrograss + Atrazine (2.0 gals. + 2.0 qts./acre)2 to 3 applications1st 2 to 3 wks after spring growth resumes2nd 30 days later3rd - 30 days later if regrowth occursTemp. injury and stunting to St. Aug. will occurAvoid spray overlap or injury will increase

  • rhizomeseedheadBahiagrassRepeat MSMAManor, Bladerhizomes

  • www.amazon.com* 214 weed species*575 color photos*Control info for each weed$95.00

  • Turfgrass Web Pagewww.georgiaturf.com or .org437 photographs of 193 weeds