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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANYINTRODUCTIONThe NVS GARMENT is one of the leading Indian Companies in the field of cotton gauze fabrics with an initial total turnover of USD 20,000/- when the firm stepped into the export market during the year 1998 and has increased up to 10 million US Dollars in the year 2007-08. The group was originally established in 1990 with four employees catering to domestic market and to the government institutions. The continuing confidence and support shown by reputable overseas buyers gives further credibility to the corporate image. Now the group has more than 1000 employees.

Special features...Quality is remembered always. It is recognized as a Golden Trading House by the Government of India and the first ISO 9001: 2000 certified firm in India in the gauze cloth line for export of carded cotton yarn, cotton grey gauze cloth, cotton bleached gauze cloth, gauze swabs and cotton sheeting fabrics etc. Now the firm's products are well exported to Italy, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Belgium, The Netherlands, Greece, Hungary, Czech and Slovakia Republic, Spain, Portugal, Mexico, U.S.A, Brazil, Argentina, Tunisia, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, Lebanon, South Korea and Japan.




Carded Cotton Yarn, Cotton Grey Gauze Cloth 80 cm Width to 160 cm width in different constructions, Cotton Bleached Cloth in various Constructions Grey / Dyed Sheeting from sulzer Projectile,



We, at NVS GARMENTS to meet both internal and external customer expectations through, Consistent quality Customer satisfaction Continual improvement










EXPORT PERFORMANCE OF THE TEXTILES SECTOR2006-07 COUNTRIES TEXTILE EXPORTS Value USA U.A.E AFGHANISTAN U.K GERMANY ITALY CHINA NETHERLANDS INDIA BANGLADESH SOUTH AFRICA CANADA OTHER COUNTRIES TOTAL 4,192,725 1,312,757 1,063,463 894,321 687,368 585,285 463,919 399,034 293,310 268,481 260,610 208,999 3,054,486 16,451,177 % of Total 25 8 6 5 4 19 15 13 10 9 9 7 19 217 2007-08 TEXTILE EXPORTS Value 3,446,593 1,095,485 747,722 893,480 688,588 588,332 354,092 345,049 288,134 205,821 196,755 194,046 2,824,229 14,391,081 % of Total 24 8 5 6 5 21 13 12 10 7 7 7 20 214

ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENTThere are three basic functions of Accounts Department viz. Accounting, Finance and Payment a) Keeping the books of accounts in accordance with the rules, b) Internal check of transactions affecting the receipts and expenditure, c) Prompt settlement of proper claims against the railway.

Finance: -


a) Tendering advice to the administration in all matters involving railway finance, b) Compilation and control of budget (including exchequer) in consultation with the other departments, c) Ensuring no financial irregularity in the transactions

WHAT WE DO BUSINESS Business is simple yet greatly visible with: Difference in approach Distinction in Quality Delineation in essence & content Dispelling certain imbalances & disparities. Demarcation in area Centric focus Dissemination of sphere of Ideas, thoughts with no boundaries

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TEXTILE INDUSTRYTextiles are important for everyone. It is used for covering body, for warmth or coolness, personality enhancement and sometimes to display one's status in the society. From the wholesale textile manufacturer and merchant to the retailer and the end- user, the customer, everyone consumes textile. Not only those who are in this direct trade are related to this product but there are certain industries which are indirectly associated with textile. Automobile industry is a good example of this type of industry which uses textile in various forms. Others who use textile in one or the other form may include designers, interior decorators, craftsperson, advertisers using hoardings and banners, painters etc.


WEAVINGYarns made from natural Weaving is a major process of making fabric or cloth . In it, two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called the warp. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads fibres like cotton, silk, and wool and synthetic fibbers such as nylon and Orlon are commonly used for weaving textile. But other fibres can also be used for weaving. Yarn intended for the warp goes through operations such as spooling, warping and slashing to prepare them to withstand the strain of the weaving process.

Fig-1 weaving Weaving operations Four major operations are involved in weaving- Shedding, Picking, Beating up (Battening) and Taking up and letting off. As the warp is raised, the filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a carrier device. Different types of looms are used for carrying the filling yarn through the shed- Shuttle loom, shuttle less looms, circular looms etc.


Beating up (Battening) With each picking operation, the reed pushes or beats each filling yarn against the portion of the fabric that has already been formed. Reed is a comb like structure attached to the looms. It gives the fabric a firm, compact construction.






With each shedding, Picking, Battening operation, the new fabric must be wound on the cloth beam which is called 'taking up'. At the same time, the warp yarns must be released from the warp beam which is called l 'letting off'.

As the shuttle moves back and forth across the width of the shed, a self edge is woven which is called selvage or selvedge. The selvage prevents the fabric from muddling. It is usually more compact and strong than the rest of the fabric. There are different kinds of selvages depending upon the expected use of the fabric- Plain Selvages, Tape Selvages, Split Selvages, Fused Selvages, Leno Selvages and Tucked Selvages.

KNITTINGAfter weaving, the most prevalent method of fabric construction is knitting. Its popularity has grown tremendously over the recent years. Today, knitting is a very big industry which has two main divisions. One division manufactures knitted goods for apparel production, sewing centres, consumers and others. The other division manufactures finished apparel such as hosiery, sweaters and underwear.


Fig-2 knittingThe knitted fabric has the advantage of stretchability which provides fit and comfort. It also gives warmth. At the same time, they are porous and provide breathing comfort. It is light in weight and wrinkle- resistant. However, certain specialized techniques like Pak- nit or Perm sized have to be used so that it may not shrink too much. Also, care should be taken so that not a single loop breaks. If even one loop breaks, a hole is made and it starts running. This disadvantage can be eliminated by variation in the stitch that protects the fabric from ravelling. The kind and quality of the needle also affect the quality of the knitted fabric. Different kinds of needles are used in knitting latch needle, spring- beard needle, compounded. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In weft knitting, one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. In warp knitting, a series of yarns form wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric. The knitting machine also called knitting frame, knitting loom, or hand knitting machine, is used to manufacture knit fabrics. These fabrics are produced on a fixed bed of hooked needles. The Knitting machines can be hand driven or motor powered. The machines come in domestic and industrial models, with either flat or circular beds that produce rectangular or tubular fabrics. The fabric produced by a knitting machine has a more fine texture than hand-knitted fabric.

YARNYarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope making. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery.


Fig-3 S- and Z-twist yarnSpun yarn is made by twisting or otherwise bonding staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread. Yarns are made up of a number of plies, each ply being a single spun yarn. These single plies of yarn are twisted in the opposite direction (plied) together to make a thicker yarn. Depending on the direction of this final twist, the yarn will be known as s-twist or z-twist. For a single ply, the direction of the final twist is the same as its original twist. Filament yarn consists of filament fibres twisted together. Thicker monofilaments are typically used for industrial purposes rather than fabric production or decoration. Silk is a natural filament, and synthetic filament yarns are used to produce silk-like effects. Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing (sometimes referred to as taslanizing), which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns.

DYEINGDyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye


Fig-4 conventional dyeingCotton being dyed manually in contemporary India .

Dye typesFor most of the thousands of years in which dyeing has been used by humans to de