principles of management
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ManagementManagement is usually understood to be the science and art of getting things done through others. Management in all business and organizational activities is the action of getting people together to complete objectives and goals using available resources effectively and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling a business or effort with regards to achieving an objective.
Management functionThe four management functions are: 1. Planning or decision making: This includes deciding objectives or aims of the work and organization being managed and working out the detailed way and means of achieving these objectives. 2. Organizing including staffing: This includes dividing the work to be done in its constituent jobs, and assigning specific jobs and responsibilities among individuals in the total group required to work together to accomplish the objectives. Thus this requires the design of structure of people into an organization. It also includes the function to fulfil the positions as per organizational design. 3. Motivating or leading: This is the function concerned with the effort of the people in the organization towards achievement of organizational objectives. 4. Controlling: is the function concerned with ensuring the work managed is carried out in line with decisions and expectations specified in the previous three steps. It also means reviewing and revising the decisions and approaches adopted in the previous three steps when actual results obtained or developments in the environment point to the need for same. As can be seen from the description given above, the four management functions are quite different from each other. Each of these functions requires different types of skill and capabilities. It is not necessary that a manager skilled in one or more of these functions will be skilled in all of them. As a matter of fact people in general do not naturally possess high level of proficiency in all the four functions. Managers need to make conscious efforts to become good at performing all the four functions well.
Purpose of management courseIt is not possible to answer this question in terms of simple 'agree' or 'disagree'. Of course the purpose of teaching management is to teach students to be managers. But this does not mean that management coursed does not teach about management. To become good managers the students must understands the basic principles of management and various concept that help to understand and analyze nature of work to be managed, the behaviour of people performing the work or otherwise affected by work, and the environment within which work is performed. Managers must also learn specific tools and techniques of management. The part of management courses that impart such understanding may be described as teaching about management. In addition, management courses must also help students to develop specific skills required by them as managers. The students acquire such skills through assignments, case studies1|Page
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and group interactions. This part of management course may be described as teaching to be managers. Thus management courses teach students about management as well as to be managers.
Ten Manager RolesCategory Role Activity Examples
Seek and acquire work-related information
Scan/read trade press, periodicals, reports; attend seminars and training; maintain personal contacts
Communicate/ disseminate information to others within the organization
Send memos and reports; inform staffers and subordinates of decisions
Communicate/transmit information to outsiders
Pass on memos, reports and informational materials; participate in conferences/meetings and report progress
Perform social and legal duties, act as symbolic leader
Greet visitors, sign legal documents, attend ribbon cutting ceremonies, host receptions, etc.
Direct and motivate subordinates, select and train employees
Includes almost all interactions with subordinates
Establish and maintain contacts within and outside the organization
Business correspondence, participation in meetings with representatives of other divisions or organizations.
Identify new ideas and initiate improvement projects
Implement innovations; Plan for the future
Deals with disputes or problems and takes corrective action
Settle conflicts between subordinates; Choose strategic alternatives; Overcome crisis situations
Decide where to apply resources
Draft and approve of plans, schedules, budgets; Set priorities
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MANAGEMENT ROLESIn addition to the broad categories of management functions, managers in different levels of the hierarchy fill different managerial roles. These roles were categorized by researcher Henry Mint berg, and they can be grouped into three major types: decisional, interpersonal, and informational.
DECISIONAL ROLES.Decisional roles require managers to plan strategy and utilize resources. There are four specific roles that are decisional. The entrepreneur role requires the manager to assign resources to develop innovative goods and services, or to expand a business. Most of these roles will be held by top-level managers, although middle managers may be given some ability to make such decisions. The disturbance handler corrects unanticipated problems facing the organization from the internal or external environment. Managers at all levels may take this role. For example, first-line managers may correct a problem halting the assembly line or a middle level manager may attempt to address the aftermath of a store robbery. Top managers are more likely to deal with major crises, such as requiring a recall of defective products. The third decisional role that of resource allocator, involves determining which work units will get which resources. Top managers are likely to make large, overall budget decisions, while middle managers may make more specific allocations. In some organizations, supervisory managers are responsible for determine allocation of salary raises to employees. Finally, the negotiator works with others, such as suppliers, distributors, or labour unions, to reach agreements regarding products and services. First-level managers may negotiate with employees on issues of salary increases or overtime hours, or they may work with other supervisory managers when needed resources must be shared. Middle managers also negotiate with other managers and are likely to work to secure preferred prices from suppliers and distributors. Top managers negotiate on larger issues, such as labour contracts, or even on mergers and acquisitions of other companies.
INTERPERSONAL ROLES.Interpersonal roles require managers to direct and supervise employees and the organization. The figurehead is typically a top of middle manager. This manager may communicate future organizational goals or ethical guidelines to employees at company meetings. A leader acts as an example for other employees to follow, gives commands and directions to subordinates, makes decisions, and mobilizes employee support. Managers must be leaders at all levels of the organization; often lower-level managers look to top management for this leadership example. In the role of liaison, a manger must coordinate the work of others in different work units, establish alliances between others, and work to share resources. This role is particularly critical for middle managers, who must often compete with other managers for important resources, yet must maintain successful working relationships with them for long time periods.
INFORMATIONAL ROLESInformational roles are those in which managers obtain and transmit information. These roles have changed dramatically as technology has improved. The monitor evaluates the performance of others and takes corrective action to improve that performance. Monitors also watch for changes in the environment and within the company that may affect individual and organizational performance. Monitoring occurs at all levels of management,3|Page
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although managers at higher levels of the organization are more likely to monitor external threats to the environment than are middle or first-line managers. The role of disseminator requires that managers inform employees of changes that affect them and the organization. They also communicate the company's vision and purpose. Managers at each level disseminate information to those below them, and much information of this nature trickles from the top down. Finally, a spokesperson communicates with the external environment, from advertising the company's goods and services, to informing the community about the direction of the organization. The spokesperson for major announcements, such as a change in strategic direction, is likely to be a top manager. But, other, more routine information may be provided by a manager at any level of a company. For example, a middle manager may give a press release to a local newspaper, or a supervisor manager may give a presentation at a community meeting
Organizational performance Efficiency and Effectiveness, which is more important?In todays business environment, efficiency and effectiveness are critical to success. Aside from those businesses run by the government and those, which are so regulated that competition has been eliminated, a business, which is not run efficiently and effectively, will not survive. However, which of these two critical